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Developmental Psychology and the Physical and Cognitive Development of Infants
The field of developmental psychology has made invaluable contributions in assessing the physical, cognitive, moral, social, and personality developments made by individuals. At the same time, developmental psychology might appear inadequate when applied to infants, who have not yet acquired a moral understanding of right and wrong or proper social behavior. Nevertheless, developmental psychology can nevertheless illuminate the physical and cognitive development of the infant child. Drawing from the professional theoretical perspectives of Kagan (2008) and Campos et al. (2008), this paper examines the particular ways in which principles and techniques of developmental psychology can be appropriately applied to infants between 3-12 months old.
One of the chief areas of focus when examining infants is the difference between motor development and motion development. Although there has historically been the tendency to conflate the two, the difference lies in that motion…
Campos, J.J., et al. (2008). Rediscovering development in infancy. Child Development, 79(6), 1625-1632
Greenwood, C.R., et al. (2002). Developing a general outcome measure of growth in movement for infants and toddlers. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 22(3), 143-157
Developmental Theory, Critical-Conflict Theory and Ted Bundy
The ole of Behavioral Theory and Conflict & Critical Theory on Ted Bundy
There are many theories that can be analyzed in order to try and explain why crimes occur. Among these theories are development theory, conflict, and critical theories. These theories seek to explain behaviors that influence crime and criminal behaviors. While conflict and critical theories seek to explain why crimes occur based on an individual's role in society, developmental theory seeks to explain why crimes occur based on the development of an individual's persona. In the case of serial murder Ted Bundy, it can be argued that the application of developmental theory can explain his actions moreso than conflict and critical theories.
Conflict theory argues that "crime is a result of conflicting interests and values among members of a community; groups with less voice in a society are at risk for…
Arrigo. B. (2006). Criminal Behavior: A Systems Approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Bell, R. (n.d.). Ted Bundy. TruTV.com. Retrieved from, http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/notorious/bundy/index_1.html
Conflict Theory. (n.d.). Criminology: Understanding Criminology Theories. Retrieved from, http://www.criminology.com/resources/understanding-criminology-theories/
Rule, A. (2009). The Stranger Beside Me. New York: Pocket Books.
Developmental Behavior Analysis and Motor Development
Developmental Behavior Analysis
Motor development and developmental behavior analysis is an important behavior related concept and much of the profound work on this field has been done by John. B. Watson. Behaviorism which can also be termed as learning perspective is regarded as a philosophy of psychology. The main concept of behaviorism is that all actions that are shown by the organisms and the human beings are to be termed as behaviors. The second important fact argued by Watson's theory of Behaviorism is that all kinds of psychological disorders must be treated by making sure that the behavioral patterns are altered or the environments of the subjects are changed. One of the main facts that can be seen in these theories is that more stress has been given to the environment for better behavior development. Thereby environment can play more important roles in the…
Brucker, B. (1980). Biofeedback and rehabilitation. In L.P. Ince (Ed.) Behavioral Psychology in Rehabilitation Medicine: Clinical Applications (pp. 188 -- 217). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
Miller, N. & Brucker, B. (1981). A learned visceral response apparently independent of skeletal ones in patients paralyzed by spinal lesions. In D. Shapiro, J. Stoyva, J. Kamiya, T.X. Barber, N.E. Miller & G.E. Schwartz (Eds.). Biofeedback and behavioral medicine (pp. 355 -- 372). Hawthorne, NY: Aldine.
Savelsbergh, G.J.P. (2005). Discovery Of Motor Development: A Tribute To Esther Thelen. The Behavior Analyst Today 6 (4): 243 -- 249.
Schlinger, DH, and Poling, D.A. (1998). Introduction to scientific psychology, Applied clinical psychology. Springer.
Erickson's stages of psychological development as cited in Crain (2011) have garnered much scholarly discourse as they outline the many phases individuals go through as they mature from birth to old age. In Erickson's view, there are eight stages to development and his theory maintains that a person moves through these stages as a part of negotiating between the sociocultural and biological forces every individual must contend with (Allen & Marotz, 2003). According to Erickson, it is not necessary to master each stage before moving to the next one (Bee & Boyd, 2009). Following is an examination of an individual this writer selected. The stages of development will be discussed from birth to adolescent as it relates to the stages of psychosocial development.
Andre is the product of his parents Joseph and Lisa. They were married at the time of his conception. Joseph is 5'10 and…
Allen, E., & Marotz, L. (2003). Developmental profiles pre-birth through twelve (4th ed.).
Albany, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.
Bee, H., & Boyd, D. (2009). The developing child (12th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Crain, W. (2011). Theories of development: concepts and applications (6th edition). Upper Saddle river, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
These activities are co-dependent on each other, and ultimately lead to school problems -- in effect creating also a challenge for the educator. Using the DA framework, these high-risk behaviors can be alleviated by developing an action plan that shall focus on harnessing the individual's social skills and personal development, through the external and internal assets, as well as increased thriving factors. Thriving behaviors can be any of the following interventions: school success (achieving high grades), valuing diversity (puts high value on interacting with people of different ethnic or racial background), leadership, and maintaining good health. Each of these interventions can help supplement recommended external and internal assets to be developed by the educator, parents/guardians or mentors, and young individuals.
In addressing and resolving high-risk behaviors such as violence, alcohol abuse and sexual activity, recommended assets to be developed are the following: (1) Support- most importantly, family support; (2) Constructive…
"40 Developmental Assets for Adolescents." (2010). Search Institute Official Website. Available at: http://www.search-institute.org/content/40-developmental-assets-adolescents-ages-12-18 .
"About us." (2010). Dallas YMCA Official Website. Available at: http://dallasymca.org/Index.cfm?FuseAction=Page&PageID=1002364
Scales, P. And E. Roehlkepartain. (2007). "Developmental assets: A framework for enriching service-learning." The National Service-Learning Clearinghouse Website. Available at: http://www.servicelearning.org/instant_info/fact_sheets/cb_facts/developmental_assets/
Other researchers have also found that when the foster care placement arrangements were long-term or permanent, the outcomes were not significantly injurious to the children so placed (Barth & Berry, 1987; Smokowski & Wodarski, 1996); nevertheless, a substantial percentage of children who experience foster care placement may already possess significant physical, psychological, and/or emotional injuries. In these cases, such children are much more likely to remain in the foster care system for longer periods of time than their uninjured counterparts and may ultimately be required to be placed in a residential living facility to address their complex needs (Smith & Fong).
A study by Massinga and Pecora (2004) found that in the United States, an increasing number of young people aged 10 years and above reside in and are emancipated from foster care placements each year. According to these authors, "Older children face many of the same challenges as younger…
Barth, R.P., & Berry, M. (1987). Outcomes of child welfare services under permanency planning. Social Services Review, 71-90 in Smith & Fong at 179.
Booth, a. & Crouter, a.C. (2001). Does it take a village? Community effects on children, adolescents and families. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Brown, W.K. & Rhodes, W.A. (1991). Why some children succeed despite the odds. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Hislop, F.H., Wulczyn, K.B. & Goerge, R.M. (2000). Foster care dynamics 1983-1998. A report from the multi-state foster care data archive. Chicago, IL: Chapin Hall Center for Children.
The development of an individual is the result of maturation of the nervous system and psychological reactions, which in turn is determined through genetics and environmental factors. The study of an individual and his environment is summarized under the biopsychosocial model. A better understanding of human psychological, cognitive and moral development is largely dedicated to the efforts of Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget, and Lawrence Kohlberg.
Brain and Nervous System Development
Neurologic development begins in the third week of intrauterine life, marked by the development of a neural plate on the ectodermal surface. In folding of this plate produces a neural tube, which is destined to be the future Central Nervous System, and a neural crest, which forms the peripheral nervous system. Neuroectodermal cells differentiate into neurons. The forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain are evident by the fifth week, during which, the dorsal and ventral horns of the spinal cord…
Kliegman, R., Behrman, R., Jenson, H., & Stanton, B. (2009).Nelson book of pediatrics. (18th ed., Vol. 1, pp. 33-57). Philadelphia: Saunders.
Rathus, S. (2010). Psychology; concepts and connections. (10th ed., pp. 340-382). Belmont: Wadsworth.
Modification is done then with simple facial and sound changes.
Preoperational: (begins about the time the child starts to talk to about age 7)
In the Preoperational stage (again preconventional) the child is learning the symbolism and processes used for language development and accepting the existence of things which cannot be seen but can be remembered. He or she still does not completely grasp time and often thinks a bout how he or she would like things to be (the idea to make something conventional) and needs to have an active role in learning and application of his or her desires or conceptions.
Concrete: (about first grade to early adolescence)
During the concrete stage the idea of something is very literal, rather than based on ideals and/or fantasies and the individual experiences excessive need for boundaries order and rule following (conventional). He or she has not yet accepted the idea…
Horowitz, Frances Degen. Exploring Developmental Theories: Toward a Structural/Behavioral Model of Development. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1987.
Scotton, Bruce W., Allan B. Chinen, and John R. Battista, eds. Textbook of Transpersonal Psychiatry and Psychology. New York: Basic Books, 1996.
Teaching should change as students develop, whether it be typical or a-typical development. For example, when beginning a preschool year, a teacher might focus on gross motor control, and provide a great number of opportunities to use the body, and move, including dancing and rhythm exercises. The teacher might pair this with activities designed to build basic vocabulary (Gonzalez-Mena & Eyer, 2009). These activities might give way to those focused on fine motor control, such as stringing beads, and problem solving at a more detailed level, such as constructing puzzles or answering riddles (Gonzalez-Mena & Eyer, 2009). By using the same portions at different points, or by repeating certain portions, the teacher can tailor the curriculum to any student, typical or developmentally delayed.
An effective preschool curriculum requires a variety of components. First, children tend to learn better in environments that are adult-led, but child-centered, so while the teacher should…
Gonzalez-Mena, J, Eyer, D. (2009) Infants, Toddlers and Caregivers. Boston: McGraw Hill
Sylvaa, K., Taggart, B., Siraj-Blatchford, I., Totsikac, V., Ereky-Stevens, K., Gildena R., Bell,
D., (2007). Curricular Quality and Day-to-Day Learning Activities in Preschool.
International Journal of Early Years Education 15(1). 49-65.
Fortunately, the school authorities also schedule dormant periods, called classes, during which students can rest their minds and take a break. . .[They] correctly understand . . . that socialization is the most. . .morally important thing they will do in high school" (Brooks 2001:74-75, cited in lecture notes). Socialization requires adaptability and flexibility, which temperamentally-sensitive individuals lack and can make them more vulnerable to the stressors that all adolescents endure. Perhaps equally significantly, high-reactive adolescents recognized their challenges and rated themselves as more dour and serious than their peers who rated themselves as high on optimism. The biological tendency, once socially reinforced, became a kind of self-fulfilling prophesy for the high-reactive teens (Kagan 2010: 38).
Biological propensities to stress can be measured in both qualitative and quantitative ways. Quantitatively, brain scans subjects can demonstrate whether the regions of the brain associated with anxiety such as the amygdala, fire up…
Kagan, J. (2010). The temperamental thread: How genes, culture, time and luck make us who we are. Dana Press: New York
Interestingly, in social skills assessment research, a separate empathy factor of skills emerged through multivariate analysis on the adolescent version of the Walker-McConnell Scale of Social Competence and School Adjustment. This factor was not identified on the elementary-age version of the same scale, a finding that corroborates the notion that the advanced cognitive and affective skills needed for empathy do not tend to emerge until adolescence. The advanced language development that occurs by friendships seems to become more autonomous during this period, although increasing interdependence relating to psychological support tends to occur simultaneously. Adolescent friendships are typified by the process of self-exploration and self-definition. According to Gottman, adolescents use friendships to explore who they are, what they believe, and what they will become through complex verbal interactions in a supportive environment. Thus, the adolescent quest for personal identity seems to take place in the context of adolescent friendship patterns.
Kayla Huggins is 17 years old. Kayla's parents are James and Christine Huggins. An only child, Kayla provides a rich example of how one individual progresses through the various stages of psychosocial development. Her life highlights some of the key concepts of developmental psychology.
Kayla's prenatal development was uneventful, as her parents were both healthy. Her early and middle childhood periods were characterized by a loving home environment and an active engagement with school activities, especially athletics. Currently, Kayla is a senior in high school..
Kayla's parents can both be described as introverts. This creates an interesting home dynamic because Kayla is an extrovert. Moreover, the Huggins family is strongly influenced by the military. Kayla's mother worked as a GS civilian worker on a military base. Kayla's father is a soldier in active duty. Kayla went to DOD schools on the military base up until middle school. Now…
"Characteristics of Adolescent Thinking." Retrieved online: http://siobhancurious.wordpress.com/2007/09/02/characteristics-of-adolescent-thinking/
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Preoperational stage of cognitive development. About.com. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/piagetstheory/p/preoperational.htm
Harder, A.F. (2009). Erik Erikson's stages of development. Learning Place Online. Retrieved online: http://www.learningplaceonline.com /stages/organize/Erikson.htm
"Identity Status Theory." Retrieved online: http://www.learning-theories.com/identity-status-theory-marcia.html
These concerns about adult behaviors and perceptions are a fairly recent emergence, as is predicted for children in the first grade (Snowman & Biehler 2004). The fact that the Barbies converse with each other is also standard for my daughter's age-range, which is in the established peak of talking to oneself people who allow pet owners to mistreat their pets (Snowman & Biehler 2004). Overall, my daughter's behaviors during her undirected solitary play were fairly standard for her age group, and clearly demonstrated many of the principles and developmental stages that have been identified in the text.
Her performance on Piaget's conservation model assessment also upheld the text, in its criticism of Piaget as having underestimated the abilities of children (Snowman & Biehler 2004). Her immediate assessment of the water's consistent volume (which was, of course, correct) suggest that she is in the operational stage with more solid footing than…
Snowman, J. & Biehler, R. (2004) Psychology applied to teaching. New York:
If a parent approaches child rearing with the idea of Nativism in their mind, they might not bother to expose their children to many things early on. That is because Nativists believe a child is already hardwired with abilities, so, if the child ends up being good at music, it is because the child was born good at music, not because the child was exposed to music as a baby or beyond. This will apply to many things in the infant's life. For example, there is no reason for early education as their intelligience is pre-determined. No need for swimming lessons as their athletic ability is pre-determined.
Raising the child with the idea of another theory in mind might alter the way the parent raises the infant. If a parent believes in the scaffolding theory, that parent might work toward creating an environment that supports the child's learning…
Body Image, Body Health, and Pathology
Eating disorders and anorexia are becoming more commonplace today, and this is true particularly of young women, although older people and men sometimes also suffer from them. It is important to look at this issue as it relates to body image and how one feels about one's body, but also important to see it in the light of the way that one trust's oneself and others, and the hope for the future that is sometimes absent from the lives of these individuals. Such problems as depression can often play a large role in whether someone has problems with body image and eating disorders.
The National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA, 2002) states that eating disorders' incidences have doubled within the past 20 years, and the average age range for an eating disorder is from 10-25 years old, with two peaks around 13-14 and…
American Psychiatric Association. (1996). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association (APA).
Bohen, S. (October, 2001). Psychiatric emergencies. Eau Claire, WI: Pesi Healthcare, LLC.
Corey, G. (1996). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (5th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
Feindler, E.L. & Ecton, R.B. (1986). Adolescent anger control: Cognitive-behavior therapy. New York: Pergamon Books, Inc.
, 2002). t is now widely believed that vulnerability to bad behavior is conditional and depends on genetic susceptibility (Kendler, 2001; Rutter & Silberg 2001; in Caspi et al., 2002).
This theory was tested by Caspi et al. (2001) when they attempted to predict antisocial behavior among more than 1000 male maltreated children by genotyping their polymorphism at the MAOA gene. Their findings provided epidemiological evidence that high MAOA expression moderates the effect of maltreatment and partially explained why not all victims of maltreatment grow up to retaliate by victimizing others (Caspi et al., 2001). n this case, genotype (polymorphism at the MAOA gene) is shown to moderate children's sensitivity to environmental insults (maltreatment).
Having said that there are certain characteristics where genes play a moderation role to the environment, the opposite can also be true. One of these characteristics is cognitive ability among children. t is widely accepted that…
It is well documented that from infancy, children have innate temperaments that can be shaped by early care giving practices (Ainsworth, 2001; Baumrind, 2001). What is interesting is that these practices can actually act as stimuli that influence the expression of hormones responsible for certain behaviors. A recent study of 185 mother-infant tandems showed that maternal care giving behavior (MCB) could change the expression of hormones that regulate responses to new environments or situations among infants (Hane and Fox, 2006). In this study, it is demonstrated that infants who received low-quality MCB are more stress reactive -- showing fearfulness, less positive joint attention to a shared object, and low sociability -- in a new environment compared to those who received high -quality MCB. In another aspect of the study, in their natural home environments, those infants characterized as stress-reactive are inherently more distressed and prone to crying than the infants in the high MCB group. This observation prompted the investigators to surmise that the infants' temperament influence the mother-child relationship (Hane and Fox, 2006). Hence, this study not only demonstrates gene-environment interaction but also gene-environment correlation -- innate infant behavior altering the quality of maternal behavior - in child development.
Some adoption design studies portray similar GXE correlations. Research shows that adopted kids whose biological parents have a history of substance abuse/personality disorders are more likely to show problematic behavior such as lack of self-control and being antisocial compared to those adopted kids with untroubled biological parents (Ge et al., 1996 in Shakoff and Philips, 2000). More often than not, these behaviors in turn result in harshness and less nurturing from the adoptive parents. Hence, inherited characteristics can invoke complementary treatment from parents (Shakoff and Philips, 2000).
Contemporary views on nature-nurture interactions, as justified by molecular and behavioral genetics studies, only reiterate the complex and dynamic relationship between genes and environment in the actualization of attributes and behavior of human beings. However, these studies also improve understanding of some maladaptive behaviors and learning disabilities and provide a framework for the design of effective early intervention programs.
The central nervous system is impaired generally producing retardation as well as accelerating the accretion of neurotic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Chromosome 21 mutations have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease but the specific gene related to Down Syndrome is yet undetermined.
E. Developmental Psychological Aspects of Aging
The study of developmental psychology is focused on the changes of individuals over passage of time as well as the processes that bring about those changes. There are two main processes that cause individuals to changes during their lifetimes are 1) maturation; and 2) learning. Maturation is defined as the developmental changes that occur as a result of the aging process. Maturation information is said to be encoded in the genes of an individual. Learning is a change that is relatively permanent as to behavioral change, which results due to practice or experience.
F. Developmental Cohorts
Cohorts are groups…
The Merck Manual of Geriatrics (2005) Chapter 1 Biology of Aging Online at http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmgeriatrics/sec1/ch1.jsp
Pritchard, E. (2005) Cognitive Development: Piaget & Alzheimer's lecture Notes Online at http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/'epritch1/pianalz.htm
Gould, Roger, "Adult Life Stages: Growth Toward Self-tolerance," Psychology Today, Vol. 8:9, February 1975, pp.74-78.
MacArthur, Arthur (1985) Adult Developmental Stages University of Missouri 1985 September Online at http://muextension.missouri.edu/explore/hesguide/humanrel/gh6605.htm
Developmental Psychology and Theories
Developmental Psychologist and Theories
Piaget's cognitive theory of development
Jean Piaget developed the theory of cognitive development, which suggests there are four key stages through which children advance as their minds develop. The theory focuses largely on an understanding of the nature of knowledge and intelligence, and how they acquire and use it. Piaget lays the claim that cognitive development is key to human development and that language skills depend on cognitive development Fiore, 2011, p. 35.
This essay focuses on Piaget's theory of cognitive development and presents an explanation of the four stages of development in this theory.
The first stage of development is the sensorimotor stage, which happens from birth to about 24-month's age. During this period, the child begins to know the world around them and their sensations. It is in this period that as suggested by athus, 2011, p. 17(Piaget (1983, p.…
Brain, C., & Mukherji, P. (2005). Understanding child psychology. United Kingdom: Nelson Thornes.
Crain, W.C. (1985). Theories of development: concepts and applications. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Fiore, L. (2011). LifeSmart: Exploring Human Development. New York City, New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
Gilligan, C. (1982). In a Different Voice: Women's Conceptions of Self and Morality. Harvard Educational Review, 47(4).
Lesotho is like other developing countries with respect to some of its characteristics which are common to most developing nations. For one foreign firm tend to have dominance in whichever sector they enter. For example even though Pakistan and India are known for their food, the local chains have been massively pressurized into submission by foreign chains like Pizza Hut, Burger King Etc. he same thing is happening with the textile industry of Lesotho. Secondly Lesotho is also faced with issues like political instability and disease and this is happening in most developing countries as their political environment is never stable and health is not a priority for government. World Bank and IMF can play an important role by offering loans for industry development and by suggesting monetary and fiscal regulations that would help build a better business environment.
he Regional Economy and Basic Industries:
extile even though…
Textile even though a sizeable sector of the economy doesn't account for much of the employment in the country. It is instead subsistence agriculture where 86% of Lesotho's 1.9 million populations is employed. Textile sector has more women workers than men. Mining and agriculture are other important sectors in the economy. Mining used to be a heavy employer with more than 112,000 people employed in that industry but when South Africa decided to replace half of the workforce with its own people, the employment contribution of mining industry was reduced significantly. Other major export of the country has been water and South Africa annually pays 180 million rand to get water from Lesotho. The country should invest more in upgrading its agriculture sector because that is an important part of the economy and it should also focus on development of mining industry. The country can gain competitive advantage in agriculture if it employs latest technology while it can also focus on improvement of hydropower stations and building dams that would allow for higher water exports and also take care of the electricity problems in the country.
Lesotho initially gained duty free access to European markets under the Lome convention which also helped expand its garment industry as many companies moves from South Africa to Lesotho to avail this access. During the 1980s and early 1990s, the country enjoyed access to U.S. market due to quota system under MFA and ATC however it came with a heavy 17% tariff. For this reason Lesotho was more interested in exporting to European countries than America. By the end of 1990s however the country had no duty-free access to any major destination of the world. That is when AGOA came to save Lesotho's textile industry in 2000. It is scheduled to last till 2015 and the purpose of this legislation was to allow African countries duty free access to U.S. markets instead of giving them aid. Lesotho has however benefited largely from the Special Rule of AGOA which allows it duty free and quota free access to U.S. markets.
VIII. SUMMARY and DISCUSSION
It is not possible that the child or adolescent will be positively affected by development that fails to include each of the primary developmental areas and specifically development of the child or adolescent's: (1) cognitive thinking growth; (2) physical growth; or (3) growth as an emotional individual. All of these areas of the individual must experience development in unison in order that the child or adolescent develop in a normal and health manner. In order that the child reach their full potential in terms of development, the normal child or adolescent must be assisted in the individual development of each of these aspects of human growth which are (1) gaining cognition in terms of their thinking processes; (2) physical development at a normal rate and in a positive manner; and (3) individual emotional development. Developmental delays in the child's development caused by disease, mental disabilities, injuries,…
Jean Piaget and Child Development (2008) Child & Adolescent Development. Mercy Behavioral Health. Online available at http://www.mercybh.org/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=7929&cn=28
Urie Bronfenbrenner and Child Development (2008) Child & Adolescent Development. Mercy Behavioral Health. Online available at http://www.mercybh.org/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=7930&cn=28
Lawrence Kohlberg and Child Development (2008) Child & Adolescent Development. Mercy Behavioral Health. Online available at http://www.mercybh.org/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=7928&cn=28
Mangrulkar, Leena; Whitman, Cheryl Vince; and Posner, Marc (2001) Life Skills Approach to Child and Adolescent Health Human Development. Health and Human Development programs, Education Development Center, Inc. EDC Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) W.K. Kellogg Foundation September 2001. Online available at http://www.paho.org/English/HPP/HPF/ADOL/Lifeskills.pdf
Courses in quantitative experimental techniques and research design, which comprise the utilization of computer-based study, are an essential part of graduate study and are essential to finish the dissertation. The Psy.D. degree may be founded on sensible work and assessments rather than a dissertation. In clinical, therapy, and school psychology, the requirements for the doctoral degree typically include an extra year of post-doctoral managed knowledge (Psychologists, 2009).
A bachelor's degree will permit me to then go on and further my education and get a doctoral degree. It will also qualify me to aid psychologists and other professionals in neighborhood mental health centers, occupational rehabilitation offices, and correctional curriculums. Those who hold a Bachelor's degree may also work as administrative assistants for psychologists. Many also find work in other areas, such as sales, service, or business management (Psychologists, 2009).
What work values are important for this job?
Industrial psychologists often plan…
Industrial-Organizational Psychologists. (2010). Retrieved December 5, 2010, from http://online.onetcenter.org/link/summary/19-3032.00
Psychologists. (2009). Retrieved December 5, 2010, from Bureau of Labor Statistics Web site:
For an individual who is accustomed to living in debt, or who is desperate, taking the quick payoff of a larger amount in the short-term may seem like a more attractive option. Because of borrower ignorance, the moneylender may offer a false incentive that rural individuals with little economic background cannot understand, like 'no interest' on the loan for the first few months. the, the interest rate will 'kick in' at a much higher rate.
There are other sociological and cultural factors at play as well, in terms of encouraging borrowers to make what seem like irrational decisions, as seen through the cold calculating view of an outside observer. The usurious moneylenders might have an important place in the community, and can help the borrower in other ways, either by influencing corrupt government bureaucrats or providing other forms of assistance and protection. The usurers might be members of a local,…
termed as a process that enables individuals to realize their potential and build confidence of one self. This enables them to lead dignified lives. Through this process individuals have the freedom to do what they want that can positively impact their lives as indicated by Aronson J. (2006). A development processes therefore entails the improvement of things that are already in existence and can be through expansion of what is already in place. It may also be termed as enlarging or transforming something that is already in existence. Development process therefore involves the refining of things that are already in existence. This paper gives the difference between a constructive developmental process also termed as additive and a weeding out developmental process also termed as a subtractive.
The development process can be categorized into a constructive developmental process or a weeding out developmental process. These categories are as a result of…
Aronson, J. (2006). Development: Definitions and Assumptions. Technology for Developing Communities. Retrieved September 27, 2012, from www.techbridgeworld.org/courses/TDC_F06/lectures/L5_DevDefsAssumptns.pdf
Igbinovia, J. (2012). For constructive development, improve your rural base -- Elizabeth Jibuno. Vanguard News. Retrieved September 27, 2012, from http://www.vanguardngr.com/2012/02/for-constructive-development-improve-your-rural-base-elizabeth-jibuno / s
developmental theories. Demonstrate how the two theories impact child raising practices and ultimately impact personality development.
There are many developmental theories that essentially deal with the psychology of human cognitive development. One of the better-known theories on Cognitive Development is, however, that which was developed by Piaget, known as the 'Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory'. This theory states that children, at various stages of their lives, are faced with certain challenging situations with which they must deal with or face, and they must have the mental abilities and the capacity to deal with such situations. This, in fact, according to Piaget, occurs at several different stages in their developmental process, and when they are able to successfully deal with the situation at that particular stage of their lives, then they would be able to successfully move on to the next stage of cognitive development. As and when every new stage has…
Boeree, George C. "Personality Theories, Erik Erikson (1902-1994)." Retrieved From
http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/erikson.html Accessed on 20 July, 2005
Boeree, George C. "Personality Theories: Sigmund Freud, 1856 to 1939." Retrieved From
http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/freud.html Accessed on 20 July, 2005
Third, increased cognitive demands in school challenge the adolescent. Fourth, the adolescent must develop more mature verbal communication skills. Fifth, the teenager will develop an ego separate from the parents, whereas in childhood the ego remained closely linked to that of the parents. Sixth, the adolescent formulates clearer career goals. The seventh task of adolescent development comprises the psychological detachment from the parents, often entailing interpersonal conflicts and difficulties relating to authority figures. Eighth, the adolescent develops stronger relationships with peers that help him or her formulate a sense of self. The ninth task of adolescence relates to the development of the sexual self: the teenager also comes to terms with gender issues. Tenth, the adolescent develops a personal system of values that may remain with the individual throughout the lifetime. The eleventh and final state regards controlling immature impulses and becoming a more mature manager of instincts and behaviors.
Musical play was designed to elicit greater responsiveness from the child in a fun setting and also to enhance the enjoyment of the adult involved in the activity. The aim of the activity was to encourage age-appropriate physical and speech-related activities as well as accustom the child to the sound of music. Rolling over while the music played, imitating the sounds and words were initiated by the adult, and when the child mimicked the adult, the child was told 'good job.' The activity was also designed to positively sensitize the child to instrumental and sung music in a social setting.
alworth, Darcy D. (2009). Effects of developmental music groups for parents and premature or typical infants under two years on parental responsiveness and infant social development. Journal of Music Therapy, 46(1), 32-52. Retrieved April 13, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library…
Walworth, Darcy D. (2009). Effects of developmental music groups for parents and premature or typical infants under two years on parental responsiveness and infant social development. Journal of Music Therapy, 46(1), 32-52. Retrieved April 13, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library database. (Document ID: 1667546041).
Limitations of Great Theories
The psychoanalytic theory (Saul Mcleod, 2007)
ejection of the free will
Lack of scientific support
Samples were biased. For instance, only Austrian women were considered in proving the theory
Case studies were subjective
Cognitive Theory (Saul Mcleod, Cognitive Psychology, 2007)
Does not consider biology
The section on humanism dismisses scientific approaches
The ecological validity of the experiments is low
There is subjective introspection
Behavioral Theory (Saul Mcleod, Cognitive Psychology, 2007)
It is misplaced to compare humans and animals
It ignores the role of biology such as testosterone effects
There is little free will
Dismisses meditational process
The Surprises from Harlow's experiments
Harlow noted that that the existence of systems of affection that could fill in the gap for each other was sensible; from evolutionary standpoint. Indeed, compensations that were reciprocal presented a higher chance of social survival. According to Marga Vicedo (2010), diverse affectional…
Jake Edwards. (2009, Febraury 17). New Criticism. Retrieved from Reading Theory with Jolliffe: http://jolliffereadingtheory.blogspot.in/
KESSENICH, MAUREEN, MORRISON, FREDERICK J, & BISANZ, JEFFREY. (2002). Developmental Theory. The Gale Group Inc.
Marga Vicedo. (2010). The evolution of Harry Harlow: from the nature to the nurture of love. History of Psychiatry, 1-16.
Saul Mcleod. (2007). Psychodynamic Approach. Simplypsychology.
Describe which resources need to be available to plan these physical experiences for children 0-8 years. (You are strongly encouraged to give practical examples from your own professional experience.)
Financial resources and time are two critical components of providing quality physical education to students, resources that are often sorely lacking in schools today, as PE gets shifted to the back burner of school resources. If physical education is not required, or if study time and preparation for standardized tests, for example, or even field trips or school assemblies are 'substituted in' for physical education time, this communicates that PE is not a class to be taken seriously, and children will take notice of this fact. If children's nonattendance or lack of participation is not reflected in their grade, and parents demand an 'A' despite a lackadaisical attitude on the part of the student, this will also impact the quality…
Dribblemania Fitness." Lesson Idea Search Results: PE Central.org. Retrieved 25 Jul 2008. http://www.pecentral.org/lessonideas/ViewLesson.asp?ID=8252
Rivkin, M.S. (2006). "Movement is a basic need of children and supports cooperation in the Classroom." Moving and Learning Together! Scholastic Early Childhood Today, 20 (6) 32-36.
Schiesel, Seth. (30 Apr 2007). "P.E. classes turn to video game that works legs." The New York
Times. Retrieved 25 Jul 2008 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/30/health/30exer.html?scp=1&sq=physicaleducation&st=cse
Elementary Special Education Teachers Place Value in the use of Technology Resources for Students?
Technology is an integral part of society. Students learn through use of technology like personal computers, tablets, and e-books (Garland & Tadeja, 2013). Computers can provide access to videos, documents, and other forms of data that students have the choice of absorbing via visual or auditory methods. Tablets provide the same access but with a light-weight, touch responsive interface. Technology investment within schools not only enables varied learning opportunities for students, but it also helps students discover or improve their own ability to research and analyze information, collaborate and communicate, and solve problems (Lim, Zhao, Tondeur, Chai, & Tsai, 2013). Comment by Steve Moskowitz: Yes, this is the reason
Technology helps provide other benefits. Integrating technology in schools, especially in other areas like special education enable staff to develop new ways of teaching and…
Business and Management Journal
There is much controversy with regard to developmental job experience (DJE) and the degree to which it plays a significant role in a person's behavior and success in the workplace. "NO PAIN, NO GAIN: AN AFFECT-BASED MODEL OF DEVELOPMENTAL JOB EXPERIENCE AND THE BUFFERING EFFECTS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE" addresses this topic thoroughly and attempts to determine whether or not can actually have a positive effect on an individual in the context of his or her experience in the work environment. The article is meant to provide readers with a more complex understanding of the concept and of the attitudes one should employ with regard to it.
In order to be able to get actively involved in a DJE process, a person would have to be willing to go through great efforts and to show a significant amount of determination in achieving his or her goals in…
Axelrod, W., & Coyle, J. "Make Talent Your Business: How Exceptional Managers Develop People While Getting Results," (Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 6 Jun 2011)
Bilimoria, D. "Handbook on Women in Business and Management," (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2007)
Dong, Y, Seo, M., & Bartol, K.M., "NO PAIN, NO GAIN: AN AFFECT-BASED MODEL OF DEVELOPMENTAL JOB EXPERIENCE AND THE BUFFERING EFFECTS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE," Academy of Management Journal 2014, Vol. 57, No. 4, 1056 -- 1077. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amj.2011.0687
Jex, S.M., & Britt, T.W., "Organizational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach," (John Wiley & Sons, 2 Jun 2008)
Developmental Stage/Age Group: Infancy and toddlerhood (0 - 3 years)
Erickson maintains that the first human developmental stage involves an individual’s interactions with his/her surroundings, normally the baby’s immediate social and physical environment, which is made up of home and family (Levinson, 1986). Especially important at this point (i.e. infancy) is the mother- baby relationship – the very first social bond one forms. Receptive mothers sensitive to the distinctive requirements of their baby will help cultivate a sound sense of self- worth within the baby, facilitating the development of a sound, all- round physical, emotional and psychological constitution, which happens between 0 and 18 months (Thomas et.al 2000).
Babies experience a feeling of uncertainty/insecurity when it comes to the world they are born into. For resolving this insecurity, they rely on their mother (primary caregiver) to acquire stable, consistent care. Hope arises from success at this point. The…
hree developmental theories that provide interesting research for those seeking knowledge concerning this particular field of study include the theory of nature vs. nurture, continuous vs. discontinuous development and critical and sensitive periods of development during those periods in life when either critical or sensitive development is taking place. Comparing and contrasting these three developmental theories should lead the researcher to a better understanding of not only the three theories, but a more complete and comprehensive understanding of the field as well.
For instance, a recent study determined that "genetic and environmental factors provides a potential explanation of the individual differences in responses to environmental influences" (Wermter, Laucht, Schimmelmann, Banaschweski, Sonuga-Barke, Rietschel, Becker, 2010, p. 200). Additionally, the study determined that children exposed to an environment stressor known to increase risk for a certain psychiatric disorder (e.g. high family adversity) are at a higher risk for that disorder…
This is another study that provides data on both spectrums and seems to come to no strong resolution regarding whether the critical or sensitive theory is more viable than the other.
Wermter, A.K.; Laucht, M.; Schimmelmann, B.G.; Banaschweski, T.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S.; Rietschel, M.; Becker, K.; (2010) From nature vs. nurture, via nature and nurture, to gene x environment interaction in mental disorders, European Child and Adolescent Pscyhiatry, Vol. 19, Issue 3, pp. 199-210
This article assists the researcher in understanding that the field is moving beyond the theory of nature vs. nurture and that it is growing into a field that understands that it just might be nature in conjunction with nurture that can be the most positive, or negative (as the case may be) of influences.
Development Change Research Issue
Developmental change is a broad topic that incorporate several sub-topics relating to an individual's growth and development. The broad nature of this topic emerges from the fact that its an approach that is geared towards explaining how infants, children, and adults change over a period of time. The process of explaining individuals' developmental changes over time involves examining a wide range of theoretical areas including biological, cognitive, emotional, and social domains. Additionally, there are different research designs that are utilized in developmental research including longitudinal, sequential, and cross-sectional research approaches (Berk & Meyers, 2016). These different approaches are selected based on their effectiveness in exploring a particular issue or aspect of developmental change over time.
An example of a topic that could be examined using one of these research designs is masticatory performance in children across different age groups. This is an important topic of study…
Developmental cognitive occur starting age 50 moving end life.
Developmental and cognitive changes
The essay aims at exploring the developmental and cognitive changes that occur starting at the age of fifty years moving through end of life. The developmental changes are easily noticeable or observable, hence not much of literature or scholarly articles have been written about it. On the other hand a lot of materials, studies and researches have been conducted on cognitive changes because cognition is a key requirement needed in both the young and old to meet the job demands, challenges of education and day-to-day life of an individual (MacDonald, Hultsch, & Dixon, 2003, p 32-52).
Before the essays embark on the changes that occur at the age of fifty and beyond its important to consider the early changes right from when a baby is born up to middle life for us to understand the…
Anstey, K., Hofer, S., & Luszcz, A., (2003). Cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of differentiation in late-life cognitive and sensory function: The effects of age, ability, attrition, and occasion of measurement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 132, 470 -- 487.
Ball, K., et al. (2002). Effects of cognitive training, interventions with older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2271 -- 2281.
Dixon, R., De Frias, M., & Maitland, S.B. (2001). Memory in midlife. In M.E. Lachman (Ed.), Handbook of midlife development New York: Wiley (pp. 248 -- 278)...
Finkel, D., Pedersen, N.L., & Harris, J.R. (2000). Genetic mediation of the association among motor and perceptual speed and adult cognitive abilities. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 7, 141 -- 155.
" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)
The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…
Alessandria, Kathryn P. And Nelson, Eileen S. (2005) Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study. Project Muse January/February 2005 Vol. 46 No. 1 Online available at http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/journal_of_college_student_development/v046/46.1alessandria.pdf
ARMY ROTC: The John Hopkins University (nd) Training and Curriculum. Online available at http://www.jhu.edu/rotc/training.htm
Astin, a.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.
Astin, a.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Change: Developmental Levels, Systems, and Diversity
The purpose of this paper is to examine the issue of Domestic Abuse related to the change management and diversity. According to Burnett & Brenner (2011) domestic violence is the result of the victimization of a person with whom "the abuser has or has had an intimate, romantic, or spousal relationship." Traditionally it includes a pattern of behaviors that attempt to coerce adults or youths that are ordinarily competent, into behaviors that establish the abuser as the power figure, so that they maintain control over other members of the party in question. Behaviors of patterns that proffer control often build upon each other, setting a stage for "future violence" (Burnett & Brenner, 2011). Psychological abuse, stalking, sexual abuse, physical abuse, and isolation are all forms of domestic abuse resulting in annual economic costs exceeding $8 million dollars according to the CDC (Burnett & Brenner,…
Burnett, Lynn Barkley, MD, EdD, Brenner, Barry E. MD, PhD, et. al. (2011 April) Domestic
Violence. Medscape, Retrieved July 18, 2011: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/805546-overview
Hall, D.T. & Chandler, D.E. (2005). Psychological success: When the career is a calling Journal
of Organizational Behavior, 26, 155-176.
A relatively recent phenomenon in the American family is the increase in young adults living at home. This development changes the conditions of midlife for many parents who expected an empty nest at this stage of their lives (Birren & Schaie, 2001).
elationships between parents and their adult children also are changing at this time because the "children" are now adults so they relate to their parents on a different level. For example, Colleen told me that her oldest son has even shared with her some intimate details about his love life. She said it was almost as if they were two women friends talking about their relationships. Where their conversations used to consist of talk about homework cleaning their rooms, now they talk to each other on a much more even playing field.
Attitudes toward this stage in life are changing as well. The impact of the "empty nest"…
Birren, James E. & Schaie, K.W. (2001) Handbook of the psychology of aging, 5th ed. Academic Press
Erikson, E. (1950), Childhood and Society., New York W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Gould, R.L. (1998). Transformations: Growth and development in adult life. New York: Touchstone Books
Lachman, M.E. (2001) Handbook of midlife development, Wiley & Sons
Psychodynamic Model, The Model's Developmental Processes, And Use In Assessment And Treatment Psychodynamic Model
A large proportion of this research relied on historical data. Most of the data originated from institutions that take care of the aged, books, and journal articles. The views of health experts and professionals in mental health also shaped the judgement of this paper. The paper focused on extracting information from the four models under its analysis. Most of the findings originated from the four frameworks. ( The psychodynamic, the cognitive behavior, the stress and coping model, and the family systems model).
Given the demographics of the present age, almost all adult mental shape practice will certainly include older adults. As people grow older, various changes occur, more valuable is the vulnerability to stress and illnesses. The challenges one faces through the years like the death of loved ones, loneliness and others exposes one to the…
ReferencesTop of For
Top of F
Blaikie, A. (2009). Ageing And Popular Culture. Cambridge U.A.: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Kerry Kelly, N., & Jack, N. (n.d). A New Model of Techniques for Concurrent Psychodynamic
Work with Parents of Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy Patients. Child And
Biological, Psychosocial, & Developmental Theories of Aging
Biological, Psychosocial, and Developmental Theories of Aging
Aging is a manifestation of events that occur over a span of time. This is not a uniform process, individuals' age differently, and there are major differences between normal, optimal, and pathological aging. As one ages the balance between gains and losses, such as becoming more intelligent and becoming less healthy, is thought to become less positive.
Biological Theories of Aging
Biological theories of aging classify aging as genetic (heredity) and non-genetic (wear and tear). Most believe that several mechanisms are operating at the same time to cause aging and there is probably not a single cause of death, but many causes. Current thinking includes 1) the vital substance theory -- we are all born with a certain amount of substance and as it is consumed we age and die, 2) the genetic mutation theory…
"Biological aging theories." (2009). Azinet LLC. Retrieved October 22, 2012, from http://www.programmed-aging.org/theories/
Boyd, D. & Bee, H. (2006). Lifespan development. (4th ed.). Boston MA: Pearson Education Inc.
Hernandez, C. (2008, August 20). Lifespan perspective on human development. Health and Wellness Retrieved October 22, 2012, from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/950617/lifespan_perspective_on_human_development.html?cat=70
"Theories of aging" (NDI). Angelfire.com. Retrieved October 22, 2012, from http://www.angelfire.com/ns/southeasternnurse/TheoriesofAgingC3.html
In that regard, the counselor would want to explore any possible connection between the social turmoil that might have been responsible for generating his subsequent social disillusionment. To the extent the counselor determines that the subject's social disenfranchisement is attributable to his involvement or response to those social conflicts he would assist the subject evaluate the objective conclusions and expectations that have shaped his outlook as an older adult in substantially different social circumstances and living in a very different society than the one responsible for his feelings about government representatives and authority figures in general (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).
B. Preliminary Hypotheses of Main Apparent Problems
Hypothesis # 1 -- Multiple Causes of Intimacy Issues
First, it is likely that there are multiple concurrent causes of the subject's apparent difficulty establishing and maintaining close intimate relationships and effective communications within his marriage. The psychodynamic perspective teaches that it is…
Adler, a. (1927) Understanding Human Nature. Center City: Hazelden
Frain, M.P., Bishop, M., and Bethel, M. "A Roadmap for Rehabilitation Counseling to Serve Military Veterans with Disabilities." Journal of Rehabilitation, Volume 76,
No. 1; (2010): 13-21.
Gerrig, R, and Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life.. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Implementation of the Developmental Plan
The practical implantation of the supervisory development plan initiates from the learning strategies that have been defined in order to achieve the goals that the supervisor has set for himself. This developmental plan is not practiced for a specific period, rather it is an ongoing and permanent process that one should consider with gravity to become an effective supervisor. The training programs are also an approach that an individual can enroll to, but the application or implementation ought to be at the workplace.
Tracking of motivational techniques and skills which produces the maximum results enables the individual to be an effective supervisor. Besides, the weak areas that have been identified in the performance gap should also be considered with gravity and measures should be taken to improve and enhance those skills in which the individual is lacking.
The implementation phase must not eliminate or prohibit…
Lu, H.L. (2007). Mentor Teachers, Program Supervisors, and Peer Coaching in the Student Teaching Experience: A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of Mentor Teachers, Program Supervisors, and Interns. USA: ProQuest.
Sister's Keeper -- Case Study Using Developmental Theories
Anna Fitzgerald was given a life so that she could keep another person alive, her seriously ill older sister Kate. On the surface that seems terrible cruel and wholly unfair. Looking deeper into the issues surrounding the Fitzgerald family, Anna and her older sister Kate, it is more unfair and cruel than it appears on the surface. There are important ethical issues involved in this novel by Jodi Picoult, but there are also developmental issues that cry out to be addressed. Hence, this paper will review the developmental theories of Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, and use instances and circumstances from Picoult's book to link to concepts in the developmental theorists' work. The terribly inequitable theme of this book will be juxtaposed at the outset with what would be considered a "normal adolescent development" for a girl just reaching her…
American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. (2001). Facts for Families: Normal
Adolescent Development. Retrieved July 9, 2011, from http://www.aacap.org .
Harder, Arlene F. (2008). The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson. Learning Place Online,
Retrieved July 9, 2011, from http://www.learningplaceonline.com .
Hip dysplasia in children [...] nursing care and considerations of the child with congenital or developmental hip dysplasia. Hip dysplasia occurs actually quite commonly in infants and children all over the world. There are some special considerations nurses should use when caring for these patients, including recognizing the early symptoms of hip dysplasia in infants and children, and fully understanding the treatment necessary to help the family cope with the disease. Treating and diagnosing children is often much more difficult than diagnosing and treating older patients who can communicate more effectively, so the nurse must be patient, cognizant, and highly aware of the disease, its indicators, and its treatment.
Hip dysplasia in infants and children used to be known by two terms, developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), or congenital dislocation of the hip (CDH). However, today, most professionals refer to the condition as DDH. Hip dysplasia occurs when the…
Author not Available. (2004). Developmental hip dysplasia in children. Retrieved from the Drugs.com Web site: http://www.drugs.com/CG/DEVELOPMENTAL_HIP_DYSPLASIA_IN_CHILDREN.html13 Sept. 2004.
Berant, Moshe. (1999). Developmental dysplasia of the hip: A new approach to incidence. Pediatrics; 1 Jan. 1999.
D'Alessandro, Donna, M.D. And Huth, Lindsay. (2002). DDH (Developmental dysplasia of the hip). Retrieved from the Virtual Children's Hospital Web site: http://www.vh.org/pediatric/patient/pediatrics/cqqa/ddh.html13 Sept. 2004.
Dietz, Frederick R. (1999). Screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip. American Family Physician; 1 July 1999.
Devel/Family Cycle Theory
Successful completion of developmental tasks enables a person to make a smooth transition to adulthood. According to family life cycle theory (FLC), a paradigm rooted in the ideas of Duvall and Hill, there are eight stages of development with normative age role expectations for the nuclear family (Hill, 1970; Hill & ogers, 1964; ice, 1994; all cited in Erickson, 1998). More recent work on FLC by McGoldrick and Carter offer a new set of stages that they believe describe the fundamental American middle-class family at the beginning of the 21st century (VanKatwyk). According to McGoldrick and Carter, the family life cycle refers to "the expansion, contraction, and realighnemt of the relationship system to support the entry, exit, and development of family members in a functional way" (2003, p. 384, cited in Erickson). Their six stage classification lists the following:
Leaving home: single young adults
The joining of…
Erickson, M.J. (1998). Revisioning the family life cycle theory and paradigm in marriage and Family. American Journal of Family Therapy 26(4), pp. 341-355.
Jordyn, M., & Byrd, M. (2003). The relationship between the living arrangements of university students and their identity development. Adolescence 38(150), pp. 267-278.
VanKatwyk, P.L. (n.d.). Family life cycle theory. Theories of Human Development. Retrieved from http://freedownload.is/pdf/family-life-cycle-theory-3553375.html
Psychopathy is defined as a risk factor for sexual and physical violence in the future. Although psychopaths are not often motivated to pursue intervention, studies indicate that they can benefit from psychological intervention. Psychopaths are mainly characterized by remorse and lack of sympathy for others and even their loved ones. This paper summarizes the extent to which genetic, environmental, cognitive, and developmental influences contribute to the development of psychopathy.
Genes perform an important part in the growth of psychopathy. esearchers have discovered that antisocial behavior results from both genetic and environmental effects. However, it is shown that genetics contribute significantly to the development of psychopathy especially where previous family members have had the disorder. Genetic transfer of the disorder to children is always evident. However, socializing and other ecological factors link with genetics: they influence the extent of the psychopathic characteristics (Blonigen et al., 2008). esearches have also revealed…
Blonigen, D.M. et al. (2008). Psychopathic personality traits: heritability and genetic overlap with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Psychol Med. May 2005; 35(5): 637 -- 648. doi: 10.1017/S0033291704004180. Accessed from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2242349/
Canli, T. (2006). Biology of personality and individual differences. New York: Guilford Press.
Salekin, R.T., & Lynam, D.R. (2010). Handbook of child and adolescent psychopathy. New York: Guilford Press.
Taylor, J., et al. (2003). Genetic and Environmental Influences on Psychopathy Trait Dimensions in a Community Sample of Male Twins. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, 12/2003, Volume 31, Issue 6, pp. 633-645
formation dynamics and developmental outcomes. he first line in the chapter says that as the new millennium starts, the state is rising in both the public's and in scholarly imagination. he author notes that such assumptions and so forth are not without evidence. he book points to the collapse of the Yugoslavian empire. he book also points to the collapse of the Soviet Union Empire.
he book then talks about the roles, capacities, structures and so forth for development. he examples cited in the start of that section were the late-developing areas like France, Germany and Russia. States must play developmental roles effectively. his means that they must in turn have developmental roles and play them effective. A developmental structure includes cohesive internal organization and alliance with capital at the expense of workers and peasants.
he study hopes to pick up where past studies left off. he author of the…
The second reading selection talks about War and Economic Development. It was written by Richard Stubbs. The sub-title for the report is export-oriented industrialization in east and southeast Asia. The selection states right off the top that war and the evolution of economies, states and societies have historically been linked together. This was stated as of the authoring of the report back in 1999 in a comparative politics book. The book then talks about the effects of war.
As it relates to the effects of war, it is noted that for any country preparing for war, directly involved with a war, or even close to the theater of war. It is noted that states preparing for war or are on the edge of war react based on who they are aligned with. If the party in question is aligned with the protagonist, then it will be involved with formative or developmental effects, will include territorial gains, unification of society through exploitation of the external threat, the centralization of government and power, the enlargement and rationalization of state administrations, the broadening and deepening of the state's revenue base, development of new technologies, mobilization of under-employed people and capital for productive use and so forth.
A bit later on, the seven economically successful states in East and Southeast Asia are described. It is noted that after the second world war (commonly referred to as World War II), the societies were relatively weak even when the economics were good. Further, the institution-like states were doing quite well. The reason for the difference between the two was due to a series of wars in the area. The supply of capital is discussed later on in the report. There are then words about markets in the aftermath of the Vietnam War. The JSTOR article then concludes with a summary of the above material.
Contingency Approach to Change Contingency Approach
Developmental transitions, task-focused transitions, charismatic transformations, turnarounds and Taylorist methods
Contingency theory suggests that there is no singular, prescriptive way of enacting change. ather, the specific circumstances must be taken into consideration. In general, contingency theory proposes that change is dependent upon the relationship between the leaders and followers, the structure of the task, and the position of the leader (Doyle & Smith 2001). For example, in a developmental or gradual transition, the leader is more likely to be in a weaker position of power and need additional 'buy-in' from employees. A major departmental overhaul may be more appropriately rendered in such a fashion, given the shock of a sudden transition along with the close-knit nature of the community. Another good example of when a developmental approach might be used is when the needed changes the organization might embark upon are uncertain. Through collaboration,…
Doyle, M.E. And Smith, M.K. (2001). Classical leadership. The Encyclopedia of Informal
Education. Retrieved November 27, 2011 at http://www.infed.org/leadership/traditional_leadership.htm
Smashing the clock. (2006). Business Week. Retrieved November 27, 2011 at http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_50/b4013001.htm
Yarow, Jay. (2010). Working at Apple. Retrieved November 27, 2011 at http://www.businessinsider.com/working-at-apple-2010-7
A mixture of innate talents and supportive relationships resulted in achievement and resiliency. Social learning theory suggests that resiliency, and the ability to turn negatives into positives, such as Angelou's use of her difficult life as a source for literary autobiography and poetry, is not biologically based, but depends upon being exposed to social opportunities and the willingness of others to develop the subject's natural gifts.
But this ability to 'mine' her life's challenges may itself be partially due to a biological stress response that is more productive for individuals such as Angelou than other individuals. esilience does not so much imply an invulnerability to stress, but rather an ability to recover from negative events: "Considerable data exists suggesting that young people functioning well under high stress often show higher levels of emotional distress compared to their low stress peers" (Olsson et al. 2003, p.3). In other words, a natural…
Ewart, Craig K., Randall S. Jorgensen, Edith Chen, Sonia Suchday, & Karen a. Matthews.
(2002). Measuring stress resilience and coping in vulnerable youth: The social competence interview. Psychological Assessment, 14 (3), 339 -- 352. Retrieved May 9,
2010 at http://www.psych.ubc.ca/~healthpsych/EdithArticles/PA2002.pdf
Maya Angelou: Biography. Biography.com. Retrieved May 9, 2010 at http://www.biography.com/articles/Maya-Angelou-9185388?print
Universal and Development Self-equisites in the Context Of a Nursing Practice Scenario
Orem's Theory of Self-Care
Self-care is the key concept in Orem's nursing model (1991). It is defined as the practice of activities that maturing and mature persons initiate and perform, within time frames, on their own behalf in the interests of maintaining life, healthful functioning, continuing personal development, and well-being A self-care deficit occurs when an individual is unable to engage in self-care Orem's self-care model has, throughout the years, provided the basis for training and support programs for groups of patients with both chronic and acute diseases, e g diabetic patients (Allison 1973, Fitzgerald 1980), employees with rheumatoid arthritis (Dear & Keen 1982), renal transplant patients (Hoffart 1982), stroke patients (Anna et al. 1978, Faucett et al. 1990), bone marrow transplant patients (Mack 1992) and patients with cancer (Dodd & Dibble 1993).
The universal self-care requisites are…
Allison S. (1973) A framework for nursing action in a nurse conducted diabetes managed clinic Journal of Nursing Administration 3, 53-60
Anna D., Christensen D. G, Hohon, S. A, Ord L & Wells SR (1978). Implementing Orem's conceptual framework. Journal of Nursing Administration 8, 8-11
Dear M.R. & Keen M.F. (1982) Promotion of self-care in the employee with rheumatoid arthntis. Occupational Health Nursing 30, 32-4
Dodd IN J & Dibble SL (1993) Predictors of self-care a test of Orem's model. Oncology Nursing Forum 20, 895-901
Developmental Observation of Five-Year-old
Statement of esearch/Observation: To observe a five-year-old female child in her natural setting to determine age appropriate developmental stages.
Description of Child Being Observed: The subject is a five-year-old female: Maribel.
My friend has a five-year-old niece. The subject's mother was contacted and agreed to allow the observations to take place in her home and on the playground. The project was discussed and plans were made to accommodate all involved parties.
The introductory visit was conducted at my friend's house, also the child's grandmother's home. Maribel often visits her grandmother and is very comfortable within this home setting.
Upon this visit, Maribel was introduced to me as her aunt's visitor. She said, "hi" to me, and asked me if I was visiting her aunt. I replied yes, and asked Maribel if she would like to sit with me and wait…
Alliance for Childhood. "Importance of play." 2 May, 2003 http://www.allianceforchildhood.net/projects/play/index.htm
Bergen, D. Pretend Play and Young Children's Development. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood, 2001. ERIC,ED458045.
Fisch, S.M., & Truglio, R.T. (2001). "G" is for growing: Thirty years of research on children and Sesame Street. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kagan, J. "Child." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. 25 Mar. 2004. http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar110700 .
Self-esteem and self-efficacy are issues that are of primary importance. These are affected by a number of environmental factors, including immediate family, but also the environment in which a person moves, as well as the wider social environment.
Contextualism was promoted in 1942 by S.C. Pepper, and was previously known as "pragmatism." This term was often used in the work of Charles S. Peirce, William James, Henri
ergson, John Dewey, and George Herbert Mead (Morris, 1997). In psychological development, contextualism suggests the influence of a broad number of categories, beginning with the immediate family, and broadening to the peer group, society, and global environment. ehavior is therefore to be seen in the context not only of immediate family and peer influence, but also in the context of broader society.
According to Morris (1997), Pepper's use of the term "contextualism" first occurred during 1932, where he referred to John Dewey's…
Blunden, Andy. (2001, February). "The Vygotsky School." Spirit, Money and Modernity Seminar. http://home.mira.net/~andy/seminars/chat.htm
Blunden, Andy (1997). "Vygotsky and the Dialectical Method."
Domitrovich, Celene E. (2001, April). "Parenting practices and child social adjustment: Multiple pathways of influence" In Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. Wayne State University Press
Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
Psychology - Developmental
The single mother comes home after a long day of work. The little girl, (Sara) is approximately 4-5 years old. Her mother realizes that someone there are small pieces of M&M's sprinkled around this kitchen floor, and assumes that her child has been eating the candy instead of waiting until after dinner. The mother asks Sara if she has been eating candy, and Sara looks down at the floor and adamantly denies that she has had any candy. She states that she has spent the afternoon watching television and painting pictures with grandma. Mom and child have been working on learning the difference between telling the truth and telling a lie and the mother is certain that the little girl has indeed been eating the candy. Telling lies is typically of children in this age group. Children may lie for several reasons, including trying to…
Mlyniec, Vicky. "Got An Attitude?" Parents. December 2003:209
Mlyniec, Vicky. "To Tell The Truth." Parents. December, 2003: 202
Martinez, Teresa. "Why Kids Want the Most - And More." Parenting, November 2003: 206
Amato, P.R. (2005). The impact of family formation change on the cognitive, social, and emotional well-being of the next generation. arriage and Child Wellbeing, 15(2), 75-96. The author addressed two questions related to child development in single-parent households: (1) cognitive, social, and emotional consequences, and (2) etiology of outcome differences. This review of the research literature was up-to-date 2005. Overall, the author concluded that children of single-parent households will do more poorly throughout their life, but only modestly so. Protective variables included remarriage and cohabitation, in that order. The author pays careful attention to inconsistent and mixed findings within and between studies, thereby rendering the review credible.
Shook, S.E., Jones, D.J., Forehand, R., Dorsey, S., & Brody, G. (2010). The mother-coparent relationship and youth adjustment: A study of African-American single-mother families. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(3), 243-51. This study examined the impact of coparent relationship quality on child development outcomes…
McMahon, T.J., & Luthar, S.S. (2007). Defining characteristics and potential consequences of caretaking burden among children living in urban poverty. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(2), 267-81. This study examined the impact of caretaker burden imposed on children between the ages of 8 and 17, living in inner-city households with mothers abusing drugs or suffering from psychiatric problems. Doing household chores, caring for siblings, and/or caring for mother were significant predictors of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and social competence. The authors mentioned continued controversy about how to measure caretaker burden in children, which could represent a significant limitation of this study.
Sagrestano, L.M., Paikoff, R.L., Holmbeck, G.N., & Fendrich, M. (2003). A longitudinal examination of familial risk factors for depression among inner-city African-American adolescents. Journal of Family Psychology, 17(1), 108-20. This longitudinal study followed children of inner-city, African-American single-parent household to better understand how family factors influenced the incidence of depression and anxiety among children and parents. Increased family conflict and reduced parental monitoring were both significant predictors of child depression, while increased positive parenting was protective. Interestingly, parental depression was increased by peer interactions with the child and decreased by positive parenting. The data was based on self-reports from child and mother and revealed significant differences in perceptions, which the authors attributed in part to the immaturity of the child.
Florsheim, P., Tolan, P., & Gorman-Smith, D. (1998). Family relationships, parenting practices, the availability of male family members, and the behavior of inner-city boys in single-mother and two-parent families. Child Development, 69(5), 1437-47. African-American and Latino families, with boys between 10- and 15-years of age and living in inner-city Chicago neighborhoods, were recruited to participate in a study examining possible predictors of externalizing behaviors. Externalizing behaviors by the boys in the study were reduced significantly by feelings of family cohesion, structure, discipline, affiliation, and the presence of a positive male influence. Although child self-reports were the source for much of this data, the externalizing data was based on child, parent, and teacher reports.
S. woman." (288).
In response to this negative impact of Barbie not being found in the 7 1/2 to 8-1/2-year-old girls, the researchers admit that the finding was unanticipated and assert that, "For these older girls, if they have already internalized the thinness ideal, then the depiction of a full body could represent a possible, but feared, future self." (290)
The study is weak in several areas. The research sample is small, predominately white and middle class and comes from the same geographic region, causing one to wonder how much socio-economic factors play a role in the results of this study. it's not clear if the use of picture books rather than just dolls introduced bias into the study. Clearly, the researchers tried to emulate similar scenes for Barbie and Emme, but there are differences such as there as the use of an image of Barbie in the supermarket and…
Dittmar, H., Halliwell, E., & Ive, S. (2006). Does Barbie Make Girls want to Be thin? The Effect of Experimental exposure to Images of Dolls on the Body Image of 5- to 8-year-old Girls. Developmental Psychology, 42, 283-292.
Developmental Processes Across the Life Span With Diverse Sociocultural Contexts
The objective of this study is to identify development processes across the life span with diverse sociocultural contexts and to demonstrate theoretical comprehension and application in psychotherapy in order to identify theoretical strengths and weaknesses based on the setting and/or client population specific to child behavior. Finally, this work will demonstrate basic knowledge of the range of normal an abnormal behaviors and child developmental processes. The work of Havighurst (1971) entitled 'Characteristics of Development Task' reports that living is a process beginning with birth and ending with death, which is, comprised of people "working their way through from stage of development to another, by solving their problems in each stage.") When the individual does not complete a task, which results in unhappiness as well as "disapproval by society and problems in later tasks." (1971, p.1) Six primary stages of the…
Havighurst, R.J., (1971) Developmental Tasks and Education, Third Edition. New York. Longman.
Lam, WSE (nd) Re-envisioning Language, Literacy and the Immigrant Subject in New Mediascapes. Northwestern University / Evanston, IL.
Castel, AD, et al. (2011) The Development of Memory Efficiency and Value-Directed Remembering Across the Life Span: A Cross-Sectional Study of Memory and Selectivity. Developmental Psychology © 2011 American Psychological Association. 2011, Vol. 47, No. 6, 1553 -- 1564.
Waszak, F. et al. (2010) The Development of Attentional Networks: Cross-Sectional Findings From a Life Span Sample. Developmental Psychology © 2010 American Psychological Association 2010, Vol. 46, No. 2, 337 -- 349
Developmental Evidence for Contemporary Law
Criminal behavior is unfortunate at any age. Yet, when the one committing the crime is a child, society tends to not know how to digest the actual acts as they unfold. Children are supposed to be so innocent, yet they can be capable of heinous acts. Much of this is learned through exposure to such acts, making the act itself reflexive in that the child weighed its potential success. However, it is clear that the undeveloped cognitive abilities of a child, especially at the age of six, makes that child void of responsibility of criminal acts because they lack the proper fully developed cognitive structures to understand the very real consequences for their actions.
It is true; children are a lot smarter than we often think they are. They are true sponges, in that they absorb what they see and then reenact that behavior to…
Berger, Kathleen. The Developing Person through the Life Span. 8th ed.
Developmental milestones are important for comparison and to make sure that a child is growing at what is considered the normal pace. For this we will take a look at some important milestones from birth to 3 years. These developmental milestones are considered a rough account of how a child should develop. Some children will demonstrate all of these while others will master some skills and may lag behind in others. Generally physicians would not consider it a sign of developmental delay unless the child is markedly slow in some areas of development. General milestones from birth to 3 years are mentioned below and it must be noted that these milestones are important for professionals in related fields since they can assess a child's progress against these milestones and at the same time study the reasons behind developmental delays.
Birth to one year:
During this critical period of…
All information comes from: Developmental milestones. Retrieved online from http://www.med.umich.edu/yourchild/topics/devmile.htm
Developmental Milestones Unit
Developmental Milestones: Birth to Age Two
CE114-(add your course section)
Birth to Age 1
Age 1 to Age 2
Physical and Motor
Moves head at 90 degree angle. Strategy; allow child flexible movement.
Purposeful Grasp: Strategy: Allow child to play with graspable toys.
Crawling: Strategy: Allow child free space to roam and encourage movement.
Walking: Child needs to be encouraged to walk.
Climbing Stairs. Strategy: safely allow child to explore stairs.
Toilet Training: Strategy: eward child for using poddy training materials instead of diapers.
Social and Emotional
Cries when comfortable: Strategy; reinforce non-crying behaviors.
Hugs and kisses others. Strategy: babies should want to hold other people.
Expresses anger; Children should begin expressing anger at this age.
Child expresses loneliness. Strategy: Allow periods of solitude.
Laughing; Strategy: Encouraging laughter with fun and games.
3. Expresses love for his family. Strategy. Provide a loving environment.
Shonkoff, J.P., & Phillips, D.A. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055.
Martinez-Beck, I., & Zaslow, M. (2006). Introduction: The Context for Critical Issues in Early Childhood Professional Development. Paul H. Brookes Publishing. Nair, M.K.C., & Rekha.
Radhakrishnan, S. (2004). Early childhood development in deprived urban settlements. Indian pediatrics, 41(3), 227-238.
Intelligence in Infancy
The child shows many signs of normal cognitive behavior. He seems to understand that when he bangs the blocks together that they will make sound and also seems proud of this activity. He also understood that when the blocks fell that something was wrong and said "uh oh." This is a sign of cognitive understanding of what the blocks are supposed to do.
The social and emotional skills are primarily illustrated by the connection and interactions with the child's mother. The child looks completely comfortable around the mother and interacts naturally. The child is able to understand the mothers questions like "where is the banana" and responds appropriately.
The child shows advanced ability to sit and stand as he wishes with minimal balance issues. The child also shows advanced visual and spatial skills that can be illustrated by his ability to work…
AllPsych. (N.d.). Psychology 101. Retrieved from AllPsych: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/development.html
CA Dept. Of Educatoin. (N.d.). Cognitive Development Domain. Retrieved from CA Dept. Of Educatoin: http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/itf09cogdev.asp
Cherry, K. (N.d.). Communication Milestones. Retrieved from Psychology: http://psychology.about.com/od/early-child-development/a/communication-milestones.htm
Feranld, A., Marchman, V., & Weisleder, A. (2012). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 234-248.
The key theme of the article used for reference for this developmental observation is the psychosocial challenges faced by Catholic priests -- namely, depression, burnout, emotional exhaustion, defensiveness and repression (Galea, 2011, p. 858). The subject used for this phenomenological observation is a 45-year-old Catholic priest, known to the researcher socially as a result of the researcher's membership in the Church.
The priest is overweight, typically poorly groomed; he wears a white cassock, from his days spent abroad in India, where the costume was typical of missionaries, and it is usually dirty. His white cassock makes him stand out from other priests in the States, as clergy typically where a black cassock or black priestly suit coat and pants. He has a parish on his parent's property; since he has been expelled from his community, this serves as his base of operations; however, he also travels…
Galea, M. (2011). Healing the healers: A profile of strengths and weaknesses of Catholic priests in Gozo, Malta. Pastoral Pscychology, 60: 857-868.