1000+ documents containing “developmental”.
Developmental Psychology and the Physical and Cognitive Development of Infants
The field of developmental psychology has made invaluable contributions in assessing the physical, cognitive, moral, social, and personality developments made by individuals. At the same time, developmental psychology might appear inadequate when applied to infants, who have not yet acquired a moral understanding of right and wrong or proper social behavior. Nevertheless, developmental psychology can nevertheless illuminate the physical and cognitive development of the infant child. Drawing from the professional theoretical perspectives of Kagan (2008) and Campos et al. (2008), this paper examines the particular ways in which principles and techniques of developmental psychology can be appropriately applied to infants between 3-12 months old.
One of the chief areas of focus when examining infants is the difference between motor development and motion development. Although there has historically been the tendency to conflate the two, the difference lies in that motion consists of….
Campos, J.J., et al. (2008). Rediscovering development in infancy. Child Development, 79(6), 1625-1632
Greenwood, C.R., et al. (2002). Developing a general outcome measure of growth in movement for infants and toddlers. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 22(3), 143-157
Developmental Theory, Critical-Conflict Theory and Ted Bundy
The ole of Behavioral Theory and Conflict & Critical Theory on Ted Bundy
There are many theories that can be analyzed in order to try and explain why crimes occur. Among these theories are development theory, conflict, and critical theories. These theories seek to explain behaviors that influence crime and criminal behaviors. While conflict and critical theories seek to explain why crimes occur based on an individual's role in society, developmental theory seeks to explain why crimes occur based on the development of an individual's persona. In the case of serial murder Ted Bundy, it can be argued that the application of developmental theory can explain his actions moreso than conflict and critical theories.
Conflict theory argues that "crime is a result of conflicting interests and values among members of a community; groups with less voice in a society are at risk for being treated as….
Arrigo. B. (2006). Criminal Behavior: A Systems Approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Bell, R. (n.d.). Ted Bundy. TruTV.com. Retrieved from, http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/notorious/bundy/index_1.html
Conflict Theory. (n.d.). Criminology: Understanding Criminology Theories. Retrieved from, http://www.criminology.com/resources/understanding-criminology-theories/
Rule, A. (2009). The Stranger Beside Me. New York: Pocket Books.
Developmental Behavior Analysis and Motor Development
Developmental Behavior Analysis
Motor development and developmental behavior analysis is an important behavior related concept and much of the profound work on this field has been done by John. B. Watson. Behaviorism which can also be termed as learning perspective is regarded as a philosophy of psychology. The main concept of behaviorism is that all actions that are shown by the organisms and the human beings are to be termed as behaviors. The second important fact argued by Watson's theory of Behaviorism is that all kinds of psychological disorders must be treated by making sure that the behavioral patterns are altered or the environments of the subjects are changed. One of the main facts that can be seen in these theories is that more stress has been given to the environment for better behavior development. Thereby environment can play more important roles in the development of….
Brucker, B. (1980). Biofeedback and rehabilitation. In L.P. Ince (Ed.) Behavioral Psychology in Rehabilitation Medicine: Clinical Applications (pp. 188 -- 217). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
Miller, N. & Brucker, B. (1981). A learned visceral response apparently independent of skeletal ones in patients paralyzed by spinal lesions. In D. Shapiro, J. Stoyva, J. Kamiya, T.X. Barber, N.E. Miller & G.E. Schwartz (Eds.). Biofeedback and behavioral medicine (pp. 355 -- 372). Hawthorne, NY: Aldine.
Savelsbergh, G.J.P. (2005). Discovery Of Motor Development: A Tribute To Esther Thelen. The Behavior Analyst Today 6 (4): 243 -- 249.
Schlinger, DH, and Poling, D.A. (1998). Introduction to scientific psychology, Applied clinical psychology. Springer.
Erickson's stages of psychological development as cited in Crain (2011) have garnered much scholarly discourse as they outline the many phases individuals go through as they mature from birth to old age. In Erickson's view, there are eight stages to development and his theory maintains that a person moves through these stages as a part of negotiating between the sociocultural and biological forces every individual must contend with (Allen & Marotz, 2003). According to Erickson, it is not necessary to master each stage before moving to the next one (Bee & Boyd, 2009). Following is an examination of an individual this writer selected. The stages of development will be discussed from birth to adolescent as it relates to the stages of psychosocial development.
Andre is the product of his parents Joseph and Lisa. They were married at the time of his conception. Joseph is 5'10 and approximately 180 at….
Allen, E., & Marotz, L. (2003). Developmental profiles pre-birth through twelve (4th ed.).
Albany, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.
Bee, H., & Boyd, D. (2009). The developing child (12th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Crain, W. (2011). Theories of development: concepts and applications (6th edition). Upper Saddle river, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
These activities are co-dependent on each other, and ultimately lead to school problems -- in effect creating also a challenge for the educator. Using the DA framework, these high-risk behaviors can be alleviated by developing an action plan that shall focus on harnessing the individual's social skills and personal development, through the external and internal assets, as well as increased thriving factors. Thriving behaviors can be any of the following interventions: school success (achieving high grades), valuing diversity (puts high value on interacting with people of different ethnic or racial background), leadership, and maintaining good health. Each of these interventions can help supplement recommended external and internal assets to be developed by the educator, parents/guardians or mentors, and young individuals.
In addressing and resolving high-risk behaviors such as violence, alcohol abuse and sexual activity, recommended assets to be developed are the following: (1) Support- most importantly, family support; (2) Constructive….
"40 Developmental Assets for Adolescents." (2010). Search Institute Official Website. Available at: http://www.search-institute.org/content/40-developmental-assets-adolescents-ages-12-18 .
"About us." (2010). Dallas YMCA Official Website. Available at: http://dallasymca.org/Index.cfm?FuseAction=Page&PageID=1002364
Scales, P. And E. Roehlkepartain. (2007). "Developmental assets: A framework for enriching service-learning." The National Service-Learning Clearinghouse Website. Available at: http://www.servicelearning.org/instant_info/fact_sheets/cb_facts/developmental_assets/
Other researchers have also found that when the foster care placement arrangements were long-term or permanent, the outcomes were not significantly injurious to the children so placed (Barth & Berry, 1987; Smokowski & Wodarski, 1996); nevertheless, a substantial percentage of children who experience foster care placement may already possess significant physical, psychological, and/or emotional injuries. In these cases, such children are much more likely to remain in the foster care system for longer periods of time than their uninjured counterparts and may ultimately be required to be placed in a residential living facility to address their complex needs (Smith & Fong).
A study by Massinga and Pecora (2004) found that in the United States, an increasing number of young people aged 10 years and above reside in and are emancipated from foster care placements each year. According to these authors, "Older children face many of the same challenges as younger….
Barth, R.P., & Berry, M. (1987). Outcomes of child welfare services under permanency planning. Social Services Review, 71-90 in Smith & Fong at 179.
Booth, a. & Crouter, a.C. (2001). Does it take a village? Community effects on children, adolescents and families. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Brown, W.K. & Rhodes, W.A. (1991). Why some children succeed despite the odds. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Hislop, F.H., Wulczyn, K.B. & Goerge, R.M. (2000). Foster care dynamics 1983-1998. A report from the multi-state foster care data archive. Chicago, IL: Chapin Hall Center for Children.
The development of an individual is the result of maturation of the nervous system and psychological reactions, which in turn is determined through genetics and environmental factors. The study of an individual and his environment is summarized under the biopsychosocial model. A better understanding of human psychological, cognitive and moral development is largely dedicated to the efforts of Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget, and Lawrence Kohlberg.
Brain and Nervous System Development
Neurologic development begins in the third week of intrauterine life, marked by the development of a neural plate on the ectodermal surface. In folding of this plate produces a neural tube, which is destined to be the future Central Nervous System, and a neural crest, which forms the peripheral nervous system. Neuroectodermal cells differentiate into neurons. The forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain are evident by the fifth week, during which, the dorsal and ventral horns of the spinal cord have also begun….
Modification is done then with simple facial and sound changes.
Preoperational: (begins about the time the child starts to talk to about age 7)
In the Preoperational stage (again preconventional) the child is learning the symbolism and processes used for language development and accepting the existence of things which cannot be seen but can be remembered. He or she still does not completely grasp time and often thinks a bout how he or she would like things to be (the idea to make something conventional) and needs to have an active role in learning and application of his or her desires or conceptions.
Concrete: (about first grade to early adolescence)
During the concrete stage the idea of something is very literal, rather than based on ideals and/or fantasies and the individual experiences excessive need for boundaries order and rule following (conventional). He or she has not yet accepted the idea that his or….
Horowitz, Frances Degen. Exploring Developmental Theories: Toward a Structural/Behavioral Model of Development. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1987.
Scotton, Bruce W., Allan B. Chinen, and John R. Battista, eds. Textbook of Transpersonal Psychiatry and Psychology. New York: Basic Books, 1996.
Teaching should change as students develop, whether it be typical or a-typical development. For example, when beginning a preschool year, a teacher might focus on gross motor control, and provide a great number of opportunities to use the body, and move, including dancing and rhythm exercises. The teacher might pair this with activities designed to build basic vocabulary (Gonzalez-Mena & Eyer, 2009). These activities might give way to those focused on fine motor control, such as stringing beads, and problem solving at a more detailed level, such as constructing puzzles or answering riddles (Gonzalez-Mena & Eyer, 2009). By using the same portions at different points, or by repeating certain portions, the teacher can tailor the curriculum to any student, typical or developmentally delayed.
An effective preschool curriculum requires a variety of components. First, children tend to learn better in environments that are adult-led, but child-centered, so while the teacher should demonstrate….
Gonzalez-Mena, J, Eyer, D. (2009) Infants, Toddlers and Caregivers. Boston: McGraw Hill
Sylvaa, K., Taggart, B., Siraj-Blatchford, I., Totsikac, V., Ereky-Stevens, K., Gildena R., Bell,
D., (2007). Curricular Quality and Day-to-Day Learning Activities in Preschool.
International Journal of Early Years Education 15(1). 49-65.
Fortunately, the school authorities also schedule dormant periods, called classes, during which students can rest their minds and take a break. . .[They] correctly understand . . . that socialization is the most. . .morally important thing they will do in high school" (Brooks 2001:74-75, cited in lecture notes). Socialization requires adaptability and flexibility, which temperamentally-sensitive individuals lack and can make them more vulnerable to the stressors that all adolescents endure. Perhaps equally significantly, high-reactive adolescents recognized their challenges and rated themselves as more dour and serious than their peers who rated themselves as high on optimism. The biological tendency, once socially reinforced, became a kind of self-fulfilling prophesy for the high-reactive teens (Kagan 2010: 38).
Biological propensities to stress can be measured in both qualitative and quantitative ways. Quantitatively, brain scans subjects can demonstrate whether the regions of the brain associated with anxiety such as the amygdala, fire up….
Interestingly, in social skills assessment research, a separate empathy factor of skills emerged through multivariate analysis on the adolescent version of the Walker-McConnell Scale of Social Competence and School Adjustment. This factor was not identified on the elementary-age version of the same scale, a finding that corroborates the notion that the advanced cognitive and affective skills needed for empathy do not tend to emerge until adolescence. The advanced language development that occurs by friendships seems to become more autonomous during this period, although increasing interdependence relating to psychological support tends to occur simultaneously. Adolescent friendships are typified by the process of self-exploration and self-definition. According to Gottman, adolescents use friendships to explore who they are, what they believe, and what they will become through complex verbal interactions in a supportive environment. Thus, the adolescent quest for personal identity seems to take place in the context of adolescent friendship patterns.
Kayla Huggins is 17 years old. Kayla's parents are James and Christine Huggins. An only child, Kayla provides a rich example of how one individual progresses through the various stages of psychosocial development. Her life highlights some of the key concepts of developmental psychology.
Kayla's prenatal development was uneventful, as her parents were both healthy. Her early and middle childhood periods were characterized by a loving home environment and an active engagement with school activities, especially athletics. Currently, Kayla is a senior in high school..
Kayla's parents can both be described as introverts. This creates an interesting home dynamic because Kayla is an extrovert. Moreover, the Huggins family is strongly influenced by the military. Kayla's mother worked as a GS civilian worker on a military base. Kayla's father is a soldier in active duty. Kayla went to DOD schools on the military base up until middle school. Now Kayla goes to….
"Characteristics of Adolescent Thinking." Retrieved online: http://siobhancurious.wordpress.com/2007/09/02/characteristics-of-adolescent-thinking/
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Preoperational stage of cognitive development. About.com. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/piagetstheory/p/preoperational.htm
Harder, A.F. (2009). Erik Erikson's stages of development. Learning Place Online. Retrieved online: http://www.learningplaceonline.com/stages/organize/Erikson.htm
"Identity Status Theory." Retrieved online: http://www.learning-theories.com/identity-status-theory-marcia.html
These concerns about adult behaviors and perceptions are a fairly recent emergence, as is predicted for children in the first grade (Snowman & Biehler 2004). The fact that the Barbies converse with each other is also standard for my daughter's age-range, which is in the established peak of talking to oneself people who allow pet owners to mistreat their pets (Snowman & Biehler 2004). Overall, my daughter's behaviors during her undirected solitary play were fairly standard for her age group, and clearly demonstrated many of the principles and developmental stages that have been identified in the text.
Her performance on Piaget's conservation model assessment also upheld the text, in its criticism of Piaget as having underestimated the abilities of children (Snowman & Biehler 2004). Her immediate assessment of the water's consistent volume (which was, of course, correct) suggest that she is in the operational stage with more solid footing than Piaget….
If a parent approaches child rearing with the idea of Nativism in their mind, they might not bother to expose their children to many things early on. That is because Nativists believe a child is already hardwired with abilities, so, if the child ends up being good at music, it is because the child was born good at music, not because the child was exposed to music as a baby or beyond. This will apply to many things in the infant's life. For example, there is no reason for early education as their intelligience is pre-determined. No need for swimming lessons as their athletic ability is pre-determined.
Raising the child with the idea of another theory in mind might alter the way the parent raises the infant. If a parent believes in the scaffolding theory, that parent might work toward creating an environment that supports the child's learning of the….
Body Image, Body Health, and Pathology
Eating disorders and anorexia are becoming more commonplace today, and this is true particularly of young women, although older people and men sometimes also suffer from them. It is important to look at this issue as it relates to body image and how one feels about one's body, but also important to see it in the light of the way that one trust's oneself and others, and the hope for the future that is sometimes absent from the lives of these individuals. Such problems as depression can often play a large role in whether someone has problems with body image and eating disorders.
The National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA, 2002) states that eating disorders' incidences have doubled within the past 20 years, and the average age range for an eating disorder is from 10-25 years old, with two peaks around 13-14 and 18-19 years old.….
American Psychiatric Association. (1996). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association (APA).
Bohen, S. (October, 2001). Psychiatric emergencies. Eau Claire, WI: Pesi Healthcare, LLC.
Corey, G. (1996). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (5th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
Feindler, E.L. & Ecton, R.B. (1986). Adolescent anger control: Cognitive-behavior therapy. New York: Pergamon Books, Inc.
Developmental Psychology and the Physical and Cognitive Development of Infants The field of developmental psychology has made invaluable contributions in assessing the physical, cognitive, moral, social, and personality developments made…Read Full Paper ❯
Developmental Theory, Critical-Conflict Theory and Ted Bundy The ole of Behavioral Theory and Conflict & Critical Theory on Ted Bundy There are many theories that can be analyzed in order to…Read Full Paper ❯
Developmental Behavior Analysis and Motor Development Developmental Behavior Analysis Motor development and developmental behavior analysis is an important behavior related concept and much of the profound work on this field has…Read Full Paper ❯
Developmental Psychology Erickson's stages of psychological development as cited in Crain (2011) have garnered much scholarly discourse as they outline the many phases individuals go through as they mature from…Read Full Paper ❯
These activities are co-dependent on each other, and ultimately lead to school problems -- in effect creating also a challenge for the educator. Using the DA framework, these…Read Full Paper ❯
Other researchers have also found that when the foster care placement arrangements were long-term or permanent, the outcomes were not significantly injurious to the children so placed (Barth…Read Full Paper ❯
Developmental Timeline The development of an individual is the result of maturation of the nervous system and psychological reactions, which in turn is determined through genetics and environmental factors. The…Read Full Paper ❯
Modification is done then with simple facial and sound changes. Preoperational: (begins about the time the child starts to talk to about age 7) In the Preoperational stage (again preconventional)…Read Full Paper ❯
Teaching should change as students develop, whether it be typical or a-typical development. For example, when beginning a preschool year, a teacher might focus on gross motor control, and…Read Full Paper ❯
Fortunately, the school authorities also schedule dormant periods, called classes, during which students can rest their minds and take a break. . .[They] correctly understand . . .…Read Full Paper ❯
Interestingly, in social skills assessment research, a separate empathy factor of skills emerged through multivariate analysis on the adolescent version of the Walker-McConnell Scale of Social Competence and…Read Full Paper ❯
Developmental Psych Kayla Huggins is 17 years old. Kayla's parents are James and Christine Huggins. An only child, Kayla provides a rich example of how one individual progresses through the…Read Full Paper ❯
These concerns about adult behaviors and perceptions are a fairly recent emergence, as is predicted for children in the first grade (Snowman & Biehler 2004). The fact that the…Read Full Paper ❯
Developmental Psychology If a parent approaches child rearing with the idea of Nativism in their mind, they might not bother to expose their children to many things early on. That…Read Full Paper ❯
Developmental Psychology Body Image, Body Health, and Pathology Eating disorders and anorexia are becoming more commonplace today, and this is true particularly of young women, although older people and men sometimes…Read Full Paper ❯