Family Independence Across Cultures Independence Term Paper

Excerpt from Term Paper :

Once the children are of age, the parents' duty to take care of them reduces as the child takes charge to start a new life somewhere else. The parent usually has saved enough money through life insurance scheme and retirement savings to cater for himself after retirement. When the child is grown, there is no dependence between the parents and children. Traits like hard work and honesty are encouraged towards children to ensure their survival in different societies when he grows up. In some cases when the parent is too weak and old to look after himself, he is taken to a home for the elderly since none of his children is available to take care of him (Stewart et al. 580).

The other model of family model is the model of psychological or emotional interdependence. In this model, the children are of less material help to the family. Parenting, therefore, is therefore, based on the psychological interdependence on the child and parent. Unlike the other two forms where the child had autonomy, in this model there is no autonomy for the child. The child is, therefore, supposed to show self-discipline. The parents train their on how to do various tasks for themselves without the help of the parent. In this model, the child does not have to contribute materially to the family and, therefore, discipline is no longer emphasized. The child enjoys various freedoms from his early childhood. With these freedoms, the child learns a lot form the experiences he is exposed (Jose et al. 679). The outcome of this rearing is adults who are financially capable of taking good care of them. However in cases where discipline is totally neglected the children tend to be involved in criminal activities. Therefore, in this model the parent has to keen to ensure there is a balance between the child's freedom and discipline the child shows. These children should also be taught various skills that will enable them to be responsible adults.

Just like the dependence model, little is needed from children to the parent at old age. The parent is supposed to have gathered enough material wealth for his retirement. However, because of the close emotional attachment with the children as they were growing up the psychological dependence between the parent and children is vivid. The parent maintains a significant control of the child's emotional being. This model of parenting the child has all the control a parent needs over the child since the former needs no material gain from the child. The parents are, therefore, encouraged to use this authority in ensuring that the children are disciplined.


One evident, common factor with this excerpt is that an individual has to grow independently in all cultures. The factors determining the individual difference are mainly based on the culture where this individual is growing. However, with the continuous development and urbanization around the globe, these cultures are continuously evolving. They grow alike to each other as the days go. There is a possibility that in the near future, we will have a universal culture around the world. Most communities are likely to adopt the individualistic culture. The women are likely to have their rights and, therefore, be considered equal to men in the society. Child rearing will mainly be based on the psychological model.

Works Cited

Chou, K.L. Emotional autonomy and depression among Chinese adolescents. Journal of Genetic Psychology, pp 161-169, 2000.

Jose, P.E., Huntsinger, C.S., Huntsinger, P.R. & Liaw, F-R. Parental values and practices relevant to young children's social development in Taiwan and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, pp 677-702, 2000.

Misra, G., & Agarwal, R. The meaning of achievement: Implications for a cross-cultural theory of achievement motivation, from a different perspective: Studies of behavior across cultures, Lisse: Swets and Zeitlinger, pp 250-266. 1985.

Phalet, K. & Schonpflug, U. Intergenerational transmission of collectivism and achievement values in two acculturation contexts: the case of Turkish families in Germany and Turkish and Moroccan families in the Netherlands. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol 32, pp 186-201, 2001.

Saal, C.DAlternative forms of living and housing. Alternative patterns of family life in modern societies. Rome: Collana Monografie, 1987.

Stewart, S.M., Bond, M.H., Deeds, O. & Chung, S.F. Intergenerational patterns of values and autonomy expectations in cultures of relatedness and…

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