EXAMINATION OF CULTUAL DIFFEENCES AND THEI AFFECT ON WOMEN'S OLES FO KOEAN AND JAPANESE FEMALE STUDENTS
The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which females roles are influenced by their cultural background. Particularly this study will focus on close examination of how Korean and Japanese cultural influences affect a women's career aspirations and expectation for success in society. The study will be broken down into two sections; the first portion will consist of primarily an observational review of the Literature available regarding female roles in Japan and Korea. An analysis of the two cultures will be executed. The second half of the study will entail a field study of American students with Korean and Japanese cultural backgrounds, in an attempt to ascertain to what extent female student roles are influenced by the models of their parents, the majority of whom were raised in Japan…… [Read More]
To help gain a better understanding of how these cultural differences can affect business negotiations and transnational operations, a comparison of South Korea's national culture with that of the United States is provided in Figure 1 below.
Figure 1. Comparison of U.S. And South Korean Cultural Dimensions
Power Distance Index
Uncertainty Avoidance Index
Source: Hofstede, 2010
As can be readily discerned from Figure 1 above, South Korea and the U.S. have several night-and-day differences in their cultural dimensions, particularly individualism and long-term orientation. Cultures such as South Korea's that have high levels of long-term orientation are characterized by patience, perseverance, respect for elders and ancestors, as well as a sense of obedience and duty toward the larger good (Newman & Nollen, 1999). The long-term orientation cultural dimension consists of the values of persistence, ordering of relationships by status and observing…… [Read More]
Korean History: The Climate and Culture of Foreign Business
The challenge of any cultural history undertaken to determine the foreign business fitness of a location is to make sure that there is due respect afforded the society with regard to issues that might not be seen as directly affecting the bottom line. So much of the time in the business world we are collectively focused on the ideas that surround the continued development of the global world economy, without regard for the existence of prior national issues. An easily made mistake for a researcher addressing issues of Korea from the United States would be to distill Korean history into a form that only include the interests of this country after the Korean-American ar.
This account will attempt to address those issues by addressing the culture through its earliest history to its present state through modern demographics, religion, education, housing, leisure…… [Read More]
"... Shamanism suffered severe insults. These have continued until today, repeatedly masking and hiding a real identity." (Chang-Soo, K.)
The Chusuk festival represents many aspects of Korean culture. It serves a social and a community function and is part of the heritage and traditions of the culture. In order to understand the significance and importance of the festival one has to understand the background of Shamanism. The essential purpose of the festival still remains embedded in the ancient culture of Shamanism and its central function is to ensure, though respect and worship, the success of the next harvest. "Koreans believe that if you take care of your ancestors, your ancestors will take care of you. In traditional agricultural society, the harvest was the most important event of the year, and it was vital to make sure it was a success." (Liminality. 2004)
Chang-Soo, K. Korean Traditions:Major holiday draws…… [Read More]
academic and popular discourse on East Asia, Korea has a long, strong, and unique history. The culture of Korea has evolved over the last several millennia to become one of the world's most distinctive, homogenous, and intact. Being surrounded by large and ambitious neighbors has caused Korea to have a troubled history, evident in the most recent generations with the division between North and South. The division between North and South Korea is the first time the peninsula has been divided since its initial unification in the mid-7th century CE. Until the Korean War, the people of Korea have been bound together by common language, customs, and political culture. No significant minority culture or linguistic group has made Korea its home, and although Korea has been invaded and encroached upon by others, it has also never been an expansionist or imperialistic culture either.
The Korean peninsula has been inhabited since…… [Read More]
Korean Financial Crisis in the Late 1990s: Lesson for Current Euro Area
The objective of this study is to examine what is unique or different about the Korean financial crisis as compared to other Asian financial crises and to determine the primary causes of the financial crisis in Korea. This work will further examine the government response to the crisis and what it is that can be learned from the Korean financial crisis and applied in Korea to the Euro Area.
The major components of the Korean financial system in the 1960s and 1970s are stated in reports to have been nationalized with "lending targeted toward favored sectors and firms including the exports and heavy industries. (Jeon and Miller, 2005) Regional banks came on in 1967 and could only operate in their own provinces, which provided encouragement for development that was regionally-based. In the early 1980s, plans were made for…… [Read More]
On page 138 Halberstam explains that the initial American units "…thrown into battle were poorly armed, in terrible shape physically, and, more often than not, poorly led" (Halberstam, 2007, 138). The U.S. was trying to get by "…on the cheap," Halberstam explains, and it Korea "it showed immediately"; Truman wanted to keep taxes low, he wanted to try and pay off the debt from the enormous expenditures in II, and as was referenced earlier, Truman really wanted to keep military expenditures down.
But what that austerity program meant was that the first troops that were being trained at Fort Lewis (prior to their orders to fight in Korea) were asked to "…use only two sheets of toilet paper each time they visited the latrine" (Halberstam, 138). Moreover, the lackluster performance by the initial troops sent into harm's way in Korea was reported back in the states and caused serious concerns.…… [Read More]
ut in the 30s, most waves of Korean migrants came in because of the policy of forced conscription. Japan's economy rapidly improved at the time and there was a huge demand for labor. This and industrialization led to the creation of a Japanese national mobilization plan. This plan, in turn, led to the conscription of roughly 600,000 Koreans. Japan's military forces continued to expand and the government had to regular the increase in the Korean population. They were required to carry an identification card. In 1942, the government promised them equal citizenship if they extended their work contracts. They became eligible to vote, run for public office and serve in election committees. Conscription was implemented in the same year. Despite official political equality, Korean inferiority remained prevalent. Yet they were expected to observe and practice Japanese culture as a condition to political equality (Minorities at Risk).
With the defeat of…… [Read More]
My father's parents first operated a Laundromat, then a small general store. My father is now a civil engineer.
School was always a priority in my household. I did not have to work in a family business like my parents, but it was always expected that I would get high marks and devote my attention to keeping at the top of my class and pursuing extracurricular activities that were valuable and enriching, including soccer and music. However, this did not mean there I had no fun as a child. I have many happy memories of my family watching my sports games and concerts and preparing traditional foods with my grandmothers.
Sometimes the pressure I felt was quite intense. My parents had succeeded against all the odds and were determined that I would succeed as well. However, I felt that I needed to pursue a different path. ather than going to…… [Read More]
"April 29, 1992 in South Central Los Angeles, California… African-American customers revolted violently against Korean-American merchants….Of the $850 million in estimated property damage, Korean-Americans sustained 47% or $400 million of that damage, and of the 3,100 businesses destroyed, approximately 2,500 of them were owned by Korean-Americans" (Korean-American History,2010, Curriculum Guide: Unit 1).
Affirmative action: A form of reverse discrimination against Asians?
A final point of contention between Korean-Americans and other minority groups is how 'more' successful minorities should be counted in terms of privileging historically discriminated-against groups in jobs and college admissions. A problem with discussing affirmative action for Asians is that it tends to characterize all Asian-Americans in the same manner. However, a refugee from Cambodia may experience economic, cultural and linguistic challenges in assimilating that another Asian-American might not, if he or she lived in the United States since birth and/or comes from a more affluent background.
A…… [Read More]
Lee Mun-Yeol, Voice of Korea in the Literary Age of Transition.
A thematic approach to a study of two of his stories: "The Old Hatter" and "An Appointment with his rother." student of literature who finds interest in fiction's historical settings gets inveigled into the stark realities of war and conquest, its horrifying and insidious effects on the lives of innocent people caught helplessly in its clutches - the pain, the hunger, the loss of lives of loved ones.
The reader gets the autobiographical drift of Lee's two stories - he was there when all those things he writes about happened. In "An appointment with his rother," as the oldest son by his father's first family, he knew what it was to be abandoned by his father and to be cared for and brought up by a youthful mother.
Yet there is no bitterness in the tone of…… [Read More]
The cultural practices are evolved and based on the financial, social and moral understanding and capabilities of the local population, and it has been observed that Americans, Asians and Africans share extremely different perspectives and understanding on these issues, therefore the cultural adoption has been intense in countries where the technological revolution has been of the same intensity as in North America (Zelli, 1993). In some of the cases, the Americans companies has attempted to nullify the concerns and shortcomings of the American culture, by incorporating the cultural values of the local region, and has therefore evolve a different taste for the customers to avail, this has further delighted and fascinated the local population of different regions towards the American culture, for example the American culture has major differences with the Islamic culture adopted in Arab countries, therefore to compensate for such difference the American companies introduced the concept of…… [Read More]
Once the children are of age, the parents' duty to take care of them reduces as the child takes charge to start a new life somewhere else. The parent usually has saved enough money through life insurance scheme and retirement savings to cater for himself after retirement. hen the child is grown, there is no dependence between the parents and children. Traits like hard work and honesty are encouraged towards children to ensure their survival in different societies when he grows up. In some cases when the parent is too weak and old to look after himself, he is taken to a home for the elderly since none of his children is available to take care of him (Stewart et al. 580).
The other model of family model is the model of psychological or emotional interdependence. In this model, the children are of less material help to the family. Parenting,…… [Read More]
Asian cultures, in general, are more steeped in tradition than American culture. Even though the word "American" refers broadly to all persons of various ethnic backgrounds who live in the United States, there are some general but significant differences between Asian and American culture. A lot of these differences are sociological, like the role of family. I find it interesting how different family values are in America from my native Korea. Korean culture is also more unified than American culture, because there is less diversity there. For the most part, Korean families are tightly knit and parents tend to be quite strict. Many American families are also arranged this way, but it seems that most American families I know are more disjointed and children are not disciplined as much as in Korea. Even though I now live in America, my role within my family has not changed; I am still…… [Read More]
Confucianism promotes the "ideal of the scholar, who cultivates virtue in oneself and shares it through service in government, teaching, and daily life," Canda explains on page 1. The pure idea of Confucianism is to benefit all the citizens and those benefits have a ripple effect starting with the individual, through the family, and out to the Korean society and then the world (Canda, p. 1).
Confucianism has had an influence on many spiritual and physical Asian-based traditions; for example, Confucianism had a big influence on the development of martial arts, acupuncture, and meditation, according to Canda.
Shamanism: There are about 300 shamanistic temples within an hour of the capital of Seoul, according to an article in the New York Times (Sang-Hun, 2007, p. 1). The article points out that shamanism is presently enjoying a renaissance after "centuries of ridicule and persecution"; indeed, shamans were "demonized by Christian missionaries and…… [Read More]
This means that the Korean model is difficult to implement in countries where performance and advancement are so interconnected.
2. The main theme of the analyzed article is the difference between an individualistic approach towards reward allocation and a team-based one.
The theme of the article relates to the article on "Reward Allocation and Culture: A Meta-Analysis," whose theme is reward allocation, in particular the way the reward allocation behavior varies across different cultures. Based on an ample theoretical research, the article initially presents the way that theory on this subject has developed during the last decade and moves. As such, the premise of reward allocation has gradually shifted from reward allocated based on equity and equality to reward being allocated in a framework that factors in more and more additional issues such as social skills or tenure. The degree to which some of these factors are considered varies from…… [Read More]
Families are often conflicted about the degree to which they should socialize the child in the culture of their homeland, particularly if they are not of that child's origin. This conflict is often seen in adoptions of Korean children. Eleana Kim has argued that such attempts by parents are often futile, and simply confuse the child with static, folkloric representations of the home nation that bear little resemblance to Korea when the child actually pays a visit. However, Kim does not dismiss the value of trying to return to Korea, so long as it is not an act of false nostalgia. Instead, "adoptees who may have returned to Korea with fantasies of national or familial reintegration discover an adoptee expatriate community that supplements or even replaces other, essentialized or biologically-defined forms of relatedness" (Kim 497). The new connections with adoptees that have similar experiences become the most authentic forms of…… [Read More]
culture affects the way students learn mathematics, and how different cultures learn differently. Students in Korea and Japan learn differently than students in the United States for a number of reasons. Statistically, Asian students seem to do better at mathematics than American children do, and they way they learn their mathematics at an early age may be on reason this is so.
Identification and Investigation
US students often show lower test scores in understanding mathematics, while Asian students consistently score higher. There are many reasons for this, from different cultures to different methods of instruction. For example, one researcher found that Japanese children think of numbers differently, and see their relationships in depth. She writes, "She discovered part of the reason was the way they named their numbers. Following ten, they say, "ten 1, ten 2, ten 3" for 11, 12, 13, and say "2-ten, 2-ten 1, 2-ten 2" for…… [Read More]
ith time, Tango dancing had been recognized officially world wide, and people have even turned it into an art. Tango dancing is presumed to be one of the easiest dances in the world, but it would take a professional to really Tango.
The Indians are known for their extreme spirituality and the Indian traditional dance is full of it. Indians have taken the art of dancing to a whole new level by having associated it with meditation with the intention of sending a message through the dance to the spectators. The early Indian dancers had a strong bond with the church. Later on, the dancers would be seen dancing in order to bring to life the stories told by singers.
According to David Courtney, "Today the acknowledged classical styles are:
Bharatnatyam of Tamil Nadu,
Kathakali of Kerala,
Kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh,
Manipuri of Northeast India,
Orissi from Orissa, and Kathak…… [Read More]
Nationalism as a Construct
Emotional attachment and loyalty to one's nation are concepts that are strongly related o the respective individual's comfort zone. Both South Korea and North Korea are the product of centuries of individuals coming together and sharing their passions, their interpretation of the world, and generally creating an environment that they identified with. Henry H. EM makes it possible for his readers to gain a more complex understanding of the factors that encouraged these people to get actively involved in wanting to promote their cultural values.
Even from the time when Koreans were accustomed to answering to an aristocratic form of government, there were songs meant to have them identify with their culture and to be proud of it. The fact that Koreans shared cultural values during the Koryo period meant that they began to think of themselves as a united community and that they started to…… [Read More]
Renaissance of Korean National Cinema' as a Terrain of Negotiation and Contention between the Global and the Local: Analyzing two Korean Blockbusters, Shiri (1999) and JSA (2000)" by Sung Kyung Kim
This article analyzes the state of nationalistic cinema in Korea as it borrows film trends from Hollywood in order to carve out a better foothold among Korean audiences, who have a taste for Hollywood fare but still want to see local sentiment expressed on screen. Thus the two blockbusters Shiri and JSA look Hollywood but feel Korean. This means that the films are working on several levels to affect Korean audiences and are being labeled as part of a Renaissance in Korean filmmaking.
Kim looks at the way nationalistic sentiment plays a part in Korean cinema by serving as an underlying guide in the overall movement and sense of the story and its moral. Animosity towards the West after…… [Read More]
culture on communication. Then explain two ways misunderstandings might occur among cultures with different communication styles. Finally, propose two solutions to enhance cross-cultural communication.
ommunication: The influence of culture on communication
Although the urge to communicate using a common language may seem to be a universal impulse, the ways in which communication takes place is highly dependent upon an individual's cultural context. For example, within an Asian cultural context, the level of hierarchy, social distance, and expectation of obedience is different between parents and children than in a Westernized cultural context. This can often cause conflict for Asian adolescents reared in the United States who are still 'acculturated' to Asian norms by first-generation parents at home (Rhee, hang & Rhee 2003: 750). While the relationship of a child to a parent exists in all cultures, the expectations attached to that relationship are far from universal in nature and scope. Acculturation…… [Read More]
Asia Society Korean ceramics exhibit
Korean ceramics are not as famous as their Chinese counterparts. However, after viewing the Asia Society Korean ceramics exhibit, I was forced to ask 'why is this not the case?' Many of the works were so striking and unique, I was curious as to why they were not better known. I am eager to try out some of the designs in my own ceramic creations. On the surface, the works looked deceptively simple, yet I was drawn in by the intricacy of the design and craftsmanship. A good example of this was a white-and-blue vase depicting a 'kingfisher' bird. The bird was elegant in its design, made with threads of blue paint to suggest delicacy and flight. The underglaze of the work gave the painted bird a kind of suspension on the white surface. Everything about the vase suggested being airborne even though…… [Read More]
innovation is a group of steps and activities visualized for translating ideas into actual products / services / processes. The innovation process commences with identifying and defining the source problem (Sva?, 2012).The building blocks of an innovative culture are as follows:
These aforementioned building blocks are linked. For instance, the values of an enterprise affect the employee's behavior, workplace climate, and how success is perceived and quantified.
An innovative culture inherits ideas from research conducted by multiple authors. For promoting innovation, most enterprises generously invest time in resources, processes, and quantifying success. However, most companies have neglected to evaluate the more difficult to identify and/or measure factors of innovative culture with respect to people - including climate, behavior, and values.
To date, apparently, most companies have quantified innovative culture in terms of processes, management of resources, and measuring success of innovation rather than measuring building…… [Read More]
Korean Food Is Salutary
The key question this project will address pertains to the history of medicinal cuisine and dietary therapy and their benefits. The first is: What is Yao shan (?
, shi liao (?
and shi zhi (?
? Yao shan translates as "the food used as medicine by itself." Shi liao (?
or shi zhi (?
are the terms used to describe food therapy or nutritional therapy. These practices are designed with TCM diagnosis to develop, repair and balance the human body to prevent and treat diseases; they also assist in anti-aging and longevity. For several centuries, this tradition has been carried out as therapeutic food for the treatment of disease. It is historically popular in Far East cultures and the traditional cuisines are essentially modified in the individual homes of culinary preparers to treat large varieties of diseases. Since the ancient period, people have maintained a…… [Read More]
ith this dramatic increase in population and the racial unrest that resulted in the destruction of Korean businesses during the Los Angeles civil unrest, Korean-Americans have emerged as one of the visible ethnic groups in the country. However, aside from the Los Angeles riots, most Americans continue to define people of Korean ethnicity with a bevy of stereotypes - kimchee, churches and grocery stores.
For many Korean-Americans, however, being "Korean," "Korean-American" or "Asian-American" remains a fluid category, with constantly shifting meanings. Some locate the definitions in the places where they were born or where they grew up. Others define the categories by the way they look.
Still others, like the Park family, define being Korean through language.
This paper uses a series of interviews to evaluate the Park family's perceptions of their ethnicity. It compares and contrasts how Father Park and Mother Park's definitions differ from the experiences of…… [Read More]
HM and Culture
I have explored the case in the article regarding the experiences of Korean women. This paper has discussed how women are discriminated and established a workforce based on diversity. After going through the article about the plight of the Korean woman, I have been inspired to select the Korean woman working in a male dominated IT industry. This paper has explored HM approaches and practices as well as their alignment with the company's business strategy. It leads into a discussion about how Dell can benefit from promoting and hiring more women. This study further provides a recruitment plan for the corporation whose primary target is recruiting more women in the IT industry. Obstacles are inevitable in any plan: this study identifies the possible obstacles the corporation will probably face. In addition, the last study presents the recommended H strategies that can be employed by the corporation in…… [Read More]
Yeh-Shen: A Cinderella story from China (Louie, 1982); (Carr, 2012); (Snuggs, 2007).
Chinye: A West African folk tale (Onyefulu & Safarewicz, 1994); (Nigeriaworld, 2012); (Snuggs, 2007),
The Korean Cinderella (Climo, 1993); (Shapiro, 1993); (Snuggs, 2007).
Tattercoats: An old English tale (Webster Steel, 1976); (Advameg, 2012); (Snuggs, 2007).
The rough-face girl (Martin, 1992); (Native Languages of the Americas, 2011); (Snuggs, 2007).
Names of Cinderellas
"In the dim past," according to first publication in 850-860 AD
"Long ago," according to the book published in 1994.
"Long ago," according to the 1993 book.
"…there once dwelt"
"Once, long ago" according to the 1992 book.
"Treated roughly and not allowed to go to the springtime festival to choose her marriage partner."
"Chinye must run a dangerous errand through the forest…… [Read More]
Kimchi in an ancient Korean food made from a pungent mixture of fermented vegetables and its variations amount to 80 kinds of dishes of that period (aymond). For the season's summer and fall it is made in small quantities because the fermentation can go bad, but for winters it is made in large quantities so that it can be eaten for 3-4 months of the winter season. The Kimchi curing for the winter season is called "kimjang" and in usually done in the last days of November (aymond).
In the old times, kimchi was made of greens picked and salt or salt and alcohol mixture. By the end of Unified Shillan and start of Koryo era, pickled sliced radish in brine was made very popular (aymond). Soon after chili was introduced in Korea and it was added in the kimchi making as well. During the late Chosen era, powdered chili…… [Read More]
It upheld, rather than tore down, the existing order. The search for salvation could be seen to be connected to performance of one's duty here in the material world. Confucianism was indeed an important philosophy in the Tokugawa Period, but Japanese forms of Buddhism, together with native Shinto practice always remained central to the Japanese religious experience. As in Korea, Confucian ideals found support because of their emphasis on order. The military classes of the samurai and daimyo, especially, saw a strong linkage between Confucian practice and military ideals, many even criticizing Buddhist doctrines of rebirth as irrational, especially in regard to the idea of the punishment in hell of supposedly incorporeal bodies.
Japanese Neo-Confucianists even criticized Buddhism as an antisocial religion.
Confucianism was seen as supremely rational, while Buddhist doctrines were often questioned by those in authority.
On yet other levels, Chinese ideas were adapted to fit Korean and…… [Read More]
Quiet Odyssey: A Pioneer Korean Woman in America." y Mary Paik Lee, and "Coming of Age in Mississippi," by Anne Moody. Specifically, it will compare and contrast the hardships that Mary and Anne had to overcome. How were their struggles similar and different? These two women at first seem quite divergent from each other in experience and culture, but after reading these two books, it is clear these women have much in common, from their experience of prejudice and hate, to their ability to create meaningful lives for themselves while sharing their experiences with others. These are two women from different cultures and generations, who, if they had ever had the chance to meet, would probably have become fast friends.
TWO WOMEN'S EXPERIENCES
At first glance, Asian Mary Paik Lee and lack Anne Moody could not be more different. One was an Asian immigrant who came to the country in…… [Read More]
cultural characteristics chinesse korean heritage, assigned cultural groups, discuss factors considered provide a culturally competent environment care patients cultural groups. 2)Among cultural groups, traditional folk health healing practices, including persons native USA.
The Chinese are very different from the South Koreans when considering general attitudes promoted in these two cultures and the way that people think and behave.
A primary issue involving Chinese and Korean patients regards the way that they are likely to react to treatment. The former group is probable to employ more hostile behaviors and to be less willing to cooperate with doctors. In contrast, the latter group is typically supportive toward treatment strategies they are provided with.
Religion is also an important concept when considering Korean and Chinese patients. The fact that numerous individuals in South Korea are Buddhist means that they might see death as being perfectly normal. The same thing applies when considering Chinese…… [Read More]
If the individual's personality and cognitive processes gear him or her up to be rebellious, then he or she might become attracted to persons with different ethnic features. Other cognitive factors such as memory or ethnic and gender stereotypes may come into play when viewing arousing imagery. For instance, if a woman was once raped by a man with a mustache, she might respond negatively to a photo of a man in a mustache, even if the man is found alluring to other women. Likewise, a person who is prejudiced against African-American people might not find potentially arousing images of Blacks stimulating.
Finally, physical traits such as gender play a key role in the way people respond to images that are potentially arousing. Gender and sexual orientation affect one's view of physical beauty and attractiveness. A gay man will not find Angelina Jolie's photo to be sexually arousing, whereas a…… [Read More]
relationship of music and culture and history in Japan. The music of Japan is as rich and diverse as the culture of Japan's people, and it has a long place in Japan's history. Several different musical forms and instruments make up Japan's musical history, and it has ancient beginnings in the earliest history of Japan in many cases. While the Japanese have held on to their musical past, they are also not afraid to create new musical traditions, such as the karaoke fad that swept the world in the 1990s and beyond.
Ancient Japanese Music
Many scholars believe that Japanese music has its roots in the music of China, an ancient culture that dominated Asian culture from the earliest recorded history. However, studies indicate this is really not the case. Japanese music historian Egon Wellesz notes, "It might be expected that Japanese music would exhibit considerable Chinese influence; but it…… [Read More]
It was created in 1949.
It was first showcased in 1936 (Berlin).
Cannot find any record of this person…is this the most common spelling of the
It was standardized in 1958.
It was first created in 1958.
There are 5 sections.
This information is not readily available through any sources I've researched.
They were revised in 1990.
Unable to find this information.
It was Richard Nixon.
They were a Wushu (Martial Arts) Company
It was in 495 A.D.
Damo is the Chinese name of Bodhidharma, credited for bringing Ch'an to China.
It was released in 1982.
It was in 2005, in Beijing.
It was in 1974.
Anthony Chen is a silver medalist at the 4th World Traditional Wushu Championship.
Bai Yu-Feng, from his monk name Qiu Yue Chan Shi is a martial art expert who trained at the Shaolin Temple. He is the author of the…… [Read More]
political structure and philosophy of South Korea is a unique interplay of four major forces: first, and most obvious, the individual native customs and beliefs of the Korean people; second, Confusion notions and ideals; third, estern European and U.S. political models; and fourth, Marxist philosophy. The internal notions of governance have been greatly influenced by these three outside ideologies and come together to form the current South Korean form of government. To understand the modern South Korean government is to recognize it as a conglomeration of philosophies that appear on the surface to be contradictory, but arose out of several periods of economic and political strife.
The fifteenth century saw the rise of Neo-Confucianism in South Korea; this came out of a response to the established system of noble overlords. The new political movement sought to establish a government that addressed the issues of the citizenry rather than simply act…… [Read More]
Hats and Globalization
The hat stand in South Korea is visible in the picture "global" in a cultural sense because it is reflective of the cultural changes swirling all around the South Korean market. It sits, first of all, in front of a Western bakery shop -- a Dunkin' Donuts -- which is in and of itself an emblem of a foreign culture within the Asian culture of South Korea. The hat stand benefits from the sign hanging over the stand, like a cultural guardian angel, pointing to the hats to show how Western culture is available for sale to the South Koreans not just in the form of food but also in the form of attire. Secondly, the hats themselves are a Western fashion statement. They stand out as a cultural statement of globalism. As Hansen points out, in the era of globalization, "dress has been analyzed, by and…… [Read More]
values of the East and the West: My experience of being a stranger to the United States
I have never felt so challenged and different from my social environment than when I arrived at the United States to continue my studies from Korea. As an international student in the U.S., I faced the reality that I am about to interact and meet people who are not only physically different from me, but are also culturally different from them. Having grown up in a dominantly-collective Korean society, my values and attitude reflect Asian culture, wherein the individual puts high regard and consideration for his/her community than the self.
As a newcomer in the U.S., I realized that beyond my family and Korean community also established in the country, I cannot easily assume the behavior and attitude that I have always been comfortable and familiar with. Strangers rarely smile at you, and…… [Read More]
Workers are employed in fisheries, mining, and defense industries while the farmers work in the agricultural collectives. Standards of living are defined by the family background as to the political and ideological heritage. The children of revolutionaries (those who died in the Korean War) are given special educational opportunities at an elite school called the Mangyndae Revolutionary Institute. However, the children and descendants of those who were in collaboration with the Japanese or the "exploiting class" are considered to be 'bad elements' in the society.
North Korea supports equality in aspect of the genders. The employment of women is expected and demanded by the South Korean government and those working with children under the age of four are expected to put the children in permanent nurseries if there is no family to take care of them while the mother works. However, the women are paid less than are men and…… [Read More]
Hacker Culture and Mitigation in the International Systems
The explosion of the internet technology in the contemporary business and IT environments has assisted more than 300 million computer users to be connected through a maze of internet networks. Moreover, the network connectivity has facilitated the speed of communication among businesses and individuals. (Hampton, 2012). Despite the benefits associated with the internet and network technologies, the new technologies have opened the chance for hackers to attack the information systems of business organizations and collect sensitive information worth millions of dollars. Each year, businesses have been a victim of cyber-attacks in the United States. As an increasing number of people and businesses own internet-enabled devices, more businesses have become a victim of cyber-attacks, which has become a critical concern in the business and governmental environments. (Hacker news, n.d.).
The objective of this paper is to analyze the cyber incidents of the Sony…… [Read More]
MEDIA (MIS) EPSENTATIONS OF CHINESE-AmericanS
Media (Mis) epresentations of Chinese-Americans
Media (Mis) epresentations of Chinese-Americans
In the west, representations of people who are outside of the standard or norm, (white, middle & upper class, male) are not represented with accuracy. Chinese-Americans are one such group that doese not often receive an accurate or dynamically real representation of the spectrum of the culture or the people within it. Media representations in the west of Chinese-Americans are limited to a few stereotypes, generally. Some of those stereotypes include that all Chinese people practice and have mastered martial arts, and that all Chinese have exceptional intelligence in mathematics, sciences, and technology. Another media stereotype of the Chinese is that they are all short of stature, particularly poking fun at short men. Chinese men are often stereotypically represented as geeks or nerds -- exceptionally "book smart," but lacking in coolness and social skills.…… [Read More]
Multicultural Challenges and Opportunities Facing iordan Manufacturing: An Application of Theory
Globalization continues to be a buzzword for business today as it has been for the last several decades, and with good reason -- the pace at which the world is becoming ever more interconnected through business and economic ties has only increased as technology has continued to close the practical gaps between different peoples and regions of the world. A message that might have taken weeks or months to send around the globe a century and a half ago was steadily reduced to mere minutes through the growth of telegraph and then telephone systems; radio and then satellite technologies made communication even faster for those that had the resources to make use of such innovations. Now, with the Internet a ubiquitous feature in households throughout the developed world -- and increasingly in countries that are still developing…… [Read More]
Hip-Hop Culture, Its Origins and Its Culture
The hip-hop culture, according to Richardson, originated in the United States in response to the oppression of African-Americans. This art form is therefore deeply integrated with the social consciousness from which it arose. The art form created an outlet for creativity and repressed anger and other emotions resulting from the hardship of this particular culture. Therefore Richardson and several other critics criticize not only the commercialization of the art, but also globalization and its effects on the culture of hip-hop. oth commercialization and globalization, while proving a financial benefit to the music emerging from the hip-hop culture, nonetheless detracts some of the deeper culture and messages associated with the original art form. Indeed, when the struggle is removed from the art form, the unique culture from which it originated is lost, and the music changes accordingly. Thus globalization and increasing commercialization have combined…… [Read More]
The City Ethics poject povides extensive assistance to public-secto oganizations in the following aeas: kkeynote speeches on govenment ethics, employee taining at all levels, goup pesentations and wokshops designed fo specific oganizational needs, guidance in the development of compehensive ethics pogams on a state, city, o county level, eview of existing ethics pogams, dafting and impoving codes of ethics, ethical issue suveys, and guidance on the application of fedeal standads in ethics such as in connection with the Sabanes-Oxley Act and the Fedeal Sentencing Guidelines.
The Oganizational Change Management website seems to be a egisty fo businesses. Thee is no identifying infomation fo the oganization besides an email contact link fo inquiies into adding URLs to the website. On one hand, that suggests that the pupose of the ventue is to geneate fees fom websites and othe fo-pofit ventues with an online pesence. Natually, that aises…… [Read More]
The genetic factors were also excluded as having a major influence in the medical condition according to studies that showed that genetic factors that may influence the illness are overcome in proportion of 3:1 by environmental factors (uaranaccia, 1981, 11).
In her study, Laura onzales points out that Puerto Rican migrants are keeping in close contact with their relatives, friends and acquaintances from the islands, traveling back and forth, being engaged in what Christenson had defined as a "circulatory migration"(onzales, 2008, 2). The fact that the first language on the Puerto Rican Island is Spanish, English being widely taught in schools, but as a second language, made things harder for the older generations who migrated to the mainland. On the other hand, in a city like New York, one of the most targeted cities for the Puerto Rican migrators, Spanish is one of the languages "most commonly heard" after English,…… [Read More]
.....multinational organization determines to integrate its leaders. Which of the leaders will experience the greatest challenges to their power, influence, and authority: the Eastern leaders coming into Western offices or the Western leaders coming into Eastern offices? Why?
This question is problematic because it has several underlying assumptions that need to be addressed. First, there is no indication of where the multinational organization is based, which would impact its core organizational culture and vision. Second, the question assumes homogeneity among people considered "Eastern" and "Western." These are value-laden as well as outmoded binaries. Moreover, an Eastern person can be Indian or Chinese, or Korean, or any number of other Asian cultures with completely different attitudes and practices regarding power, influence, authority, and leadership styles.
For example, Indian leaders and American leaders both tend to be "hard drivers," but one is technically "Eastern" and one is "Western," according to this binary…… [Read More]
According to Stuart Hall, culture is about shared meanings; language is the medium through which meaning is produced and exchanged (Hall, 2003, p. 1). In linking language to identity and culture, Hall uses the word "culture" in an anthropological sense, meaning to distinguish groups of people, whether they belong to a community, nation or social group, by their shared values. The shared values are manifest in literature, art, music and philosophy of the culture. The shared values shape customs and the very fabric of human life, ultimately influencing everything people do. Some shared values are seen in different cultures, while there are a few groups, often in relatively isolated regions of the globe, that have unique values unto themselves, producing customs, practices and beliefs that seem strange to the rest of the world. As Hall puts it, saying that two people belong to the same culture is to…… [Read More]
estern Companies' Presence on the Asian Market
Cultural values play an important role in the way that businesses function in an environment. Even though they are particularly successful across the world, some companies have trouble pervading certain communities. It is thus essential for companies wanting to succeed in new markets to have a complex understanding of them. This way they become able to play an active role in these respective markets and avoid investing more resources than they are able to. Many western giants have attempted to expand to Asia, especially considering the large markets available there. Even with this, a great deal have discovered that their conventional attitudes are not enough to help them progress in Asian countries.
The expression "Google it" has become one of the most commonly-used sayings when considering people wanting to find out more about a particular something. However, it might not be met with…… [Read More]
Part of the prolem with this work is that Park has made it almost too astract. This exhiit which was also taken in the international arena loses the audiences once they are not fully Korean. This is ecause non-Koreans cannot appreciate the sutle aspects of the artwork ecause they are dealing with ojects and symols that unique to Korean culture. When the images of the video-art lose their meaning, Park's exhiit shows that there are many limitations to this medium. Specifically, that it is so astract in nature it only has relevance in the Korean setting. This is a prolem with the new video-art format, ecause it has ecome so astract that they cannot e translated across cultures. Park's work especially deviates from the traditional Korean symolism ut he still attempts to have a strong connection with Korean culture.
Park has continued to focus on his theme of the lending…… [Read More]
Nature of Organizations and the Contemporary Environment
Cultural norms play an important part in interpersonal relationships and mechanisms at work. Culture is the collective mental programming of an individual's mind, which distinguishes one person from another. Individuals have defined sets of beliefs and about the society: nature works and the standards of behavior derived from these values. This shows that culture greatly affects social norms and economic behaviors like the propensity to innovate or save and other economic decisions, including investment in education, willingness to contribute to the society, fertility choices, and charitable contributions. This study shows how one's environment and culture affect organizations and management approaches as seen in the case of Myers. The adoption of Hofstede's dimensions of culture to compare American and Korean assumptions about interpersonal management and relationships will be critical in this study. The study also offers recommendations that Myers could have made in her…… [Read More]
Significance of the Study
This study is significant because it sheds light on a very important contributor to local and international trade. Trade fairs have a long history in providing a meeting place for buyers and sellers. They are an important channel of communication for B2B buyers and sellers. This is a significant area for study because there are limited channels of communication between B2B buyers and sellers. The previous sections have diversified the importance of communication to trade. B2B buyers and sellers cannot use mass channels of communication such as television advertising or newspaper advertising. In this market usage of personal visits and demonstrations are the common channels of marketing and communication. The B2B selling and marketing activities are less highlighted in research than B2C activities. Therefore, this study is significant because it explores a very important channel of marketing and communication in the B2B market.
The study is…… [Read More]
Some of the reasons why Hyundai relocated to Alabama State of the U.S.A. include the failure that she suffered in Korea. With the influx of cheap imported cars and the violent nature of the labor unions in Korea, the company had started to suffer serious decline in profits; this necessitated the move to look for other alternatives of operation. This landed the company in the U.S. As the revolution of the manufacturing companies and industries in the country (Carmel & Tjia, 2005). This is the place that provided the utmost and best labor regulations for the company. Another significant factor is the state government's incentive package. The incentive was very attractive to Hyundai as they could abate tax if they relocated there. This was a massive boost to the process of adaptation and profit realization. Moreover, the company was offered a site for setting their operations and a good access…… [Read More]
Edited by Glenn D. Paige and Chung-Si Ahn, Nonkilling Korea is a collection of scholarly essays and material delivered at the Asia Center/Seoul National University and the Center for Global Nonkilling in Seoul during August 18-19, 2010. The material is written primarily about Korean values and culture, with the purpose of creating a shift in the discourse used to discuss modern Korean history. Whereas most Korean historiography focuses on war, and the political and militaristic aspects of 20th century conflicts surrounding Korea, the authors that contribute to Nonkilling Korea try to reframe history to include spiritual values and ethics. The book does not limit itself to a discussion of Korean history or culture per se, either. The editors cull material from sources that address other nations and cultures in relation to both South and North Korea, including the United States, China, Japan, and Russia. Nonkilling Korea includes an…… [Read More]
In this culture, filial piety in its ancient form is as restrictive as that in the Chinese culture. According to Kim Jun-hee, filial piety in this context takes the form of extreme restriction in the name of "proper behavior." For sons, proper behavior constitutes taking a wife and producing sons in order to perpetuate the family name. For daughters, this meant that their family obligations shifted upon marriage from the original home to the husband's family. As such, the woman was seen as a vessel for producing an heir, and little more. Much of a woman's honor was also inherent in her ability to bear healthy sons. o extreme was this directive in the past, that men were allowed to take a second or third wife, or even to adopt a male family member, for the purpose of perpetuating the family name.
While filial piety is still seen as extremely…… [Read More]
Constructive attitudes towards work, leisure, time and change, set apart organizational models of attainment and enthusiasm, individualism as well as realization of self, and being humanistic as well as helpful that result in constructive culture that urges communications with individuals and strategies to assignments which will allow the employees to fulfill satisfaction needs of a higher plane and would bring about changes. (Aarons; Sawitzky, 2006)
As opposed to this, defensive attitudes to work, leisure and time are typified by looking for support and unanimity, being traditional and compliant, and being reliable and submissive that result in defensive culture. Defensive cultures support or completely need communication with individuals in manners that will not endanger individual safety and will not lead to changes. (Aarons; Sawitzky, 2006) Further, family, social mobility and religion are especially more vibrant that show conventional model of ancestry following and notions of family structure, as also modifications ushered…… [Read More]
Gannon's series of arguments highlight the major variations in how the Japanese and Koreans perceive time, the role of masculinity in their cultures, the need for self-discipline or not to be aligned with nature (as the Japanese do) and the vastly different approaches to individualism and uncertainty avoidance.
The Japanese see time, and for that matter, their existence, as needing to be disciplined and aligned with natural elements. There is perfection in discipline that allows individuals to align with nature first and secondly with their group and societal norms. According to Gannon starting in the 7th century, Japanese political values stressed the need for group conformity over individualism, and those values continue today throughout the many cultural interactions that this nation has with global trading partners. Korean cultural values stress group consensus and much less of a focus on masculinity index as part of Hofstede, G. And Bond, M. (1988)…… [Read More]
Mary Paik Lee's Quiet Odyssey is the story of the silent struggles of many immigrant Americans, who have had to endure pain, poverty, and prejudice in order to form a sense of community and identity. Lee's book in particular comprises the memoirs of one first-generation Korean-American woman, whose country's struggle with independence and national identity mirrored her own. Reflecting on her eighty-five years of life, Lee notes, "I am free of cares and worry and am just trying to relax and enjoy what little time is left. I attend a church regularly where most of the members are black, because it is there I feel most comfortable," (130). Lee's encounter with cultures other than her own: from the dominant European cultures in America to other immigrant and minority groups underscore her triumphs retaining selfhood and cultural identity. Moreover, having moved from state to state and town to town…… [Read More]
American Cultural Products have an Impact on Other Cultures
About the American Culture
How the American Culture Affects Products Globally
Influences of Culture on One Another
American Culture in China
American Culture in Korea
Major American Cultural Values
Globalization has created a completely new way of life for billions of people. It has provided people with new technologies and alternative ways of consuming everything, from products to music and films to literature and even language. In other words, globalization has impacted entire cultures in various countries (Friedman, 2005). The trend has been aided by the creation of the ability to purchase life changing goods for consumers; providing many varieties of consumable items at reasonably low prices on an international market has spread different cultures.
Understanding the impact of globalization on the regional and national cultures requires the understanding of the process and the meaning of globalization. While the term…… [Read More]
Economic Development of China and Korea
China and Korea, not exactly highly developed countries, but carry a mystique about them that intrigues everyone in the United States. Two countries, on the verge of emerging into their full economic potential, is at the present time, attracting plenty of media attention. as their economic bankruptcy influenced by the attack on America? The purpose of this essay is to discuss and compare the differences and similarities of the two countries, including education, culture, religion, traditions, way of living and history, and emphasizing the economic development of these two fascinating countries.
Korea had its beginning, about two thousand years ago, when two nations were in a battle, creating a small independent population area, which we now know it today as the nation, Korea. Korea actually evolved spontaneously, with no planning or organization. Although Korea developed it's own identity and uniqueness, it is the envy…… [Read More]
Shamanism is a practice that is pervasive throughout many cultures. The Songs of Salanda and Other Stories of Sulu by H. Arlo Nimmo explored shamanism amongst the Bajau people of the Philippines. Life and Hard Times of a Korean Shaman: Of Tales and the Telling of Tales is a novel created by Laurel Kendall which explores shamanism in Korea. The purpose of this discussion is to provide anthropological commentary on Life and Hard Times of a Korean Shaman while also comparing and contrasting the book to The Songs of Salanda and Other Stories of Sulu. Let us begin the discussion with some background information on the book by Laurel Kendall.
Life and Hard Times of a Korean Shaman
Like Nimmo, Kendall is also an anthropologist. Kendall worked with Korean shamans throughout the 1970's and the book came about as a result of those experiences. Life and Hard Times of…… [Read More]