395 results for “Industrial Organizational Psychology”.
history of science has existed for many decades. This is considering that it is a well-established discipline of scholarly research. The scholarship of science initially concentrated on the physical and the biological sciences. However, it now includes both social and behavioral sciences. Some psychologists and scholarly researchers like George Sarton brought a call for a history of psychology. "Introduction to the History of science" is one of his articles in 1927 that represent the early work. The industrial and organizational psychology emphasizes on all areas of scientific discipline and the professional practice. Scientifically, the aim is to discover the phenomena, which influence behavior on the job and in the organization. Practically, the information obtained from empirical research can be applied in decision-making. This paper focuses on conducting a search for a case study in the industrial and the organizational fields. It gives a critical evaluation of various industrial and organizational…
Bisen, V. (2010). Industrial psychology. New Delhi: New Age International Ltd.
Koppes, L. (2007). Historical perspectives in industrial and organizational psychology. (Ed.) Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum
Landy, F. (1993). Early influences on the development of industrial/organizational psychology. Exploring Applied Psychology: Origins and Critical Analyses, 79-118. (EBSCOhost Accession Number: AN 2006-08238-003).
Munsterberg, H. (2009). Psychology and industrial efficiency. Auckland, N.Z.: Floating Press
workplace is anchored in the realm of the financial, we are inclined to use economic models to study it. However, while certainly economics and business in many ways make good partners, if we are interested in understanding how it is that businesses work on a day-to-day basis we must be at least as interested in understanding the social and psychological elements the obtain in the workplace as we are interested in economic models. The research described in this proposal outlines a strategy for obtaining a clearer understanding of the importance of the socio-psychological relationships among individuals in an organization and the reasons why some organizations foster both higher levels of worker satisfaction as well as higher levels of organizational commitment (while some must be content with one or the other and some with neither.)
Central to this research design is a reliance on a workplace social exchange network model. This…
" (Ivin, 2005)
The notion of utilizing sevant leadeship to enhance team wokgoups to pefom such as in the case study scenaio is a contempoay viewpoint with empiical evidence to show thee is effectiveness in implementing this fom of leadeship within the oganizational development famewok.
Poblem solving within the oganizational hieachy is often elegated to job specific activity to which one may o may not actual solve the poblem inheently active in thei domain. Often, poblem solving becomes a function of the goup think to which individual identities in the poblem solving pocess ae meged into a collective membane fo joint analysis. The use of motivational methods (Dubin, 2004) to incease the motivation to poblem solve has yielded meitocatic oganizations that focus on delivey of pefomance above all othe vaiables.
Additionally, the use of meta-communication (Dubin, 2004) evolves aound impoving oganizational communication such as teamwok communication and infomal netwok communication.…
references. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(09631798), 315-315-337. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/199345870?accountid=13044
Irving, J.A. (2005). Servant leadership and the effectiveness of teams. Regent University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/305356267?accountid=13044
Moliver, N. (2010). Psychological wellness, physical wellness, and subjective vitality in long-term yoginis over 45.Northcentral University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/506140189?accountid=13044
Petison, P. (2010). Intercultural communication and relationship marketing: A conceptual perspective. The Business Review, Cambridge, 16(2), 127-127-133. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/818338248?accountid=13044
Industrial/organizational psychology, or I-O psychology as it is abbreviated, has gone from being a little known branch of psychology to one that is studied and used by many. Although the concept and the idea of I-O psychology began in the early 1900s, it was not until after World War II that it gained prominence and attention from everyone in the psychology world (Aamond 2009). The idea behind the study of this branch of psychology was to analyze what it was that made people perform in their jobs. In a job market that influenced some to excel, but yet others did not produce results, this branch of psychology was used to understand what it was that caused these problems and how it was that someone could go about fixing them (Spector 2008). These factors were applied to all types of jobs, from factory and office jobs, to professional and military employment.…
Aamod, M.G. (2009). Industrial/organizational psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Spector, P.E. (2008). Industrial and organizational psychology: Research and practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Landy, F.J., & Conte, J.M. (2009) Work in the 21st century: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Industrial/organizational Psychology deals with the human component of organizations as well as clarifying primary motivational drives together with implications of people, socially, that work at the same place within a setting of an organization. Its research as well as the way it is being applied tries to put up characteristic human nature to be a way of efficiency and productivity in the process of facilitating environment which is conducive and safe as per their effect to the employee. All through I/Q psychology's rich history, it has applied statistical analysis and scientific researches in determining application of real-world in the work environment in trying to uphold efficiency in the process of offering an environment which is safe and is conducive to the satisfaction and well being of the employees.
Evolution of Industrial/Organizational Psychology
The genesis of I/Q psychology is from the early history of psychology in late 1800s at the time…
Kanfer, R. (2005). Self-Regulation Research in Work and I/O Psychology. Applied Psychology,
54(2), 186-191. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2005.00203.x
Kanfer, R. (2009). Work Motivation: Advancing Theory and Impact. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2(1), 118-127. doi: 10.1111/j.1754-9434.2008.01120.x
Spector, P.E. (2008). Industrial and organizational psychology. Research and practice (5th ed.).
In Hartlieb and Jones' study, a company's ethical practices in the workplace are projected onto its products/services, making the products "ethical," resulting to the concept of ethical labeling (583).
Further into the 'trend' of promoting ethical work practices in the company, companies are also promoting their corporate image and improving their relevance to their communities by developing corporate social responsibility (CS) programs. Secchi (2009) explored the 'cognitive side' of CSs, and argued that CS programs act as a "reinforcement mechanism…that, when exercised…works as a social tie between user (communities, recipients) and provider (companies)" (578).
These trends in industrial/organizational psychology are reflected in P&G's corporate practices, through its branding, corporate governance, and CS programs. P&G's corporate governance promotes ethical work behavior by allowing its employees to have a stake in the company -- that is, P&G employees are also its stakeholders. P&G's ethical corporate practices are reflected in its branding efforts,…
Hartlieb, S. And B. Jones. (2009). "Humanising business through ethical labelling: Progress and paradoxes in the UK." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 88.
Pastorizo, D., M. Arino, and J. Ricart. (2009). "Creating an Ethical Work Context: A pathway to generate social capital in the firm." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 88.
Secchi, D. (2009). "The cognitive side of social responsibility." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 88.
Procter & Gamble official website: www.pg.com.
job analysis is a vital part of any organization. It provides not only a clear description of what employees should be doing during their work hours, but also offers a clear guideline when hiring new employees and determining where the organization should be heading in its operations.
A job analysis has various goals, including the writing of a job description, selection of employees, performance evaluation, and training requirements. When the tasks of employees and the condition under which these tasks are performed are clearly analyzed and presented, it enables a company to identify problems and make improvements where necessary. It is also a means for a company to determine its needs and potential redundancies within the organization. Ultimately, job analyses helps a company to maintain the effectiveness of its workforce and its ability to maintain profitable operations.
Conducting a thorough job analysis entails a variety of steps, the first of…
Arnodt, M.G. (2013). Industrial/Organizational Psychology: An Applied Approach. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Industrial and Organizational Psychology shares much in common with several related fields, and there are multiple professional partnership opportunities. The field most closely linked to industrial and organizational psychology, and one that is important to my personal career development, is going to be human resources. As Cascio & Silbey (1979) point out, assessment centers have transformed the nature of human resources and the candidate selection process, helping organizations make more educated decisions about crafting the ideal organizational culture. Likewise, Murphy, Dzieweczynski & Yang (2009) show how the field of psychology, and organizational psychology in particular, has contributed to the evolution of assessment measures used at every stage of the human resources process from initial intakes and screening for candidates to ongoing assessments and evaluations. In this sense, human resources depend on organizational and industrial psychology.
The field of industrial and organizational psychology adds complexity to the human resources selection process,…
Cascio, W. & Silbey, V. (1979). Utility of the assessment center as a selection device. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64(2), 107-118. (EBSCOhost Accession
Number: AN 5112753).
Murphy, K., Dzieweczynski, J., & Yang, Z. (2009). Positive manifold limits the relevance of content-matching strategies for validating selection test batteries. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), 1018-1031. (EBSCOhost Accession Number: AN apl-94-4-1018).
Prins, S. (2006). The psychodynamic perspective in organizational research: Making sense of the dynamics of direction setting in emergent collaborative processes. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 79(3), 335-355. (EBSCOhost Accession Number: AN 22557999).
Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Individual Psychological Testing in the Workplace
Faced with an ever increasing competitive business environment, many employers are turning to employment testing as a way to improve their workforces. Every organization wants to ensure that they hire the right person. Job applicants may submit an effective resume and perform well during an interview, but they usually highlight only positive attributes. Psychological testing has been identified as one way of ensuring that the business picks an applicant who is a perfect fit for the position and actually can do the work required. Physiological tests have been validated by experts as a very good indicator of an applicant's working style. Testing potential employees can increase the chances that a company chooses the right person for a job, reduce turnover and their by lower training costs.
Specific Psychological Testing used in the Workplace
Personality tests are self-report measures…
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National
Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association
American Psychological Association. (2011). Rights and responsibilities of test takers:
guidelines and expectations. American Psychological Association (APA). Retrieved June
On a university campus, one of the most active niches is that of student organizations. Perhaps nowhere else do more organizations exist than on a college campus. These student organizations exist because there is a need for students to get involved, interact and stay active. ecause every student has their own needs for joining an organization, there are a diverse array of organizations to meet these needs. For example, there are social organizations for students needing to meet people, there are political organizations for students who want to create change in their community and there are interest organizations for those who want to share their knowledge and enjoyment of a particular hobby with others. If an organization matches the particular students needs, then the organization fulfills the student's needs. This determination is made by the combination of the three above mentioned factors and their application to the integration of the…
Schein, Edgar. Organizational Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1980.
With this approach, consultation psychology focuses on the issues of the group as a whole and therefore typically uses group discussions, interviews and observations as opposed to singling out specific individuals. The result is that, by using consultation psychology in the field of industrial and organizational psychology, the focus is on the group and the roles the individuals who make up the group play. With this focus, industrial and organizational psychology is better able to meet its goals of increasing organizational productivity, well-being and success.
In the case sample cited in the introduction of this paper, the issue was how consultation psychology could be utilized as a method for providing industrial and organizational psychological services to a mental health related organization. From the overview provided in the previous section, it can be seen that utilizing consultation psychology, as opposed to clinical psychology, will be the best method of…
Bass, Bernard M. (1960): Leadership, Psychology and Organizational Behavior. New York: Harper and Brothers.
Bass, Bernard M., and Pieter JD Drenth. (1987): Advances in Organizational Psychology: An International Review. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
Brehm, S.S., Kassin, S. And Fein, S. (2005): Social Psychology. Boston: Charles Hartford.
Cameron, Kim S., and Robert E. Quinn. (2006): Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture Based on the Competing Values Framework. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
I believe that I would have to point to prior accomplishments, as well, so this is not an assignment I would take directly after becoming a consultant, but one that I would grow to so I could perform it to the very best of my ability.
I would measure my success by reassessing the job after a specific period of time, such as a year, to see what improvements came in the job satisfaction and production of the department, and if the employee turnover rate fell. Just as in the initial job analysis, I would interview current and former employees to discuss the management issues, and then assess the job and performance to see if those issues had cleared up. I would do a thorough assessment and present my findings to the administration, as well.
My issue falls directly into these organizations psychology topics because management is one of the…
Advise management concerning personnel, managerial, and marketing policies and practices and their potential effects on organizational effectiveness and efficiency.
Analyze data, using statistical methods and applications, to evaluate the outcomes and effectiveness of workplace programs.
Assess employee performance.
Observe and interview workers to obtain information about the physical, mental, and educational requirements of jobs as well as information about aspects such as job satisfaction.
Write reports on research findings and implications to contribute to general knowledge and to suggest potential changes in organizational functioning.
Facilitate organizational development and change.
Identify training and development needs.
Normal work activities for an Industrial Organizational psychologist might include: getting information, providing consultation and advice to others, interpreting the meaning of information to others, establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships, making decisions and solving problems.
In addition to those, an I/O psychologist would analyze data, organize, plan and prioritize work, interact with computers, judge…
Industrial psychology. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2009, from a2zpsychology.com: http://www.a2zpsychology.com/ARTICLES/industrial.htm
McCarthy, P. (2002). Brief outline of the history of I/O psychology. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Middle Tennessee State University: http://frank.mtsu.edu/~pmccarth/io_hist.htm
Morris, L. (2000). Careers in industrial organizational psychology. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from Westchester university department of education: http://www.wcupa.edu/_Academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Industrial/Career06.htm
O-net. (2008). Summary report for industrial organizational psychologists. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from o-net online: http://online.onetcenter.org/link/summary/19-3032.00
Applying Organizational Psychology
ecruitment is the procedure of seeking out prospects for work and encouraging them to get employment within the organization. ecruitment is the task that connects the companies and the potential candidates. It is a procedure of searching for and drawing in capable candidates for work. The procedure starts when brand-new employees are explored and ends when their applications are given to the company. The outcome is a collection of applications from which brand-new staff members are picked. It is a procedure to find workforce sources to fulfill the current workforce needs and to use efficient measures for drawing new potential recruits in ample numbers to assist the company in making an efficient recruitment choice. ecruitment of prospects is the feature preceding the selection, which assists develop a pool of potential staff members for the organization so that the management can pick the right prospect for…
Borman, W.C., & Motowidlo, S.J. (1993). Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance. In N. Schmitt & W.C. Borman (Eds.), Personnel selection in organizations (pp. 71 -- 98). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Campbell, J.P. (1990). Modelling the performance prediction problem in industrial and organizational psychology. In M.D. Dunnette & L.M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 687 -- 732). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Conway, J.M. (1999). Distinguishing contextual performance from task performance for managerial jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 3 -- 13.
Jex, S.M., & Britt, T.W. (2008). Organizational Psychogy: A Scientist-Practioner Approach. Second Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Psychology of Work
In accordance to iggio (2013), industrial organizational psychology is purposed to improve the level of self-esteem and performance of human beings, and the organizations they operate in, by progressing the knowledge and understanding of human conduct and behavior. Due to globalization, the workforces within organizations have increasingly become more diverse in the recent decade. In accordance to research studies, diverse teams and groups that are well managed outdo standardized and uniform groups as they have a tendency of being more inventive, creative and effective at resolving problems. Nonetheless, when these teams commonly experience problems with regard to communication, which results in lower performance, personnel from different nationalities, cultures, generations, gender and beliefs are presently forced to work together and operate in tandem within the same organization. As a result, these dissimilarities have come to be a current communication issue within organizations. This is for the reason that…
Miller, K. (2014). Organizational communication: Approaches and processes. Cengage Learning.
National Integration Working Group for workplaces (NIWG). (2012). Managing Workplace Diversity: A tool kit for organizations. Retrieved 28 January, 2016 from: http://www.mom.gov.sg/~/media/mom/documents/employment-practices/wdm/workplace%20diversity%20management%20tookit%20and%20managers%20guide.pdf
Riggio, Ronald, E. (2013). Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology, 6th edition.
Citizen's Hospital is an organization where employees and the organization share common goals. The organization has a personality of confusion. The culture of the organization focused on patient satisfaction where the climate was democratic with an emphasis on interpersonal skills, democratic values and human motivation (Francis, 2012). The structure was hierarchal and operated by departments.
Shared common goals included enabling patients to gain adequate recovery in the fastest, most effective way with safe measures to prevent infection and other illness. The psychological part of the company displayed friendliness with the interview processes that included a peer interview with the department's employees to determine capability. Upon hiring, all new hires were required to go through a socialization process of employee orientation and mentor training. Once the new hired is trained, confusion sets in with unsafe practices.
The organization developed large amounts of back injuries from role stress and a…
Francis, A. (2012, Mar 1). Neoclassical Theories of Organization. Retrieved from MBA Knowledge Base: http://www.mbaknol.com/management-principles/neoclassical-theories-of-organization
Landy, F.J. (2013). The Organization of Work Behavior. In F.J. Landy, Work in the 21st century: An Introduction to industrial and organizational psychology, 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
"Performance Management" and "People Performance"
Performance Management and People
"Performance Management" and "People Performance"
The purpose of this paper is to discuss and critically evaluate the Performance Management model by Michael Armstrong and People Performance model by John Purcell. The paper starts with an ample introduction and significance of the employee performance management practices and proceeds by discussing the various concepts and strategies which are incorporated by business organizations all over the world. The major focus of the paper is to discuss the implications of these models for the success and prosperity of an organization. The main body of the paper discusses these models from a critical perspective and explains their major components in detail.
The most important strategies which are recommended by Performance Management model include performance appraisal and reviews, training and skills development, Management by Objectives (MBO), the techniques to manage the low performers,…
Armstrong. M, 2012, Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 12th edition. U.S.: Kogan Page
Becker, B. & Gerhart, B. 1996, "The impact of human resource management on organisational performance: Progress and prospects," Academy of Management Journal, 39 (4): 779-801.
Becker, B. & Huselid, M. 2006, "Strategic Human Resources Management: Where do we go from here?," Journal of Management, 32 (6): 898-925.
Boselie, P., Dietz, G., & Boon, C. 2005, "Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research," Human Resource Management Journal, 15 (3): 67-94.
What is an Organizational Theory?
In the organizational sciences (e.g., organizational behavior, organizational psychology), one of the more misunderstood terms is organizational theory. To some, organizational theory is a field of study; to others, it is the process of using metaphorical language to describe organizational processes (e.g., McKenna & Wright, 1992; Morgan, 1986), or it represents an attempt to determine the best way to organize work organizations. The term is used to indicate all of these things, but an organizational theory is really just a way of organizing purposeful human action. Given the diversity of purposeful human endeavors, there are numerous ways to organize them, and, hence, a great many organizational theories.
Major Organizational Theories
Having provided a brief overview of the field of organizational theory, we now move on to a consideration of the major organizational theories themselves. Organizational theories simply represent ideas or models of the form…
McKenna, D.D., & Wright, P.M. (1992). Alternative metaphors for organizational design. In M.D. Dunnette & L.M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 901 -- 960). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Morgan, G. (1986). Images of organization. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Taylor, F.W. (1911). Principles of scientific management. New York: Harper.
Weber, M. (1947). The theory of social and economic organization (A. M. Henderson & T. Parsons, Trans.) New York: Free Press.
Organization Change - Leveraging Power & Influence in Change Management
Leveraging Power & Influence in Change Management
Change is the only inevitable factor within any organization in the contemporary society. The changes that take place in line with the Human esources as well as the technology are so rapid that to stay relevant, each organization must of necessity keep up-to-date with the changes that are relevant to the organization. However, to have effective change, amid all the challenges that come with the attempt to effect change, there must be leadership that leverages power and is in a position to influence change and manage it to the conclusive end. It should be noted that change is not a destination but a continuous process, hence change management must also be continuous and not static. Changes in organizations take place all the time and each and every day which in most cases are…
Agguire D., et.al (2013). Culture's Role in Enabling Organizational ChangeSurvey Ties
Transformation Success to Deft Handling of Cultural Issues. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from http://www.booz.com/global/home/what-we-think/reports-white-papers/article-display/cultures-role-organizational-change
Beakey, D. (2007). Organizational Design and Implementation. Graziadio Business Review:
Graziadio School of Business and Management, Pepperdine University. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from http://gbr.pepperdine.edu/2010/08/organizational-design-and-implementation/
History of Psychology Applied to Employee Selection" appears in Historical Perspectives in Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Although it is a chapter in the book, it provides detailed information and can be used as a stand-alone text in an analysis of the subject. Vinchur (2007) divides the subject into chronological time periods, which is unusual for most essays in the field of organizational psychology. The first section is on the origins and early years of the application of psychological principles to employee selection. Surprisingly, this section covers the Industrial Age until 1930, an era in which psychology was barely recognized as a science let alone human resources being recognized as a field. The next section in the article is about Depression, World War II, and immediate postwar period employee psychology practices. Basically, this section covers 1930 until 1963. Finally, the civil rights era and "beyond" is the section that includes developments…
Brown, J. (2002). Training needs assessment: A must for developing an effective training program. Public Personnel Management, 31(4), 569. (EBSCOhost Accession
Number: AN 9004432).
Furnham, A., Dissou, G., Sloan, P., & Chamorro-Premu, T. (2007). Personality and intelligence in business people. Journal of Business Psychology 2997(22): 99-109.
Vinchur, A.J. (2007). A history of psychology applied to employee selection. Chapter 8 in Historical Perspectives in Industrial and Organizational Psychology. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.
For instance, if there is a candidate who after interviewing appeared to be a good fit for a position, but the testing came back with poor results, there is the tendency to pass up the candidate. However, by making personnel managers aware of this tendency, they can really consider whether the candidate is still a good hire, even if the testing was not as desired.
Protecting the legal and appropriate use of personality testing: A practitioner perspective
Jones and Arnold (2008) explore the issue of legally and appropriately using personality testing. There are risks that must be managed to ensure personality testing doesn't become restricted, or worse outlawed, by state or federal law. The authors note that "I-O psychologists should never get myopic as to where the real threats might come from in terms of the ongoing use of personality testing or other selection tools used in the workplace." For…
Jones, W. & Arnold, J. (Sept 2008). Protecting the legal and appropriate use of personality testing: A practitioner perspective. Industrial & Organizational Psychology, 1(3). Retrieved October 22, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
Martin, S. (Sept 2008). Managers also overrely on tests. Industrial & Organizational Psychology, 1(3). Retrieved October 22, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
Ryan, a. & Tippings, M. (Winter 2004). Attracting and selecting: What psychological research tells us. Human Resource Management, 43(4). Retrieved October 22, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
South Australia Ambulance Service
Organizational Behaviour Case Analysis
ay Main should develop a system which empowers the culture of organization along with the shift towards automation and excellent customer service.
Has to do what
The leadership of South Australia Ambulance Service is required to do the following:
To set a strategic direction for SAAS this would be compatible to the new strategic plan.
Meet the service expectations of the clients by focusing more on efficient customer services.
Empower the service delivery personnel fully and hold them accountable for every action.
The expectations of donators and community should be aligned.
Make SAAS compatible to respond to mass casualties.
Workforce retention should be increased.
Emergency sector and healthcare should be integrated to respond efficiently to any casualty.
Interventions should be prioritized.
The impact of any change should be evaluated on the patient as patients' life is more important. (Daniels 2009)
Steven McShane, Sandra Steen, (2008). Canadian Organizational Behaviour, Seventh Edition. McGraw-Hill Ryerson Higher Education; Canadian edition
Abernathy, W.B. (2006). Designing and managing an organization-wide incentive pay system. Memphis, TN: Abernathy & Associates.
Abernathy, W.B. (2006). The sin of wages: Where the conventional pay system has led us and how to find a way out. Memphis, TN: PerfSys Press.
Alvero, A.M., Bucklin, B.R., and Austin, J. An objective review of the effectiveness and essential characteristics of performance feedback in organizational settings. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management vol. 21 (2001). pp. 3 -- 29
Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"
Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…
American people and society. (2015). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html.
Bassett, R.L. (2013, Winter). An empirical consideration of grace and legalism within Christian experience. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 32(1), 43-49.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bobgan, M. & Bobgan, D. (1987). PsychoHeresy: The psychological seduction of Christianity.
old, the profession of clinical psychology is "one of the most vigorous fields of psychology," (eisman, 1991, p. 3). Clinical psychology refers generally to both social science research and application of that research to achieve specific clinical goals related to mental health. Since its inception in the 1890s, the field has changed and evolved dramatically (Benjamin, 2005). Earliest forms of clinical psychology included working with asylum patients, which often entailed using a variety of techniques that are now deemed unethical or harmful. The rise of psychoanalysis based on Freud's teachings led to the 20th century being an era in which talk therapy prevailed. esearch on different models of talk therapy has informed best practices in general. However, recent changes to the field of clinical psychology attempt to distinguish between the types of quantifiable evidence that can be gained from empirical research using psychopharmacological interventions on the one hand and less…
Barlow, DH (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Clinical Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Benjamin, L.T. (2005). A history of clinical psychology as a profession in America. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 1, 1-30.
Lilienfeld, S.O., Lynn, S.J. & Lohr, J.M. (2015). Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology. New York: The Guilford Press.
Reisman, J.M. (1991). A History of Clinical Psychology. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Productive and Counter-Productive ork Behaviors
Organizational success is predicated on the abilities and efforts demonstrated by personnel. ith respect to matters such as job performance and productivity, a company's long-term prospects will rest significantly on the shoulders of day-to-day employees. This denotes the importance of identifying behaviors that promote productivity and eliminating those which are counterproductive. The discussion hereafter offers a concise consideration of how to achieve this balance.
Productive and Counterproductive Behavior:
The text by hite (2010) offers some basic definitions that help to assign meanings to productive and counterproductive behaviors within the context of the workplace. hite identifies productive behavior as anything that helps to further the goals for the organization, that works to actively improve the company culture or that contributes to adherence with the company's mission. hite reports that "some of the most constructive forms of productive behavior in organizations are innovation, job performance,…
Fox, S.; Spector, P.E. & Miles, D. (2001). Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) in Response to Job Stressors and Organizational Justice: Some Mediator and Moderator Tests for Autonomy and Emotions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59, 291-309.
KGA. (2001). Managing Counterproductive Behavior. Kathleen Greer Associates.
Mondrow, I. (2011). Can Counterproductive Work Behaviors Be Productive. Perspectives of Industrial/Organizational Psychology.
White, S.E. (2010). Productive and Counterproductive Behaviors Within Organizations. Associated Content.
Business enterprises and organizations believe that empowering workers develops their self-esteem, which in turn gives them the momentum to take responsibility of their own projects. The significance of the field of psychology on Human Resource Management in the future will be fueled by increased performance expectations and employer branding that characterizes this field. As a result, every personnel in this department will be required to take up a role in coaching, mentoring, and planning, which requires use of psychological tools.
The field of psychology has continued to play a significant role in the development of Human Resource Management across business enterprises and organizations. This is evident in the fact that HRM personnel and professionals are increasingly using psychological concepts in their entire processes, especially the selection process.
Covella, Linda. "HR Management Concepts & Techniques." EHow. Demand Media, Inc., 10 May 2010. eb. 15 Dec. 2012. .
Covella, Linda. "HR Management Concepts & Techniques." EHow. Demand Media, Inc., 10 May 2010. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. .
Cullinane, Niall, and Tony Dundon. "The Psychological Contract: A Critical Review." International Journal of Management Reviews 8.2 (2006): 113-29. School of Business and Public Policy. National University of Ireland, 2006. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. .
Kulshrestha, Sandeep. "Human Resource Management -- Evolving as a Sciencewith Inspiration from Psychology." Hr and Psychology. Scribd, n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. .
Kumar, Suraj. "Role of Psychology in Human Resource Management and Development." All Best Articles. Responsive Website Design, n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. .
Restructuring of First ank
Family enterprise, First ank, has, for three decades, been the town's only bank. Mr. First, the founder, originally instituted it as a little loaning shop; the small business grew larger, turning into the town's sole financial services organization. It provided small loans and over-the-counter cash facilities to clients. The town's growth, however, has led to a tremendous increase in the bank's client base, challenging the current operational structure of the organization. The problem faced is threat to the organization's existence, owing to the fact that the bank, at present, is not up to the task of meeting the town's growing demands. ank management, comprising chiefly of family members, is unwilling to alter the existing operational structure as well as improving quality and increasing the number of personnel employed. This has been a major factor in the bank's inefficient, stagnated, and outdated structure. Apart from hiring fresh…
Adler, P. S., & Shenbar, A. (1990). Adapting your technological base: the organizational challenge. Sloan Management Review. Fall 1990. p. 25-37.
Argyle, M. (1989). The Social Psychology of Work. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Balogun, J., & Hope, H. V. (2008). Exploring Strategic Change. London: Prentice Hall.
Belbin, R. M. (1993) Team Roles at Work. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
RESOLVING ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT
Management Theory and Thought: Identifying and Resolving Organizational Conflict
Understanding Individual Preferences
The modern business environment has become more complex and diverse than ever before. Globalization has been driven by technological innovations that allow for greater communication, information sharing, travel, and business networks that span the globe. Employees today expected to handle workloads that push their productivity beyond that of any generation in the past. Furthermore, the complexity and diversity found in this environment often significantly increase the potential for organizational conflict. Teams are now more commonly spread out across geographic locations and often represent individuals from far different backgrounds.
There are many perspectives that can be used to try to build organizational conflict resolution capabilities in an organization and this objective can be viewed from many perspectives. For example, you can try to build conflict resolution skills in the individual,…
Brenner, M., Fairris, D., & Ruser, J. (2004). "Flexible" Work Practices and Occupational Safety and Health: Exploring the Relationship Between Cumulative Trauma Disorders and Workplace Transformation. Industrial Relations, 242-266.
Gherri, B., & Eimer, M. (2011). Active Listening Impairs Visual Perception and Selectivity: An ERP Study of Auditory Dual-task Costs on Visual Attention. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23(4), 832-844.
Hunt, G., & Cusella, L. (1983). A field study of listening needs in organizations. Communication Education, 32(4), 393-401.
Terestre, D. (2004, March 26). Talking him down: the crisis negotiator. Retrieved from Police One: http://www.policeone.com/columnists/PoliceMagazine/articles/82818-Talking-him-down-the-crisis-negotiator/
Strategic Management of Human esources
Human resource is considered as the most precious asset for business organizations. The financial performance and growth in the industry heavily depends upon the way an organization's employees perform at the workplace (Edwards 2003). A dedicated and committed workforce contributes towards a high level of operational excellence and market competitiveness. Therefore, it should be among the top priorities for an organization to manage its human resource in an effective and efficient way (ose 2004).
Strategic Human esource Management deals with formulating policies and procedures for getting the best work from employees, implementing different techniques to motivate them, and assessing the future human resource requirements at the workplace (Saxena 2009). This paper explains the strategic human resource management policies of one of the World's Top software companies -- Adobe Systems Incorporated. These policies are required to meet the current human resource requirements of the…
Ashamalla, M., H., 1998, International Human Resource Management Practices: the Challenge of Expatriation. CR, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 54-63
Adobe, 2012, Adobe Fast Facts 2011, Available from
Adobe, 2012, Commitment to Employees, Available from
Adobe, 2012, Professional Development, Available from [Accessed January 24th, 2012]
Competitive Advantage through Human esource Management Practices
Human esource Management Practices
Competitive Advantage through Human esource Management Practices
HUMAN ESOUCE Management
Human esource Management involves all those activities which are related to the management of workforce or employees of an organization. It is also one of the core functions which managers perform at the workplace. Human esource Management entails activities like recruitment and selection, training and development, performance assessment, compensation, leadership, and motivation at large (Chadwick & Dabu 2009). Basically, Human esource Management focuses on recruitment, management, guidance, and motivation of employees in an organization. In the past, HM was just restricted to two core functions: employee management and motivation. Now, it has emerged as one of the biggest strategic issues in the business world (Kandula 2007).
With the passage of time, the scope and functions of Human esource Management have also increased. Now, it also involves employee…
Armstrong, M. 2007, A handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 10th Edition. London: Kogan Page
Baudler, C.R. 2011, Employee Engagement: Through Effective Performance Management by Edward M. Mone and Manuel London, Personnel Psychology, 64 (3): 813-816.
Birdi, K., Clegg, C., Patterson, M., Robinson, A., Stride, C.B., Wall, T.D., & Wood, S.J. 2008, The Impact of Human Resource and Operational Management Practices on Company Productivity: A Longitudinal Study, Personnel Psychology, 61 (1): 467-501.
Browning, V., Edgar, F., Gray, B., & Garrett, T. 2009, Realizing Competitive Advantage through HRM in New Zealand Service Industries, The Service Industries Journal, 29 (6): 741-760.
This suggests that people act fairly in part because of what they think may be the result of other people's reaction to the self-serving behavior. People appreciate distributive equity that further supports their personal circumstances. On the other hand, more recently, social scientists, such as Miller (1999) have argued that people do care about justice and behave with justice-seeking behavior instead of this more selfish self-interest. In other words, there is no overall behavior that is common to all people.
As noted in ischer et al. (2007), what motivates employees has normally been studied in laboratory settings, which is an artificial approach. or, the better alternative, studies have asked employees about their thoughts concerning the company's allocation policies. As noted, it is important to know what employees actually perceive instead of what decision makers intend to do. Thus, ischer's research focused on employees' perceptions of the allocation decisions made by…
Fischer, R., Smith, PB., Richey, B et al. 2007 "How Do Organizations Allocate Rewards?"
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol 38, no 1, pp 3-18.
Miller, DT 1999. "The norm of self-interest," American Psychologist, vol 54, pp.1053-1060.
The change that outsourcing and SAs bring into organizations is, or should be, planned. It is the result of specific efforts by a change agent (individuals and groups who take responsibility for changing the existing behavior patterns), in this case managers. Planned change processes are a direct response to someone's perception of a discrepancy between the desired and actual state of affairs (performance gap). Performance gaps are at the same time problems to be resolved or opportunities to be explored through outsourcing and SAs.
All in all, outsourcing and strategic alliances are both concepts that will be found on the corporate strategic agenda for the years to come. The market dynamics and increasing pressures toward efficiency impose the need for organizational change. The benefits of the two strategic directions discussed are real, and through careful planning and implementation, organizations can gain a competitive advantage.
Berrio A.A. 2003, An…
Berrio A.A. 2003, An Organizational Culture Assessment Using the Competing Values Framework: A Profile of Ohio State University Extension, National Institute for Agricultural Research (INIA), Retrieved from URL http://www.joe.org/joe/2003april/a3.shtml
Gottfredson M., Puryear R., Phillips S., Strategic Sourcing: From Periphery to the Core, Harvard Business Review, February 2005 Issue
Gupta, S. 2002, Demystifying offshore outsourcing: despite the risks, the benefits can be great, CMA Management, Retrieved Online from URL: http://www.allbusiness.com/periodicals/article/357507-2.html
Schermerhorn J., Hunt J., and Osborn R. 2005, Organizational Behavior. 9th ed. New York, Wiley
Psychology of Gender in usiness
Traditional gender roles have defined the business lives as well as the home lives of families and breadwinners for numerous generations. Certain expectations were put in place at what seems to be the dawn of time. The evolution of these decided obligations went on to shape the traditional family and the roster of the traditional workplace. Expansions and millenniums of progression in this historical framework then gave way to what the modern world still often considers gender specific job roles. Though, without question, this segregative and selective approach to the business world is surely archaic. Nevertheless, over the last decade or so there has been a revolution that is gaining steam in the business community. The idea of equality is becoming more and more popular among businesses and government agencies. Such powerful and influential entities have finally realized that the furthering and promotion of gender…
Adams, S.M., Gupta, A., Haughton, D.M., & Leeth, J.D. (2007). Gender Differences in CEO Compensation: Evidence from the U.S.A. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 22 (3), 208-224.
Altbach, P.G., Reisberg, L., & Rumbley, L.E. (2009). Trends in Global Higher Education: Tracking an Academic Revolution. UNESCO 2009 World Conference on Higher Education. Paris, France.
Blau, F.D., & Kahn, L.M. (2000). Gender Differences in Pay. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14 (4), 75-99.
Bowling, N.A., & Beehr, T.A. (2006). Workplace Harassment from the Victim's Perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91 (5), 998-1012.
Student Inserts Grade Course Here
CUSTOME ELATIONSHIP Management -- INTODUCTION
A customer is the most prestigious stakeholder of any business organization. The success or failure of its business is totally dependent on the consumption behavior and loyalty of its customers (Campbell, 2003). Therefore, making a long-term and strategic relationship with the customers must be among the top priorities of business organizations (Mithas, Krishnan, & Fornell, 2005). This relationship is managed through a process called as the Customer elationship Management -- a multi-faceted phenomenon and a business strategy used by organizations to manage their interactions with customers in an effective and well-organized way (Homburg, Wieseke, Bornemann, 2009).
It is essential for a business organization to have good relationships with its customers as they are the sole source of earning profits (Krasnikov, Jayachandran, & Kumar, 2009). Customer elationship Management involves managerial level efforts to attract new customers as well as…
Boulding, W., Staelin, R., Ehret, M., Johnston, W., J., 2005, A Customer Relationship Management Roadmap: What Is Known, Potential Pitfalls, and Where to Go? Journal of Marketing, Vol. 69, Issue 4, pp. 155-166
Campbell, A., J., 2003, creating customer knowledge competence: managing customer relationship management programs strategically, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 32, Issue 5, pp. 375-383
Gill, A., Flaschner, A., B., Shah, C., Bhutani, I., 2010, The Relations of Transformational Leadership and Empowerment with Employee Job Satisfaction: A Study among Indian Restaurant Employees, Business and Economics Journal, Vol. 2010, pp. 1-10.
Gustafsson, A., Johnson, M., D., Roos, I., 2005, The Effects of Customer Satisfaction, Relationship Commitment Dimensions, and Triggers on Customer Retention, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 69, issue 4, pp. 210-218.
Organizational Case Analysis
Apple Inc. is a multinational companies specializing in the designing, manufacturing and marketing of mobile communication devices such as personal computers and digital music players. The company also sells varieties of mobile telecommunication devices such as iPhone, iPod, iPad, and Mac. Additionally, Apple Inc. sells some professional software application such as Mac OS, iOS, iCloud and other varieties of communication accessories. Apple Inc. sells its products through retail stores, online stores, value-added resellers, direct sales, wholesalers, and through third party cellular network carriers. (Apple Annual eport, 2011). Apple Inc. was Incorporated in 1977 in California, and presently Apple Inc. has become one of the most successful companies in the United States and globally. Apple Inc. is committed to bring best computer experience to its customers, and the company business strategy is to develop high quality products to reach more customers. Major customers of Apple Inc.…
Apple Annual Report (2011). Apple Annual Report 2011. Apple Inc.2011.
Caixing, L. & David, Y. (2011).An Analysis of the Impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act on Earnings Management. Advances in Management.4(6): 25-31.
Elmer-DeWitt, P. (2011). Rethinking Apple's Org Chart. A Time Warner Company.
Griffin, R.W. & Moorhead., G. (2011). Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. Cengage Learning.USA.
Industrial Organizational Psychology: Motivation
Applied behavioral science
This is a branch of science that comprises of fields such as sociology, psychology and anthropology that deals primarily with the human actions and seeks to give a general view on human behavior within the society. This is a field which takes an interdisciplinary approach when it comes to the study of human behavior. It explores the activities and interactions among human beings. Applied behavioral science therefore is a process of systematically applying interventions that are based on the behavioral science principles in order to bring an improvement of socially significant behaviors to a meaningful degree and demonstrate that the interventions used are the ones that are responsible for bringing an improvement in behavior. This case study is explored from cognitive psychology which focuses on internal states like motivation, decision making, problem solving and so on.
In this case study Jasmine has to…
Grant, A. (2012). Leading with meaning: Beneficiary contact, prosocial impact, and the performance effects of transformational leadership.
This article is on the impact of transformational leadership in any organization. This article is relevant to the case study since it brings out the advantages of applying transformational leadership within the case study.
Ajang, P. (2011). Assessing the role of work motivation on employee performance. Retrieved July 7, 2014 from http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:140549/FULLTEXT01.pdf
This article looks at the importance of motivation of employees when it comes to their performance.it is relevant to the case study since we have seen the issue in the case study is the lack of motivation for employees hence it just emphasizes more on the fact that employee motivation is important when it comes to their performance.
Applied social psychology refers to the application of social psychological theories and research to practice. Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations. The field draws as much from sociology as psychology, to describe issues like gender, race, and power but from a more individualistic perspective. Whereas sociology is interested more in the macro processes shaping society and its institutions, social psychology is concerned with the role the individual plays and how social factors shape personal identity and behavior. The application of social psychology could be in a range of professional fields including private counseling, school counseling, or social work. Some of the most important applications of social psychology are in the realm of public policy analysis and development, or in administration. Issues such as attitudes, beliefs, values, and norms are probed in the research, as are problems related to criminality and aggression.
Dickson, K.E. & Lorenz, A. (2009). Psychological empowerment and job satisfaction of temporary and part-time nonstandard workers: A preliminary investigation. Institute of Behavioral and Applied Management. Retrieved online: http://www.ibam.com/pubs/jbam/articles/vol10/no2/JBAM_10_2_2.pdf
Staufenbiel, T. & Konig, C.J. (2010). A model for the effects of job insecurity on performance, turnover intention, and absenteeism. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 83(1): 101-117.
Ybema, J.F., Smulders, P.G.W. & Bongers, P.M. (2010). Antecedents and consequences of employee absenteeism: A longitudinal perspective on the role of job satisfaction and burnout. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 19(1).
psychology's contribution to the war effort during I. 2)Describe the results of the original Hawthorne Study regarding the relationship between lighting and efficiency. hat was significant about this study?
Industrial Organizational (I/O) Psychology
Psychology was just emerging as a field of scientific study and application in the years just before orld ar I. American psychologists were intrigued with Alfred Binet's work with mental measurement, as well as the scientific management movement to increase worker productivity (Historical pg). However, when orld ar I began, "the problem of assimilating millions of U.S. civilians into the armed services... brought the tools of psychologists to the military environment" (Historical pg).
At the start of the war, the president of the American Psychological Association, Dr. Robert M. Yerkes, headed a meeting of psychologists to discuss how they could assist the war effort (Historical pg). Yerkes was most responsible for bringing psychology in the war effort…
Chapter 1. Introduction: Definitions and History." http://www.cod.edu/people/faculty/grayke/210Ch1.htm .(accessed 02-13-2003).
Historical Overview." American Psychological Association. http://www.apa.org/divisions/div19/info.html.(accessed 02-13-2003).
McCarthy, Patrick, Dr. "Brief Outline of the History of I/O Psychology." http://www.mtsu.edu/~pmccarth/io_hist.htm .(accessed 02-13-2003).
Westaby, J.D., Pfaff, D.L. & Redding, N. (2014). Psychology and social networks. American Psychologist 69(3): 269-284.
Westaby, Pfaff & Redding (2014) attempt to fill a gap in the literature on social networks by focusing on how social networks influence goal striving via emotional pathways. The authors base their research on dynamic network theory, and the results can be applied to numerous practical or clinical settings including organizational-industrial behavior or even information science. The dynamic network theory orientation also sheds light on numerous types of social networks and organizations, illuminating both individual and collective behavior. Although not an experimental research or a meta-analysis, the study does direct psychologists and researchers toward potentially fruitful areas of investigation.
The authors explain dynamic network theory in depth, centering their attention on the importance of emotional responses in social networks, and then outline the most important roles social networks fulfill in human behavior. Dynamic network…
branch of organizational design that I am going to investigate is participative management, which was an idea developed by Likert in the 1960s based on his observations of changes in the management techniques at the time.
Participative management was explained by enis Likert. At the University of Michigan, he started Michigan Survey esearch Center. In 1961 he published his New Patterns of Management that described participative management. He would elaborate on this theory quite a bit in later books, especially in 1966 and 1967. He had noticed that there was a new style of management that had arisen that was different from the old, authoritative style. Likert would then outlined four different types of participative management -- exploitive authoritative, benevolent authoritative, consultative, and participative group systems.
At the time, Likert's work was received well. He was successful in explaining a phenomenon that existed in the business world, so while…
Kim, S. (2002). Participative management and job satisfaction: Lessons for management-leadership. Public Administration Review. Vol. 62 (2) 231-341.
Koppes, L. (2007) Historical Perspectives in Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Psychology Press: New York.
Marchant, M. (1971). Participative management as related to personnel development. Library Trends. July 1971, 48-59.
Improving Organizational Performance Simulation Summary
Improving organizational performance
One of the challenges that organizations are faced with is performance improvement. For the organization to grow and survive it would need to depend on the commitment and passion of its employees. Airdevils is a professional stunts company based in Salt Lake City. The company was founded by Celsey Evans who was later joined by four of her colleagues. The company soon expanded and currently has 115 employees. The company's daring and dramatic stunts have won it many awards and loyal customers. ecently, some of the loyal customers have been expressing dissatisfaction in regards to the stunts, and some key employees have resigned. The employees have been expressing their dissatisfaction on an internet blog.
The first phase of the simulation was problem identification. This involved researching why the job satisfaction was too low within the organization. After analyzing the blogs, comments, and…
Bernstein, D.A., Penner, L.A., Clarke-Stewart, A., & Roy, E.J. (2007). Psychology. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Mynatt, C.R., & Doherty, M.E. (2001). Understanding Human Behavior. Columbus, Ohio: Allyn and Bacon.
Nijstad, B.A. (2009). Group Performance. Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4SB: Taylor & Francis.
Spector, P.E. (2008). Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Research and Practice. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Managing Organisational Culture
The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization make up the organizations culture. Organizational culture is the summation total of an organization's past and current suppositions, incidents, viewpoint, and values that hold it together, and is articulated in its self-image, inner workings, connections with the outside world, and future prospects.
In dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly essential to recognize as fully as possible the characteristics of the existing or new target culture to include the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that strengthen the culture. Organisational culture is not something that can be viewed very easily it is consequently quite hard to replace it. Usually when certain leaders form a company, their values are converted into the actions of the members of that organisation. When other leaders take over, it may not…
Background To Business in China. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Chinese-Business-Style.html [Accessed 18 August 2012].
Campbell, B. 2010. [ONLINE]. How To Improve Your Corporate Culture. Available at: http://www.bcbusinessonline.ca/bcb/business-sense/2010/05/28/how-improve-your-corporate-culture [Accessed 15 August 2012].
Differences in Culture. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/cultural.htm [Accessed 24 August 2012].
Edgar H. Schein's Model of Organizational Culture. 2010. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=36 [Accessed 18 August 2012].
Psychology of Work
Politics in the organizational context represent unofficial, informal, and sometimes, secret attempts at selling ideas, increasing power, achieving other aims, or influencing the organization. This phenomenon has been occurring since many millennia. Companies need skills to manage changing power bases and contradictory agendas. Successful politics does not mean to win at any cost; rather, it is concerned with maintaining relationships whilst achieving desired results. While this is typically depicted in a negative light, company politics aren't intrinsically bad. Nevertheless, knowing the likely destructive elements associated with organizational politics, for minimizing its adverse effect, is imperative. Examples of negative politics are: circumventing organizational command chain for receiving authorization for any special venture; lobbying people at the top of the organizational hierarchy leading to any major promotion decision or using improper channels for obtaining special favors (iggio, 2015). Such actions undermine workplace fairness, as every employee won't involve in…
Bauer, T., & Erdogan, B. (n.d.). Organizational Behaviour, v. 1.0. Retrieved February 06, 2016, from http://catalog.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/3?e=bauer-ch13_s03
Greenberg, J. (n.d.). Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges and Solutions. Retrieved February 06, 2016, from http://www.multiculturaladvantage.com/recruit/diversity/diversity-in-the-workplace-benefits-challenges-solutions.asp
Gupta, M., & Chandwani, R. (n.d.). JOB STRESS AND PERFORMANCE. Retrieved February 06, 2016, from http://tejas.iimb.ac.in/articles/24.php
Josias, B. A. (2005). The relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism in a selected field services section within an electricity utility in the Western Cape (Doctoral dissertation, University of the Western Cape).
Qualitative research is conducted according to several different philosophical orientations, one of which is phenomenology. The science of phenomenology studies the consciousness of individuals according to a first-person point-of-view. Experience is structured by meaning and intentionality toward something or some object, and phenology is the effort to describe the meanings of the lived experiences of individuals. That is to say that, the first person accounts of individuals constitute meaningful, authentic qualitative data. Ethnography is a form of qualitative research in which the investigator becomes immersed in the context in which the inquiry is taking place (ouleau, et al., 2014).
An ethnographic researcher essentially indwells in order to obtain thick, rich data about individuals in a population and about the environment in which they live their lives (ouleau, et al., 2014). The field of ethnology requires the researcher to be at once acutely tuned-in to the individuals in the…
Rouleau, L., de Rond, M., Musca, G. (2014). From the ethnographic turn to new forms of organizational ethnography. Journal of Organizational Ethnography, 3(1), 2-9. Retrieved http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=2046-6749&volume=3&issue=1&articleid=17109239&show=abstract doi: 10.1108/JOE-02-2014-006
Saka-Helmhout, A. (2007). Unravelling learning within multinational corporations. British Journal of Management, 18(3), 294-310. (EBSCOhost Accession Number: AN26260657).
The rate of teacher burn out has reached alarming numbers. Each year teachers are fleeing from the field as they become overwhelmed following the first few years in a classroom. This school system has voted to incorporate a new organizational structure using the open system model as its guide. The new system will utilize a Consult Team of senior experienced teachers who will be trained in how to assist the new teachers in their first five years of the career ladder. This team will be compensated at a higher rate of pay and will be relieved of their extra duties within their school day so that they may be available to work more closely with their assigned new teachers in helping them settle in and learn to navigate the balance between teaching and career building. The system will be revisited in five years to determine whether it has had…
Klein, Stuart (1994) Communication strategies for successful organizational
Luneburg, Fred and Ornstein, Alan
Manz, Charles Bastien, David Hostager (1991) Executive leadership during organizational change:
Leadership Priorities and Practice in Organizational Management
The enterprise software industry is going through a series of disruptive innovations that are disrupting the economics of the industry while also shifting the balance of power away from the Chief Information Officer (CIO) to the line-of-business leaders including the Vice Presidents, General Managers and Directors of Business Units. As this balance of power shifts throughout enterprise software, many long-standing approaches to developing, delivering, monetizing, and supporting software are also changing. One of the most successful companies in the enterprise software industry, specifically in the Aerospace and Defense sector, is Cincom Systems. Cincom has been able to attain a highly profitable business model by creating very customized systems for customers' needs while at the same time creating maintenance agreements that ensuring highly profitable recurring revenue stream over the long-term. This strategy has been largely responsible for the company's ability to withstand the recurring…
Adler, P.S., McDonald, D.W., & MacDonald, F. (1992). Strategic management of technical functions. MIT Sloan Management Review, 33(2), 19-19.
Carroll, S.J., & Gillen, D.J. (1987). Are the classical management functions useful in describing managerial work? Academy of Management. The Academy of Management Review, 12(1), 38-38.
Cunningham, J.B. (1979). The management system: Its functions and processes. Management Science, 25(7), 657-657.
Gold, B. (1991). Towards the increasing integration of management functions: Needs and illustrative advances. International Journal of Technology Management,, 10-10.
industrial management continues to remain competitive. As the economy changes over time, the field of industry follows suit. Industrial managers are charged with maintaining productivity and profits regardless of the economy. In addition, they are responsible for maintaining the workforce at its optimum performance level.
One thing that often has a negative impact on the performance level of the workforce, is absenteeism. Absenteeism can create problems in the field of industry in several ways. One of the first problems it causes is a slow down in production. If there is a problem with absenteeism and a significant number of employees are calling out sick it can be detrimental to the production of product. In addition, when people call out sick, temporary workers are often brought in and they must be quickly trained and try to keep up production speed. This training can be costly and their lower level of performance…
Everett, Michael J., and Alanson P. Minkler. "Evolution and Organisational Choice in Nineteenth-Century Britain." Cambridge Journal of Economics 17 (1993): 51-62.
Fanning, C.M., and T. McCarthy. "A Survey of Economic Hypotheses Concerning the Non-Viability of Labour-Directed Firms in Capitalist Economies." In Labor-Owned Firms and Workers' Cooperatives, edited by S. Jansson and A. Hellmark, 7-50. Aldershot: Gower, 1986.
Rooney, P.M. "Employee Ownership and Worker Participation Effects on Health and Safety." Economic Letters 39 (1992): 323-328.
, 1999). Generally speaking, the results of this study showed that increased levels of diversity within the top leadership team had a negative impact on their ability to reach strategic consensus because of both direct and indirect effects (Knight et al., 1999).
These findings are not that surprising, of course, given that it is intuitive that as diversity within a top leadership team increases, so too will the range of views that will be brought to the management table for consideration. Despite these constraints to consensus building, there are some highly desirable outcomes that can be achieved using the strategic diversity management approach that make it worthy of consideration by organizations that are "stuck in a diversity rut."
Strategic diversity management can improve organizational effectiveness by facilitating communication between superiors, peers and subordinates. Although many organizations have recognized the importance and value of a diversified workforce, some have failed to…
Arnold, V.D. & Krapels, A.H. (1996, May/June). 'Motivation: a Reincarnation of Ideas.'
Industrial Management, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 8-10.
Davidson, M.J. & Fielden, S.L. (2003). Individual Diversity and Psychology in Organizations.
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
An Analysis Based on Morgan's Cultural Metaphor
When one thinks about the word "culture," one tends to think about some far-away, exotic place where people in elaborate costumes perform mysterious rituals. While it is certainly true that people on the other side of the world from wherever one lives certainly have their own culture, it is vital to remember that all people have their lives deeply influenced by culture. We each live in a number of different cultures: The culture of our family, of our neighborhood, of the place where we work, sometimes of a religious and ethnic community. Culture is simply an agreement among the members of a group about how they will behave, what their values are, and how they will communicate with each other. Culture determines how we each interact with each other on a daily basis.
The paper examines the organizational culture of a…
Grisham, T. (2006). Metaphor, poetry, storytelling and cross-cultural leadership. Management Decision, 44(4), 486-503.
Harris, J. & Barnes, K.B. (2006). Leadership storytelling. Industrial and commercial training, 38(7), 350-353.
Jensen, D.F.N. (2006). Metaphors as a bridge to understanding educational and social contexts. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5(1), Article 4, 1-17.
Leder, G. (2007). The power of metaphors: Use of clever analogies to simplify complex subjects and you might just get clients to take your perspective. On Wall Street 17 (5), 88.
Despite their supposed differences, all of the foregoing organizational management techniques and approaches share some common themes involving getting a better handle of what is actually being done in companies and how better to manage these things. Unfortunately, another common theme these management approaches share is the inappropriate or misapplication of these approaches by managers who either do not understand how they work or by rabid managers who insist on absolute conformity with these processes and procedures without any room for flexibility according to the unique needs of the organization. In fact, according to Mills (2003), "Analysis of the data suggests that the implementation of organizational change, particularly selected change programs such as Culture Change, TQM and BP, does not follow the rational, orderly decision-making processes indicated by advocates" (p. 2). Nevertheless, some of the more recent management approaches do provide a more comprehensive analysis of what can reasonably be…
Ashkenas, R.N. (1994). Beyond the fads: How leaders drive change with results. Human Resource Planning, 17(2), 25-27.
Bailey, J. (1996). After thought: The computer challenge to human intelligence. New York: Basic Books.
Bennis, W. & Mische, M. (1995). The 21st century organization: Reinventing through reengineering. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders. New York: Harper and Row.
Typically when one hears the word "psychology" one immediately is drawn to thoughts of psychotherapy, people on a couch, Sigmund Freud like analysts using terms like "how does that make you feel?" And similar associations. Other things that immediately come to mind are: our lives are determined by our childhood experiences ("it's all my Mom's fault"), our desires are hidden in our unconscious and emerge in our dreams, drugs can cure depression, etc. Psychology typically brings to mind aspects of therapy and clinical work; however, if one thinks harder one can also envision animal studies of learning, subliminal persuasion studies, and other research topics. In social circles we often hear of people playing "mind games" in relationships or using "reverse psychology" as a means to get someone to do something they otherwise might not do voluntarily. We are all innate psychologists in our own way creating theories about…
American Psychological Association (2012). How does the APA define psychology? Retrieved on September 6, 2012 from http://www.apa.org/support/about/apa/psychology.aspx#answer.
Diener, E. (1979). Deindividuation, self-awareness, and disinhibition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(7), 1160-1171.
Jex, S.M., & Britt, T.W. (2008). Organizational psychology. Hoboken: Wiley.
Kline P. (2000). The handbook of psychological testing. London: Routledge.
For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day…
Bacon. H. "Book Review: Jonathan Willows, Moving On after Childhood Sexual Abuse: Understanding the Effects and Preparing for Therapy in Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (15)1 January 2010, pp. 141-42.
Bartels, S.J., A.D. van Citters and T. Crenshaw (2010). "Older Adults" in Levin, B.L., J. Petrila and K. Hennessy Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective. Oxford University Presss: 261-82.
Behar, E.S. And T.D. Borkovec. (2003). "Psychotherapy Outcome Research" in I.B. Weiner et al., eds. Handbook of Psychology: Research Methods in Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Carron, V.G. And K. Hull. (2009). "Treatment Manual for Trauma-Exposed Youth: Case Studies." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 15(1) 13 November 2009, pp. 27-38.
(Koskella, 2002; 1)
hile leadership is unquestionably an inborn talent that can be honed
and improved, it is nonetheless an individualized talent and therefore both
rarified and special. Such is to say that the dually important aspects of
experience and ability are those which cannot be taught in an academic
context. Especially in the organizational sense, one must gather and
sharpen these respective qualities, suggesting that leadership theory bears
only a passing relationship to those instincts and principles which one
must know or of which one must be capable in order to function successfully
in an organizational leadership role. Ultimately, this means that a leader
with the proper merits to effectively steward an organization is one who
will demonstrate the capacity for a formal application of proven leadership
methods and who will simultaneously adapt to the demands which are specific
to the organization in question. This mode of discussing leadership…
Alper, S., Tjosvold, D., & Law, K.S. (2000). Conflict management, efficacy,
Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and self-
214). The author notes many empirical reasons for his critique of the five-factor model. Among the many objections that are put forward is the assertion that there is in the breadth of the five factors an indefiniteness and inconsistency. Block also refers to the descriptive coarseness of the "Big Five."
Block's article has created much debate on this subject. A useful study that counters many of arguments put forward by Block is Solid Ground in the Wetlands of Personality: A eply to Block by Costa and McCrae (1995). In contrast to Block's critique, this article suggest that, "...the most impressive achievement of the FFM is its reduction of conceptual jangle, showing how constructs ostensibly as different as absorption, intuition, and need for change all reflect aspects of the single, broader construct of Openness. " (Costa and McCrae, 1995).
The validity and acceptance of the FFM model and the various aspects…
Block, J. (1995). A contrarian view of the five-factor approach to personality description. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 187-215.
Clark, L.A. (1993). Personality Disorder Diagnosis: Limitations of the Five-Factor Model. Psychological Inquiry, 4(2), 100-104. Retrieved January 21, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77524910
Costa P, McCrae, Robert R. (1995) Solid ground in the wetlands of personality: A reply to Block. Psychological Bulletin. 117(2), 216-220 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77524936
Bubba Gump Shrimp Company is a seafood chain of restaurants with restaurants across the globe. By September 2010, the restaurant chain had 32 stores throughout the world with 22 of these restaurants located in the United States. While the formation of this company was inspired by the Forrest Gump film in 1994, the company has largely been successful in the seafood market. The president of this company has attributed the success and productivity in this market to reduced turnover in management. Actually, the firm's president has constantly stated that one of the major secrets to organizational success is having minimal management turnover. His emphasis and focus on turnover has yielded huge success to an extent that Bubba Gump Shrimp Company has not had a manager leave in 3 years whereas management turnover has decreased to approximately 16% in 2 years. As a result, the company provides a major example of…
Aamodt, M.G. (2011). Industrial/organizational psychology: an applied approach (7th ed.).
Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Crecca, DH (2003 November 1). Staying Power. Retrieved October 4, 2013, from http://maamodt.asp.radford.edu/Aamodt%20(5th)/Case%20Study%20Articles/Case%20study%20-%20bubba-gump%20shrimp%20company.pdf
Phillips, J.J. & Edwards, L. (2008). Managing talent retention: an ROI approach. San Francisco,
1. Why are reliability and validity important for assessment? How are content validity and criterion-related validity used to establish construct validity? Support your position.
Assessment instructions, whether for measuring cognitive ability or intelligence, or for psychometrics like personality, need to be both reliable and valid; otherwise, their results would be meaningless. In fact, using unreliable or invalid assessment instruments could lead to distorted judgments and biased beliefs. The decisions made based on reliable assessments can be sound and productive, whereas decisions made based on invalid or unreliable assessments may be unethical. Assessment reliability refers to how consistent the results are, and validity refers to how well the instrument measures what it intends to measure (“Reliabiity and Validity,” n.d.). The same test administered to the same population at a different point in time should yield similar results—the “test/retest” effect (Sullivan, 2011, p. 119). Likewise, assessment reliability takes into account how the…
However, as Murphy (2008) notes, these original scores, and the weightings, are given by biased humans who may have another agenda than simply giving the most accurate appraisal possible. In addition, there is also the question about whether a truly accurate (when negative) appraisal is the best course of action due to the possible negative consequences.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
Sudarsan (2009) surmises that, in the past, researchers have concluded that there are primarily three approaches to performance appraisals. The first approach -- the results focused approach -- is centered on determining whether a specific job has been performed or not. If these performance targets are met or exceeded, the employee is rewarded. The second approach -- the behavioral approach -- focuses on employee behavior. The actual output of the employee is ignored, but instead the methods the employee is using is evaluated. This approach has the benefit of being…
Addison, J. & Belfield, C. (Sept 2008). The determinants of performance appraisal systems. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 46(3). Retrieved November 15, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
Addison and Belfield compare the findings of Brown and Heywood's analysis of the Australia Workplace Industrial Relations Survey with their findings in Britain, using the Workplace Employment Relations Survey. Of particular interest for this paper was the conclusion from both studies that tenured employees are not strongly motivated by performance appraisals. This shows the ineffectiveness of appraisals, no matter what system is used, for those employees with tenure.
Banu, C. & Umamaheswari, P. (Jul 2009). A study on 360 degree performance appraisal systems in Reliance Life Insurance, Udumalpet. ICFAI Journal of Management Research, 8(7). Retrieved November 15, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
Banu and Umamaheswari research the use of the 360-degree performance appraisal system on a life insurance company. It was found that this appraisal system was helpful in identifying training needs, in addition to evaluating the performance of employees. It was also found to be useful in determining rewards and incentives, as well as promotions. However, the authors failed to acknowledge the challenges inherent in this system, as found be other researchers.
Empowerment Perceptions and Conflict
Modern organizations often grow beyond executive control. As a result, management process often becomes expensive to monitor. This is based on the knowledge that quality managers are scarce. However, there is an option of building internal organization mechanism; for instance, empowerment to substitute the absenteeism of management. This study shows how empowerment is applied to provide consensus in an organization. Parameters prompting an organization to apply empowerment as management supplement are identified. The study also examines the perception of power and its importance in providing solutions in a conflict situation.
Background of Empowerment in an organization
Aamodt (2012) establishes that organizations make sufficient change because managers when done their homework in matters related to employee appraisal. Previous research examined the close relation between the complexities of organization empowerment to the general quality of employee output. Empowerment is based on the knowledge that modern day organizations are…
Aamodt, M. (2012). Industrial/Organizational Psychology: An Applied Approach (Google eBook). New York: Cengage Learning.
Chen, M. (2008). National Culture and Employee Perceptions of Teamwork, Management Accessibility, Participation in Decision Making, and Innovativeness in a Multi-national Corporation. New York: ProQuest
Daft, R. (2007). The Leadership Experience. New York: Cengage Learning.
The Distinctive Aspect of The Division Classes1. PsychologyAccording to the American Psychological Association, Psychology refers to the scientific study of behavior and mind. Psychology is a multifaceted discipline and has several sports, human development, social behavior, cognitive process, health, and sports. Furthermore, the American Psychological Association is a professional body with the mission to improve people\\\'s lives by disseminating and advancing psychological knowledge (Vygotsky, 20). ithin the American Psychological Association are over 50 divisions ranging from comparative and neuroscience psychology, spirituality to exercise, to behavioral psychology (Vygotsky, 21). According to psychologists, there is no specific study on the way people behave and think. However, there is a varying school of thought that has developed in the field of psychology, shaping how human behaviors are investigated. For instance, according to psychologists, some behaviors can be attributed to genetic factors, while others may be attributed to early childhood experiences. The majority of…
Works citedBourdieu, Pierre. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"The specificity of the scientific field and the social conditions of the progress of reason.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" Social science information 14.6 (1975): 19-47.Coe, Rodney M. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Sociology in medicine.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" (1973): 74-76.Greenwood, Ernest. Experimental sociology. Columbia University Press, 1945.Kennedy, George A. A new history of classical rhetoric. Princeton University Press, 2009.Vygotsky, Lev Semenovich. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"The psychology of art.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" (1972).
There are a number of innovations that can lower the cost of health care. The first category of innovation is prevention. esearchers are studying the issue of prevention more intently, as the cost benefits of avoiding illness, or of early detection, are evident. Exploration of the human genome is particularly important in helping the health care industry in early detection, and prevention. Gene therapy and other innovations can help keep people from getting certain conditions in the first place, and when such innovations are focused on chronic conditions, they can dramatically lower the total cost of health care.
Another type of innovation that can lower the cost of health care is anything that reduces the length of stay or the invasiveness of procedures. Many such innovations, such as arthroscopic surgery, have already contributed to lowering the costs associated with certain procedures. obotics is a major player here, having…
Aamodt, M (2013). Industrial/Organizational Psychology. Wadsworth Cengage: Boston
Chaffee, J. (2012). Thinking Critically. Wadsworth Cengage: Boston.
Domoff, S., Hinman, N., Koball, A., Carhart, V., Baik, K. & Carels, R. (2012) . The effects of reality television on weight bias: An examination of The Biggest Loser. Obesity. Vol. 20 (5) 993-998.
Greenwald, H. (2010) Health Care in the United States:: Organization, Management and Policy. John Wiley & Sons: San Francisco.
history of science has existed for many decades. This is considering that it is a well-established discipline of scholarly research. The scholarship of science initially concentrated on the physical…Read Full Paper ❯
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Business - Management
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CONCLUSION The rate of teacher burn out has reached alarming numbers. Each year teachers are fleeing from the field as they become overwhelmed following the first few years in…Read Full Paper ❯
Leadership Priorities and Practice in Organizational Management The enterprise software industry is going through a series of disruptive innovations that are disrupting the economics of the industry while also…Read Full Paper ❯
industrial management continues to remain competitive. As the economy changes over time, the field of industry follows suit. Industrial managers are charged with maintaining productivity and profits regardless of…Read Full Paper ❯
, 1999). Generally speaking, the results of this study showed that increased levels of diversity within the top leadership team had a negative impact on their ability to reach…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
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Despite their supposed differences, all of the foregoing organizational management techniques and approaches share some common themes involving getting a better handle of what is actually being done in…Read Full Paper ❯
Daily Life Typically when one hears the word "psychology" one immediately is drawn to thoughts of psychotherapy, people on a couch, Sigmund Freud like analysts using terms like "how…Read Full Paper ❯
Psychology Treatment For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local…Read Full Paper ❯
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(Koskella, 2002; 1) hile leadership is unquestionably an inborn talent that can be honed and improved, it is nonetheless an individualized talent and therefore both rarified and special. Such…Read Full Paper ❯
214). The author notes many empirical reasons for his critique of the five-factor model. Among the many objections that are put forward is the assertion that there is in…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Bubba Gump Shrimp Company is a seafood chain of restaurants with restaurants across the globe. By September 2010, the restaurant chain had 32 stores throughout the world with 22…Read Full Paper ❯
1. Why are reliability and validity important for assessment? How are content validity and criterion-related validity used to establish construct validity? Support your position. Assessment instructions, whether for measuring…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
However, as Murphy (2008) notes, these original scores, and the weightings, are given by biased humans who may have another agenda than simply giving the most accurate appraisal possible.…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Empowerment Perceptions and Conflict Modern organizations often grow beyond executive control. As a result, management process often becomes expensive to monitor. This is based on the knowledge that quality…Read Full Paper ❯
The Distinctive Aspect of The Division Classes1. PsychologyAccording to the American Psychological Association, Psychology refers to the scientific study of behavior and mind. Psychology is a multifaceted discipline and…Read Full Paper ❯
Health Care There are a number of innovations that can lower the cost of health care. The first category of innovation is prevention. esearchers are studying the issue of…Read Full Paper ❯