Filter Results By:

Reset Filters

We have over 409 essays for "Industrial Organizational Psychology"

Having trouble coming up with an Essay Title?

Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly

View Full Essay

Industrial Organization Psychology Scenario The

Words: 2132 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 55142920

" (Ivin, 2005)

The notion of utilizing sevant leadeship to enhance team wokgoups to pefom such as in the case study scenaio is a contempoay viewpoint with empiical evidence to show thee is effectiveness in implementing this fom of leadeship within the oganizational development famewok.

Poblem solving within the oganizational hieachy is often elegated to job specific activity to which one may o may not actual solve the poblem inheently active in thei domain. Often, poblem solving becomes a function of the goup think to which individual identities in the poblem solving pocess ae meged into a collective membane fo joint analysis. The use of motivational methods (Dubin, 2004) to incease the motivation to poblem solve has yielded meitocatic oganizations that focus on delivey of pefomance above all othe vaiables.

Additionally, the use of meta-communication (Dubin, 2004) evolves aound impoving oganizational communication such as teamwok communication and infomal netwok communication.…… [Read More]

references. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(09631798), 315-315-337. Retrieved from

Irving, J.A. (2005). Servant leadership and the effectiveness of teams. Regent University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Retrieved from 

Moliver, N. (2010). Psychological wellness, physical wellness, and subjective vitality in long-term yoginis over 45.Northcentral University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Retrieved from

Petison, P. (2010). Intercultural communication and relationship marketing: A conceptual perspective. The Business Review, Cambridge, 16(2), 127-127-133. Retrieved from
View Full Essay

Industrial or Organizational Psychology

Words: 855 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6199122

Industrial/organizational psychology, or I-O psychology as it is abbreviated, has gone from being a little known branch of psychology to one that is studied and used by many. Although the concept and the idea of I-O psychology began in the early 1900s, it was not until after World War II that it gained prominence and attention from everyone in the psychology world (Aamond 2009). The idea behind the study of this branch of psychology was to analyze what it was that made people perform in their jobs. In a job market that influenced some to excel, but yet others did not produce results, this branch of psychology was used to understand what it was that caused these problems and how it was that someone could go about fixing them (Spector 2008). These factors were applied to all types of jobs, from factory and office jobs, to professional and military employment.…… [Read More]


Aamod, M.G. (2009). Industrial/organizational psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.

Spector, P.E. (2008). Industrial and organizational psychology: Research and practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Landy, F.J., & Conte, J.M. (2009) Work in the 21st century: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
View Full Essay

Industrial and Organizational Psychology

Words: 1168 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 859632

Industrial/organizational Psychology deals with the human component of organizations as well as clarifying primary motivational drives together with implications of people, socially, that work at the same place within a setting of an organization. Its research as well as the way it is being applied tries to put up characteristic human nature to be a way of efficiency and productivity in the process of facilitating environment which is conducive and safe as per their effect to the employee. All through I/Q psychology's rich history, it has applied statistical analysis and scientific researches in determining application of real-world in the work environment in trying to uphold efficiency in the process of offering an environment which is safe and is conducive to the satisfaction and well being of the employees.

Evolution of Industrial/Organizational Psychology

The genesis of I/Q psychology is from the early history of psychology in late 1800s at the time…… [Read More]


Kanfer, R. (2005). Self-Regulation Research in Work and I/O Psychology. Applied Psychology,

54(2), 186-191. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2005.00203.x

Kanfer, R. (2009). Work Motivation: Advancing Theory and Impact. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2(1), 118-127. doi: 10.1111/j.1754-9434.2008.01120.x

Spector, P.E. (2008). Industrial and organizational psychology. Research and practice (5th ed.).
View Full Essay

Industrial and Organizational Psychology

Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 14045361

In Hartlieb and Jones' study, a company's ethical practices in the workplace are projected onto its products/services, making the products "ethical," resulting to the concept of ethical labeling (583).

Further into the 'trend' of promoting ethical work practices in the company, companies are also promoting their corporate image and improving their relevance to their communities by developing corporate social responsibility (CS) programs. Secchi (2009) explored the 'cognitive side' of CSs, and argued that CS programs act as a "reinforcement mechanism…that, when exercised…works as a social tie between user (communities, recipients) and provider (companies)" (578).

These trends in industrial/organizational psychology are reflected in P&G's corporate practices, through its branding, corporate governance, and CS programs. P&G's corporate governance promotes ethical work behavior by allowing its employees to have a stake in the company -- that is, P&G employees are also its stakeholders. P&G's ethical corporate practices are reflected in its branding efforts,…… [Read More]


Hartlieb, S. And B. Jones. (2009). "Humanising business through ethical labelling: Progress and paradoxes in the UK." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 88.

Pastorizo, D., M. Arino, and J. Ricart. (2009). "Creating an Ethical Work Context: A pathway to generate social capital in the firm." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 88.

Secchi, D. (2009). "The cognitive side of social responsibility." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 88.

Procter & Gamble official website:
View Full Essay

Industrial and Organizational Psychology

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56833685

job analysis is a vital part of any organization. It provides not only a clear description of what employees should be doing during their work hours, but also offers a clear guideline when hiring new employees and determining where the organization should be heading in its operations.

A job analysis has various goals, including the writing of a job description, selection of employees, performance evaluation, and training requirements. When the tasks of employees and the condition under which these tasks are performed are clearly analyzed and presented, it enables a company to identify problems and make improvements where necessary. It is also a means for a company to determine its needs and potential redundancies within the organization. Ultimately, job analyses helps a company to maintain the effectiveness of its workforce and its ability to maintain profitable operations.

Conducting a thorough job analysis entails a variety of steps, the first of…… [Read More]


Arnodt, M.G. (2013). Industrial/Organizational Psychology: An Applied Approach. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
View Full Essay

Industrial and Organizational Psychology Shares Much in

Words: 598 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54217725

Industrial and Organizational Psychology shares much in common with several related fields, and there are multiple professional partnership opportunities. The field most closely linked to industrial and organizational psychology, and one that is important to my personal career development, is going to be human resources. As Cascio & Silbey (1979) point out, assessment centers have transformed the nature of human resources and the candidate selection process, helping organizations make more educated decisions about crafting the ideal organizational culture. Likewise, Murphy, Dzieweczynski & Yang (2009) show how the field of psychology, and organizational psychology in particular, has contributed to the evolution of assessment measures used at every stage of the human resources process from initial intakes and screening for candidates to ongoing assessments and evaluations. In this sense, human resources depend on organizational and industrial psychology.

The field of industrial and organizational psychology adds complexity to the human resources selection process,…… [Read More]


Cascio, W. & Silbey, V. (1979). Utility of the assessment center as a selection device. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64(2), 107-118. (EBSCOhost Accession

Number: AN 5112753).

Murphy, K., Dzieweczynski, J., & Yang, Z. (2009). Positive manifold limits the relevance of content-matching strategies for validating selection test batteries. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), 1018-1031. (EBSCOhost Accession Number: AN apl-94-4-1018).

Prins, S. (2006). The psychodynamic perspective in organizational research: Making sense of the dynamics of direction setting in emergent collaborative processes. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 79(3), 335-355. (EBSCOhost Accession Number: AN 22557999).
View Full Essay

Industrial and Organizational Psychology Individual Psychological Testing

Words: 1646 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3979177

Industrial and Organizational Psychology

Individual Psychological Testing in the Workplace

Faced with an ever increasing competitive business environment, many employers are turning to employment testing as a way to improve their workforces. Every organization wants to ensure that they hire the right person. Job applicants may submit an effective resume and perform well during an interview, but they usually highlight only positive attributes. Psychological testing has been identified as one way of ensuring that the business picks an applicant who is a perfect fit for the position and actually can do the work required. Physiological tests have been validated by experts as a very good indicator of an applicant's working style. Testing potential employees can increase the chances that a company chooses the right person for a job, reduce turnover and their by lower training costs.

Specific Psychological Testing used in the Workplace

Personality Tests:

Personality tests are self-report measures…… [Read More]


American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National

Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association

American Psychological Association. (2011). Rights and responsibilities of test takers:

guidelines and expectations. American Psychological Association (APA). Retrieved June
View Full Essay

Industrial and Organizational Psychology According

Words: 399 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91746896

On a university campus, one of the most active niches is that of student organizations. Perhaps nowhere else do more organizations exist than on a college campus. These student organizations exist because there is a need for students to get involved, interact and stay active. ecause every student has their own needs for joining an organization, there are a diverse array of organizations to meet these needs. For example, there are social organizations for students needing to meet people, there are political organizations for students who want to create change in their community and there are interest organizations for those who want to share their knowledge and enjoyment of a particular hobby with others. If an organization matches the particular students needs, then the organization fulfills the student's needs. This determination is made by the combination of the three above mentioned factors and their application to the integration of the…… [Read More]


Schein, Edgar. Organizational Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1980.
View Full Essay

Organizational Behavior Psychology Applied Comprehension

Words: 4268 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87584890

With this approach, consultation psychology focuses on the issues of the group as a whole and therefore typically uses group discussions, interviews and observations as opposed to singling out specific individuals. The result is that, by using consultation psychology in the field of industrial and organizational psychology, the focus is on the group and the roles the individuals who make up the group play. With this focus, industrial and organizational psychology is better able to meet its goals of increasing organizational productivity, well-being and success.

Case Example

In the case sample cited in the introduction of this paper, the issue was how consultation psychology could be utilized as a method for providing industrial and organizational psychological services to a mental health related organization. From the overview provided in the previous section, it can be seen that utilizing consultation psychology, as opposed to clinical psychology, will be the best method of…… [Read More]


Bass, Bernard M. (1960): Leadership, Psychology and Organizational Behavior. New York: Harper and Brothers.

Bass, Bernard M., and Pieter JD Drenth. (1987): Advances in Organizational Psychology: An International Review. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

Brehm, S.S., Kassin, S. And Fein, S. (2005): Social Psychology. Boston: Charles Hartford.

Cameron, Kim S., and Robert E. Quinn. (2006): Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture Based on the Competing Values Framework. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
View Full Essay

Industrial or Organizational Psychology Issue

Words: 1619 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75519538

I believe that I would have to point to prior accomplishments, as well, so this is not an assignment I would take directly after becoming a consultant, but one that I would grow to so I could perform it to the very best of my ability.

I would measure my success by reassessing the job after a specific period of time, such as a year, to see what improvements came in the job satisfaction and production of the department, and if the employee turnover rate fell. Just as in the initial job analysis, I would interview current and former employees to discuss the management issues, and then assess the job and performance to see if those issues had cleared up. I would do a thorough assessment and present my findings to the administration, as well.

My issue falls directly into these organizations psychology topics because management is one of the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Organizational Psychologist the Work of

Words: 2272 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 2978515

Advise management concerning personnel, managerial, and marketing policies and practices and their potential effects on organizational effectiveness and efficiency.

Analyze data, using statistical methods and applications, to evaluate the outcomes and effectiveness of workplace programs.

Assess employee performance.

Observe and interview workers to obtain information about the physical, mental, and educational requirements of jobs as well as information about aspects such as job satisfaction.

Write reports on research findings and implications to contribute to general knowledge and to suggest potential changes in organizational functioning.

Facilitate organizational development and change.

Identify training and development needs.

Work Activities

Normal work activities for an Industrial Organizational psychologist might include: getting information, providing consultation and advice to others, interpreting the meaning of information to others, establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships, making decisions and solving problems.

In addition to those, an I/O psychologist would analyze data, organize, plan and prioritize work, interact with computers, judge…… [Read More]


Industrial psychology. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2009, from 

McCarthy, P. (2002). Brief outline of the history of I/O psychology. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Middle Tennessee State University: 

Morris, L. (2000). Careers in industrial organizational psychology. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from Westchester university department of education: 

O-net. (2008). Summary report for industrial organizational psychologists. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from o-net online:
View Full Essay

Applying Organizational Psychology

Words: 1270 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48084201

Applying Organizational Psychology

Organizational ecruitment

ecruitment is the procedure of seeking out prospects for work and encouraging them to get employment within the organization. ecruitment is the task that connects the companies and the potential candidates. It is a procedure of searching for and drawing in capable candidates for work. The procedure starts when brand-new employees are explored and ends when their applications are given to the company. The outcome is a collection of applications from which brand-new staff members are picked. It is a procedure to find workforce sources to fulfill the current workforce needs and to use efficient measures for drawing new potential recruits in ample numbers to assist the company in making an efficient recruitment choice. ecruitment of prospects is the feature preceding the selection, which assists develop a pool of potential staff members for the organization so that the management can pick the right prospect for…… [Read More]


Borman, W.C., & Motowidlo, S.J. (1993). Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance. In N. Schmitt & W.C. Borman (Eds.), Personnel selection in organizations (pp. 71 -- 98). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Campbell, J.P. (1990). Modelling the performance prediction problem in industrial and organizational psychology. In M.D. Dunnette & L.M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 687 -- 732). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Conway, J.M. (1999). Distinguishing contextual performance from task performance for managerial jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 3 -- 13.

Jex, S.M., & Britt, T.W. (2008). Organizational Psychogy: A Scientist-Practioner Approach. Second Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
View Full Essay

Industrial Psychology

Words: 741 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60221858


Contemporary Issues in Health Care

There are several factors that are driving up the cost of health care in the United States. ising drug costs are a major factor in the marketplace. A PriceWaterhouse Coopers (2014) study showed that new drugs in particular are a driver of cost increases in the health care system. New drugs come with monopoly protections, and drug companies use this to extract monopoly rents on their customers to recoup the high cost of new drug development. The use of new drugs over older, generic drugs that perform the same function drives up the total cost of health care.

Another major cost driver that has been identified for health care is a shift in where health care is performed -- for example hospitals charge more for the same care in an outpatient setting than physician offices charge. A move towards more health care delivered at…… [Read More]


PWC (2014). Behind the numbers, 2015: Physician employment. PriceWaterhouse Coopers. Retrieved March 11, 2015 from 

PWC (2014) Behind the numbers, 2015: Specialty drugs. PriceWaterhouse Coopers. Retrieved March 11, 2015 from
View Full Essay

Analyzing Psychology of Work

Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20330886

Psychology of Work

In accordance to iggio (2013), industrial organizational psychology is purposed to improve the level of self-esteem and performance of human beings, and the organizations they operate in, by progressing the knowledge and understanding of human conduct and behavior. Due to globalization, the workforces within organizations have increasingly become more diverse in the recent decade. In accordance to research studies, diverse teams and groups that are well managed outdo standardized and uniform groups as they have a tendency of being more inventive, creative and effective at resolving problems. Nonetheless, when these teams commonly experience problems with regard to communication, which results in lower performance, personnel from different nationalities, cultures, generations, gender and beliefs are presently forced to work together and operate in tandem within the same organization. As a result, these dissimilarities have come to be a current communication issue within organizations. This is for the reason that…… [Read More]


Miller, K. (2014). Organizational communication: Approaches and processes. Cengage Learning.

National Integration Working Group for workplaces (NIWG). (2012). Managing Workplace Diversity: A tool kit for organizations. Retrieved 28 January, 2016 from: 

Riggio, Ronald, E. (2013). Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology, 6th edition.
View Full Essay

Organizational Personality Citizen's Hospital Is an Organization

Words: 553 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24364908

Organizational Personality

Citizen's Hospital is an organization where employees and the organization share common goals. The organization has a personality of confusion. The culture of the organization focused on patient satisfaction where the climate was democratic with an emphasis on interpersonal skills, democratic values and human motivation (Francis, 2012). The structure was hierarchal and operated by departments.

Shared common goals included enabling patients to gain adequate recovery in the fastest, most effective way with safe measures to prevent infection and other illness. The psychological part of the company displayed friendliness with the interview processes that included a peer interview with the department's employees to determine capability. Upon hiring, all new hires were required to go through a socialization process of employee orientation and mentor training. Once the new hired is trained, confusion sets in with unsafe practices.

The organization developed large amounts of back injuries from role stress and a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Francis, A. (2012, Mar 1). Neoclassical Theories of Organization. Retrieved from MBA Knowledge Base: 

Landy, F.J. (2013). The Organization of Work Behavior. In F.J. Landy, Work in the 21st century: An Introduction to industrial and organizational psychology, 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
View Full Essay

Organization Behavior Performance Management and People Performance

Words: 3584 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1510997

Organization Behavior

"Performance Management" and "People Performance"

Performance Management and People

"Performance Management" and "People Performance"

Management SUMMAY

The purpose of this paper is to discuss and critically evaluate the Performance Management model by Michael Armstrong and People Performance model by John Purcell. The paper starts with an ample introduction and significance of the employee performance management practices and proceeds by discussing the various concepts and strategies which are incorporated by business organizations all over the world. The major focus of the paper is to discuss the implications of these models for the success and prosperity of an organization. The main body of the paper discusses these models from a critical perspective and explains their major components in detail.

The most important strategies which are recommended by Performance Management model include performance appraisal and reviews, training and skills development, Management by Objectives (MBO), the techniques to manage the low performers,…… [Read More]


Armstrong. M, 2012, Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 12th edition. U.S.: Kogan Page

Becker, B. & Gerhart, B. 1996, "The impact of human resource management on organisational performance: Progress and prospects," Academy of Management Journal, 39 (4): 779-801.

Becker, B. & Huselid, M. 2006, "Strategic Human Resources Management: Where do we go from here?," Journal of Management, 32 (6): 898-925.

Boselie, P., Dietz, G., & Boon, C. 2005, "Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research," Human Resource Management Journal, 15 (3): 67-94.
View Full Essay

Organization What Is an Organizational Theory In

Words: 722 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37286118


What is an Organizational Theory?

In the organizational sciences (e.g., organizational behavior, organizational psychology), one of the more misunderstood terms is organizational theory. To some, organizational theory is a field of study; to others, it is the process of using metaphorical language to describe organizational processes (e.g., McKenna & Wright, 1992; Morgan, 1986), or it represents an attempt to determine the best way to organize work organizations. The term is used to indicate all of these things, but an organizational theory is really just a way of organizing purposeful human action. Given the diversity of purposeful human endeavors, there are numerous ways to organize them, and, hence, a great many organizational theories.

Major Organizational Theories

Having provided a brief overview of the field of organizational theory, we now move on to a consideration of the major organizational theories themselves. Organizational theories simply represent ideas or models of the form…… [Read More]


McKenna, D.D., & Wright, P.M. (1992). Alternative metaphors for organizational design. In M.D. Dunnette & L.M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 901 -- 960). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Morgan, G. (1986). Images of organization. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Taylor, F.W. (1911). Principles of scientific management. New York: Harper.

Weber, M. (1947). The theory of social and economic organization (A. M. Henderson & T. Parsons, Trans.) New York: Free Press.
View Full Essay

Organization Change Leveraging Power and Influence in Change Management

Words: 6001 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75714024

Organization Change - Leveraging Power & Influence in Change Management

Leveraging Power & Influence in Change Management

Change is the only inevitable factor within any organization in the contemporary society. The changes that take place in line with the Human esources as well as the technology are so rapid that to stay relevant, each organization must of necessity keep up-to-date with the changes that are relevant to the organization. However, to have effective change, amid all the challenges that come with the attempt to effect change, there must be leadership that leverages power and is in a position to influence change and manage it to the conclusive end. It should be noted that change is not a destination but a continuous process, hence change management must also be continuous and not static. Changes in organizations take place all the time and each and every day which in most cases are…… [Read More]


Agguire D., (2013). Culture's Role in Enabling Organizational ChangeSurvey Ties

Transformation Success to Deft Handling of Cultural Issues. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from

Beakey, D. (2007). Organizational Design and Implementation. Graziadio Business Review:

Graziadio School of Business and Management, Pepperdine University. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from
View Full Essay

Organizational Systems and Quality Leadership

Words: 1172 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13563827

Not everyone thinks of a hospital as a business, but it must be operated as such if it is to take proper care of patients and make enough profit to continue to function. One of the best ways in which to be successful in those endeavors is to have good leadership. Proper leadership allows for an overall experience that is the best for everyone involved (van Vugt & Ahuja, 2011). In a medical setting, the leader must be sure to pass important knowledge and information down to those who are caring for the patients, and must take action to correct known problems.

There are resources that can be used to ensure patients are receiving the best care possible. As a nursing shift supervisor, working with the right colleagues and using the proper resources could help the patient and also resolve the ethical issues that are seen in Mr. J.'s case.…… [Read More]


Forsyth, D.R. (2009). Group dynamics (5th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Hackman, M. & Johnson, C. (2009). Leadership: A communication perspective. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.

Lussier, R.N., & Achua, C.F. (2010). Leadership, theory, application, & skill development.(4th ed). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Schultz, D.P., Schultz, S.E. (2010). Psychology and work today: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
View Full Essay

History of Psychology Applied to Employee Selection

Words: 1202 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21806075

History of Psychology Applied to Employee Selection" appears in Historical Perspectives in Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Although it is a chapter in the book, it provides detailed information and can be used as a stand-alone text in an analysis of the subject. Vinchur (2007) divides the subject into chronological time periods, which is unusual for most essays in the field of organizational psychology. The first section is on the origins and early years of the application of psychological principles to employee selection. Surprisingly, this section covers the Industrial Age until 1930, an era in which psychology was barely recognized as a science let alone human resources being recognized as a field. The next section in the article is about Depression, World War II, and immediate postwar period employee psychology practices. Basically, this section covers 1930 until 1963. Finally, the civil rights era and "beyond" is the section that includes developments…… [Read More]


Brown, J. (2002). Training needs assessment: A must for developing an effective training program. Public Personnel Management, 31(4), 569. (EBSCOhost Accession

Number: AN 9004432).

Furnham, A., Dissou, G., Sloan, P., & Chamorro-Premu, T. (2007). Personality and intelligence in business people. Journal of Business Psychology 2997(22): 99-109.

Vinchur, A.J. (2007). A history of psychology applied to employee selection. Chapter 8 in Historical Perspectives in Industrial and Organizational Psychology. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.
View Full Essay

I-O Psychology Articles Review Employees

Words: 1014 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 130785

For instance, if there is a candidate who after interviewing appeared to be a good fit for a position, but the testing came back with poor results, there is the tendency to pass up the candidate. However, by making personnel managers aware of this tendency, they can really consider whether the candidate is still a good hire, even if the testing was not as desired.

Protecting the legal and appropriate use of personality testing: A practitioner perspective

Jones and Arnold (2008) explore the issue of legally and appropriately using personality testing. There are risks that must be managed to ensure personality testing doesn't become restricted, or worse outlawed, by state or federal law. The authors note that "I-O psychologists should never get myopic as to where the real threats might come from in terms of the ongoing use of personality testing or other selection tools used in the workplace." For…… [Read More]


Jones, W. & Arnold, J. (Sept 2008). Protecting the legal and appropriate use of personality testing: A practitioner perspective. Industrial & Organizational Psychology, 1(3). Retrieved October 22, 2009, from Business Source Complete.

Martin, S. (Sept 2008). Managers also overrely on tests. Industrial & Organizational Psychology, 1(3). Retrieved October 22, 2009, from Business Source Complete.

Ryan, a. & Tippings, M. (Winter 2004). Attracting and selecting: What psychological research tells us. Human Resource Management, 43(4). Retrieved October 22, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
View Full Essay

South Australia Ambulance Service Organizational Behaviour Case

Words: 5163 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58704794

South Australia Ambulance Service

Organizational Behaviour Case Analysis


ay Main should develop a system which empowers the culture of organization along with the shift towards automation and excellent customer service.

Has to do what

The leadership of South Australia Ambulance Service is required to do the following:

To set a strategic direction for SAAS this would be compatible to the new strategic plan.

Meet the service expectations of the clients by focusing more on efficient customer services.

Empower the service delivery personnel fully and hold them accountable for every action.

The expectations of donators and community should be aligned.

Make SAAS compatible to respond to mass casualties.

Workforce retention should be increased.

Emergency sector and healthcare should be integrated to respond efficiently to any casualty.

Interventions should be prioritized.

The impact of any change should be evaluated on the patient as patients' life is more important. (Daniels 2009)

The…… [Read More]


Steven McShane, Sandra Steen, (2008). Canadian Organizational Behaviour, Seventh Edition. McGraw-Hill Ryerson Higher Education; Canadian edition

Abernathy, W.B. (2006). Designing and managing an organization-wide incentive pay system. Memphis, TN: Abernathy & Associates.

Abernathy, W.B. (2006). The sin of wages: Where the conventional pay system has led us and how to find a way out. Memphis, TN: PerfSys Press.

Alvero, A.M., Bucklin, B.R., and Austin, J. An objective review of the effectiveness and essential characteristics of performance feedback in organizational settings. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management vol. 21 (2001). pp. 3 -- 29
View Full Essay

Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice True Psychology

Words: 19429 Length: 71 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 78576075

Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"

Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…… [Read More]


American people and society. (2015). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html.

Bassett, R.L. (2013, Winter). An empirical consideration of grace and legalism within Christian experience. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 32(1), 43-49.

Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Bobgan, M. & Bobgan, D. (1987). PsychoHeresy: The psychological seduction of Christianity.
View Full Essay

The Origin and Evolution of Clinical Psychology

Words: 1158 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66335349

old, the profession of clinical psychology is "one of the most vigorous fields of psychology," (eisman, 1991, p. 3). Clinical psychology refers generally to both social science research and application of that research to achieve specific clinical goals related to mental health. Since its inception in the 1890s, the field has changed and evolved dramatically (Benjamin, 2005). Earliest forms of clinical psychology included working with asylum patients, which often entailed using a variety of techniques that are now deemed unethical or harmful. The rise of psychoanalysis based on Freud's teachings led to the 20th century being an era in which talk therapy prevailed. esearch on different models of talk therapy has informed best practices in general. However, recent changes to the field of clinical psychology attempt to distinguish between the types of quantifiable evidence that can be gained from empirical research using psychopharmacological interventions on the one hand and less…… [Read More]


Barlow, DH (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Clinical Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Benjamin, L.T. (2005). A history of clinical psychology as a profession in America. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 1, 1-30.

Lilienfeld, S.O., Lynn, S.J. & Lohr, J.M. (2015). Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology. New York: The Guilford Press.

Reisman, J.M. (1991). A History of Clinical Psychology. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
View Full Essay

Productive Org Productive and Counter-Productive Work Behaviors

Words: 769 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79009450

Productive Org

Productive and Counter-Productive ork Behaviors

Organizational success is predicated on the abilities and efforts demonstrated by personnel. ith respect to matters such as job performance and productivity, a company's long-term prospects will rest significantly on the shoulders of day-to-day employees. This denotes the importance of identifying behaviors that promote productivity and eliminating those which are counterproductive. The discussion hereafter offers a concise consideration of how to achieve this balance.

Productive and Counterproductive Behavior:

The text by hite (2010) offers some basic definitions that help to assign meanings to productive and counterproductive behaviors within the context of the workplace. hite identifies productive behavior as anything that helps to further the goals for the organization, that works to actively improve the company culture or that contributes to adherence with the company's mission. hite reports that "some of the most constructive forms of productive behavior in organizations are innovation, job performance,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Fox, S.; Spector, P.E. & Miles, D. (2001). Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) in Response to Job Stressors and Organizational Justice: Some Mediator and Moderator Tests for Autonomy and Emotions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59, 291-309.

KGA. (2001). Managing Counterproductive Behavior. Kathleen Greer Associates.

Mondrow, I. (2011). Can Counterproductive Work Behaviors Be Productive. Perspectives of Industrial/Organizational Psychology.

White, S.E. (2010). Productive and Counterproductive Behaviors Within Organizations. Associated Content.
View Full Essay

Psychology and Human Resource Management

Words: 1793 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1683791

Business enterprises and organizations believe that empowering workers develops their self-esteem, which in turn gives them the momentum to take responsibility of their own projects. The significance of the field of psychology on Human Resource Management in the future will be fueled by increased performance expectations and employer branding that characterizes this field. As a result, every personnel in this department will be required to take up a role in coaching, mentoring, and planning, which requires use of psychological tools.


The field of psychology has continued to play a significant role in the development of Human Resource Management across business enterprises and organizations. This is evident in the fact that HRM personnel and professionals are increasingly using psychological concepts in their entire processes, especially the selection process.

orks Cited:

Covella, Linda. "HR Management Concepts & Techniques." EHow. Demand Media, Inc., 10 May 2010. eb. 15 Dec. 2012. .

Cullinane,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Covella, Linda. "HR Management Concepts & Techniques." EHow. Demand Media, Inc., 10 May 2010. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. .

Cullinane, Niall, and Tony Dundon. "The Psychological Contract: A Critical Review." International Journal of Management Reviews 8.2 (2006): 113-29. School of Business and Public Policy. National University of Ireland, 2006. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. .

Kulshrestha, Sandeep. "Human Resource Management -- Evolving as a Sciencewith Inspiration from Psychology." Hr and Psychology. Scribd, n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. .

Kumar, Suraj. "Role of Psychology in Human Resource Management and Development." All Best Articles. Responsive Website Design, n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. .
View Full Essay

Organization Management and People

Words: 3377 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66619966

Restructuring of First ank

Family enterprise, First ank, has, for three decades, been the town's only bank. Mr. First, the founder, originally instituted it as a little loaning shop; the small business grew larger, turning into the town's sole financial services organization. It provided small loans and over-the-counter cash facilities to clients. The town's growth, however, has led to a tremendous increase in the bank's client base, challenging the current operational structure of the organization. The problem faced is threat to the organization's existence, owing to the fact that the bank, at present, is not up to the task of meeting the town's growing demands. ank management, comprising chiefly of family members, is unwilling to alter the existing operational structure as well as improving quality and increasing the number of personnel employed. This has been a major factor in the bank's inefficient, stagnated, and outdated structure. Apart from hiring fresh…… [Read More]


Adler, P. S., & Shenbar, A. (1990). Adapting your technological base: the organizational challenge. Sloan Management Review. Fall 1990. p. 25-37.

Argyle, M. (1989). The Social Psychology of Work. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Balogun, J., & Hope, H. V. (2008). Exploring Strategic Change. London: Prentice Hall.

Belbin, R. M. (1993) Team Roles at Work. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
View Full Essay

Identifying and Resolving Organization

Words: 1573 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 45103088

Organizational Conflict


Management Theory and Thought: Identifying and Resolving Organizational Conflict

Understanding Individual Preferences

Organizational Diversity

Interpersonal Communication

The modern business environment has become more complex and diverse than ever before. Globalization has been driven by technological innovations that allow for greater communication, information sharing, travel, and business networks that span the globe. Employees today expected to handle workloads that push their productivity beyond that of any generation in the past. Furthermore, the complexity and diversity found in this environment often significantly increase the potential for organizational conflict. Teams are now more commonly spread out across geographic locations and often represent individuals from far different backgrounds.

There are many perspectives that can be used to try to build organizational conflict resolution capabilities in an organization and this objective can be viewed from many perspectives. For example, you can try to build conflict resolution skills in the individual,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brenner, M., Fairris, D., & Ruser, J. (2004). "Flexible" Work Practices and Occupational Safety and Health: Exploring the Relationship Between Cumulative Trauma Disorders and Workplace Transformation. Industrial Relations, 242-266.

Gherri, B., & Eimer, M. (2011). Active Listening Impairs Visual Perception and Selectivity: An ERP Study of Auditory Dual-task Costs on Visual Attention. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23(4), 832-844.

Hunt, G., & Cusella, L. (1983). A field study of listening needs in organizations. Communication Education, 32(4), 393-401.

Terestre, D. (2004, March 26). Talking him down: the crisis negotiator. Retrieved from Police One:
View Full Essay

Industrial Psychology in Principle the Primary Purpose

Words: 321 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55863947

Industrial Psychology

In principle, the primary purpose of employee selection is to identify, attract, and retain employees who are most likely to be successful in their positions (Author, year p 147). That process begins with determining the specific characteristics, attributes, and capabilities necessary for success in the organization in general and in the capacity of the position of each employee in particular. Many organizations rely on objective job analyses and on related formulations such as knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) for that purpose (Author, year p 149). For example, where the position of manager requires budgetary oversight, the skills of calculating budgets and understanding budget issues would be important elements of the list of KSAs for that particular position (Author, year p 149). Another tool typically used by organizations to increase the likelihood that new employees will be successful and that they will not respond negatively to the stresses posed…… [Read More]


Last name, initial. (year). Title in italics here. Publisher: Publisher location.
View Full Essay

Organization Behavior Strategic Management of Human Resources

Words: 2074 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66465687

Organization Behavior

Strategic Management of Human esources

Human resource is considered as the most precious asset for business organizations. The financial performance and growth in the industry heavily depends upon the way an organization's employees perform at the workplace (Edwards 2003). A dedicated and committed workforce contributes towards a high level of operational excellence and market competitiveness. Therefore, it should be among the top priorities for an organization to manage its human resource in an effective and efficient way (ose 2004).

Strategic Human esource Management deals with formulating policies and procedures for getting the best work from employees, implementing different techniques to motivate them, and assessing the future human resource requirements at the workplace (Saxena 2009). This paper explains the strategic human resource management policies of one of the World's Top software companies -- Adobe Systems Incorporated. These policies are required to meet the current human resource requirements of the…… [Read More]


Ashamalla, M., H., 1998, International Human Resource Management Practices: the Challenge of Expatriation. CR, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 54-63

Adobe, 2012, Adobe Fast Facts 2011, Available from

Adobe, 2012, Commitment to Employees, Available from

Adobe, 2012, Professional Development, Available from [Accessed January 24th, 2012]
View Full Essay

Organization Behavior Competitive Advantage Through Human Resource

Words: 4150 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52563184

Organization Behavior

Competitive Advantage through Human esource Management Practices

Human esource Management Practices

Competitive Advantage through Human esource Management Practices


Human esource Management involves all those activities which are related to the management of workforce or employees of an organization. It is also one of the core functions which managers perform at the workplace. Human esource Management entails activities like recruitment and selection, training and development, performance assessment, compensation, leadership, and motivation at large (Chadwick & Dabu 2009). Basically, Human esource Management focuses on recruitment, management, guidance, and motivation of employees in an organization. In the past, HM was just restricted to two core functions: employee management and motivation. Now, it has emerged as one of the biggest strategic issues in the business world (Kandula 2007).

With the passage of time, the scope and functions of Human esource Management have also increased. Now, it also involves employee…… [Read More]


Armstrong, M. 2007, A handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 10th Edition. London: Kogan Page

Baudler, C.R. 2011, Employee Engagement: Through Effective Performance Management by Edward M. Mone and Manuel London, Personnel Psychology, 64 (3): 813-816.

Birdi, K., Clegg, C., Patterson, M., Robinson, A., Stride, C.B., Wall, T.D., & Wood, S.J. 2008, The Impact of Human Resource and Operational Management Practices on Company Productivity: A Longitudinal Study, Personnel Psychology, 61 (1): 467-501.

Browning, V., Edgar, F., Gray, B., & Garrett, T. 2009, Realizing Competitive Advantage through HRM in New Zealand Service Industries, The Service Industries Journal, 29 (6): 741-760.
View Full Essay

Organization Awards Since the Industrial

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14256811

This suggests that people act fairly in part because of what they think may be the result of other people's reaction to the self-serving behavior. People appreciate distributive equity that further supports their personal circumstances. On the other hand, more recently, social scientists, such as Miller (1999) have argued that people do care about justice and behave with justice-seeking behavior instead of this more selfish self-interest. In other words, there is no overall behavior that is common to all people.

As noted in ischer et al. (2007), what motivates employees has normally been studied in laboratory settings, which is an artificial approach. or, the better alternative, studies have asked employees about their thoughts concerning the company's allocation policies. As noted, it is important to know what employees actually perceive instead of what decision makers intend to do. Thus, ischer's research focused on employees' perceptions of the allocation decisions made by…… [Read More]

Fischer, R., Smith, PB., Richey, B et al. 2007 "How Do Organizations Allocate Rewards?"

Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol 38, no 1, pp 3-18.

Miller, DT 1999. "The norm of self-interest," American Psychologist, vol 54, pp.1053-1060.
View Full Essay

Organization Change as a Result

Words: 1545 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46853925

The change that outsourcing and SAs bring into organizations is, or should be, planned. It is the result of specific efforts by a change agent (individuals and groups who take responsibility for changing the existing behavior patterns), in this case managers. Planned change processes are a direct response to someone's perception of a discrepancy between the desired and actual state of affairs (performance gap). Performance gaps are at the same time problems to be resolved or opportunities to be explored through outsourcing and SAs.


All in all, outsourcing and strategic alliances are both concepts that will be found on the corporate strategic agenda for the years to come. The market dynamics and increasing pressures toward efficiency impose the need for organizational change. The benefits of the two strategic directions discussed are real, and through careful planning and implementation, organizations can gain a competitive advantage.


Berrio A.A. 2003, An…… [Read More]


Berrio A.A. 2003, An Organizational Culture Assessment Using the Competing Values Framework: A Profile of Ohio State University Extension, National Institute for Agricultural Research (INIA), Retrieved from URL 

Gottfredson M., Puryear R., Phillips S., Strategic Sourcing: From Periphery to the Core, Harvard Business Review, February 2005 Issue

Gupta, S. 2002, Demystifying offshore outsourcing: despite the risks, the benefits can be great, CMA Management, Retrieved Online from URL: 

Schermerhorn J., Hunt J., and Osborn R. 2005, Organizational Behavior. 9th ed. New York, Wiley
View Full Essay

Industrial Psychology Any Human Interaction

Words: 2403 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: A-Level Coursework Paper #: 22337699

More specifically, my goal as a student, for example, is to achieve grades that are as high as possible, which will determine the type of work I will be able to get in my future. As employee, I will strive to reward my employer's trust in me by delivering work of as high quality as possible. As family member, my goal is to spend enough time with those close to me to maintain my relationship with them. As citizen, my goals are to further the principles and values of my country by participating in public debate and politics. As human being, my goals are to make my best effort to help those in need of assistance and to be part of the interconnected network of humanity in such a way that life and peace are promoted.

My main motivators can be found in McClelland's acquired needs theory (CliffsNotes, n.d.). These…… [Read More]


Antariksa, Y. (n.d.). Selection Error. Retrieved from: 

Bingham, a. And Spradin, D. (2011, Apr. 18). Introduction ot the Open Innovation Marketplace. Financial Times. Retrieved from: 

Brown, K. (2009, Oct. 3). Unions -- Good or Bad? Retrieved from: 

CliffsNotes. (n.d.) Motivation Theories: Individual Needs. Retrieved from:,articleId-8908.html
View Full Essay

Psychology of Gender in Business

Words: 2497 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37458156

Psychology of Gender in usiness

Traditional gender roles have defined the business lives as well as the home lives of families and breadwinners for numerous generations. Certain expectations were put in place at what seems to be the dawn of time. The evolution of these decided obligations went on to shape the traditional family and the roster of the traditional workplace. Expansions and millenniums of progression in this historical framework then gave way to what the modern world still often considers gender specific job roles. Though, without question, this segregative and selective approach to the business world is surely archaic. Nevertheless, over the last decade or so there has been a revolution that is gaining steam in the business community. The idea of equality is becoming more and more popular among businesses and government agencies. Such powerful and influential entities have finally realized that the furthering and promotion of gender…… [Read More]


Adams, S.M., Gupta, A., Haughton, D.M., & Leeth, J.D. (2007). Gender Differences in CEO Compensation: Evidence from the U.S.A. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 22 (3), 208-224.

Altbach, P.G., Reisberg, L., & Rumbley, L.E. (2009). Trends in Global Higher Education: Tracking an Academic Revolution. UNESCO 2009 World Conference on Higher Education. Paris, France.

Blau, F.D., & Kahn, L.M. (2000). Gender Differences in Pay. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14 (4), 75-99.

Bowling, N.A., & Beehr, T.A. (2006). Workplace Harassment from the Victim's Perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91 (5), 998-1012.
View Full Essay

Organization Behavior Student Inserts Grade Course Here

Words: 2543 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 49504376

Organization Behavior

Student Inserts Grade Course Here


A customer is the most prestigious stakeholder of any business organization. The success or failure of its business is totally dependent on the consumption behavior and loyalty of its customers (Campbell, 2003). Therefore, making a long-term and strategic relationship with the customers must be among the top priorities of business organizations (Mithas, Krishnan, & Fornell, 2005). This relationship is managed through a process called as the Customer elationship Management -- a multi-faceted phenomenon and a business strategy used by organizations to manage their interactions with customers in an effective and well-organized way (Homburg, Wieseke, Bornemann, 2009).

It is essential for a business organization to have good relationships with its customers as they are the sole source of earning profits (Krasnikov, Jayachandran, & Kumar, 2009). Customer elationship Management involves managerial level efforts to attract new customers as well as…… [Read More]


Boulding, W., Staelin, R., Ehret, M., Johnston, W., J., 2005, A Customer Relationship Management Roadmap: What Is Known, Potential Pitfalls, and Where to Go? Journal of Marketing, Vol. 69, Issue 4, pp. 155-166

Campbell, A., J., 2003, creating customer knowledge competence: managing customer relationship management programs strategically, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 32, Issue 5, pp. 375-383

Gill, A., Flaschner, A., B., Shah, C., Bhutani, I., 2010, The Relations of Transformational Leadership and Empowerment with Employee Job Satisfaction: A Study among Indian Restaurant Employees, Business and Economics Journal, Vol. 2010, pp. 1-10.

Gustafsson, A., Johnson, M., D., Roos, I., 2005, The Effects of Customer Satisfaction, Relationship Commitment Dimensions, and Triggers on Customer Retention, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 69, issue 4, pp. 210-218.
View Full Essay

Organizational Leaders Produce Results Through

Words: 9447 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 24430626

According to the authors, this can be done if employees are given a sense of importance in the organizations. Knowledge workers are already short in supplies and most competing rivals also compete to get the best human resource in terms of knowledge workers. It is therefore essential for any organization to retain this highly skilled part of their workforce and in order to do that organizations must eliminate the autocratic elements and give the employees more say in the organization.

The shortage in supply of specialized knowledge workforce has not only made this type of labor more expensive but also more immobile and difficult to acquire. High employee turnovers with this type of labours can therefore be threatening to organization's sustainable management and long-term success. The company should be more flexible with its bureaucracy. It should allow more decentralization as far as functional and regional departments are concerned (Ireland &…… [Read More]


Macht, J. (1993). Special education's failed system: A question of eligibility. United States of America.

Kalat, J. (2007). Introduction to Psychology. United States of America: Thomson

Kaufman, A. (2009). IQ testing one hundred one. New York: Springer Publishing Company

Kline, P. (1991). Intelligence: The psychometric view. London: Routledge.
View Full Essay

Organizational Case Analysis

Words: 2539 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 25863249

Organizational Case Analysis

Organization Overview

Apple Inc. is a multinational companies specializing in the designing, manufacturing and marketing of mobile communication devices such as personal computers and digital music players. The company also sells varieties of mobile telecommunication devices such as iPhone, iPod, iPad, and Mac. Additionally, Apple Inc. sells some professional software application such as Mac OS, iOS, iCloud and other varieties of communication accessories. Apple Inc. sells its products through retail stores, online stores, value-added resellers, direct sales, wholesalers, and through third party cellular network carriers. (Apple Annual eport, 2011). Apple Inc. was Incorporated in 1977 in California, and presently Apple Inc. has become one of the most successful companies in the United States and globally. Apple Inc. is committed to bring best computer experience to its customers, and the company business strategy is to develop high quality products to reach more customers. Major customers of Apple Inc.…… [Read More]


Apple Annual Report (2011). Apple Annual Report 2011. Apple Inc.2011.

Caixing, L. & David, Y. (2011).An Analysis of the Impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act on Earnings Management. Advances in Management.4(6): 25-31.

Elmer-DeWitt, P. (2011). Rethinking Apple's Org Chart. A Time Warner Company.

Griffin, R.W. & Moorhead., G. (2011). Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. Cengage Learning.USA.
View Full Essay

Motivation Among Employees

Words: 1365 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 66444249

Industrial Organizational Psychology: Motivation

Applied behavioral science

This is a branch of science that comprises of fields such as sociology, psychology and anthropology that deals primarily with the human actions and seeks to give a general view on human behavior within the society. This is a field which takes an interdisciplinary approach when it comes to the study of human behavior. It explores the activities and interactions among human beings. Applied behavioral science therefore is a process of systematically applying interventions that are based on the behavioral science principles in order to bring an improvement of socially significant behaviors to a meaningful degree and demonstrate that the interventions used are the ones that are responsible for bringing an improvement in behavior. This case study is explored from cognitive psychology which focuses on internal states like motivation, decision making, problem solving and so on.

In this case study Jasmine has to…… [Read More]


Grant, A. (2012). Leading with meaning: Beneficiary contact, prosocial impact, and the performance effects of transformational leadership.

This article is on the impact of transformational leadership in any organization. This article is relevant to the case study since it brings out the advantages of applying transformational leadership within the case study.

Ajang, P. (2011). Assessing the role of work motivation on employee performance. Retrieved July 7, 2014 from 

This article looks at the importance of motivation of employees when it comes to their is relevant to the case study since we have seen the issue in the case study is the lack of motivation for employees hence it just emphasizes more on the fact that employee motivation is important when it comes to their performance.
View Full Essay

Applied Social Psychology

Words: 1016 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 80304019

Social Psych

Applied social psychology refers to the application of social psychological theories and research to practice. Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations. The field draws as much from sociology as psychology, to describe issues like gender, race, and power but from a more individualistic perspective. Whereas sociology is interested more in the macro processes shaping society and its institutions, social psychology is concerned with the role the individual plays and how social factors shape personal identity and behavior. The application of social psychology could be in a range of professional fields including private counseling, school counseling, or social work. Some of the most important applications of social psychology are in the realm of public policy analysis and development, or in administration. Issues such as attitudes, beliefs, values, and norms are probed in the research, as are problems related to criminality and aggression.

I will…… [Read More]


Dickson, K.E. & Lorenz, A. (2009). Psychological empowerment and job satisfaction of temporary and part-time nonstandard workers: A preliminary investigation. Institute of Behavioral and Applied Management. Retrieved online: 

Staufenbiel, T. & Konig, C.J. (2010). A model for the effects of job insecurity on performance, turnover intention, and absenteeism. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 83(1): 101-117.

Ybema, J.F., Smulders, P.G.W. & Bongers, P.M. (2010). Antecedents and consequences of employee absenteeism: A longitudinal perspective on the role of job satisfaction and burnout. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 19(1).
View Full Essay

I O Psychology

Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28154147

psychology's contribution to the war effort during I. 2)Describe the results of the original Hawthorne Study regarding the relationship between lighting and efficiency. hat was significant about this study?

Industrial Organizational (I/O) Psychology

Psychology was just emerging as a field of scientific study and application in the years just before orld ar I. American psychologists were intrigued with Alfred Binet's work with mental measurement, as well as the scientific management movement to increase worker productivity (Historical pg). However, when orld ar I began, "the problem of assimilating millions of U.S. civilians into the armed services... brought the tools of psychologists to the military environment" (Historical pg).

At the start of the war, the president of the American Psychological Association, Dr. Robert M. Yerkes, headed a meeting of psychologists to discuss how they could assist the war effort (Historical pg). Yerkes was most responsible for bringing psychology in the war effort…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chapter 1. Introduction: Definitions and History." .(accessed 02-13-2003).

Historical Overview." American Psychological Association. 02-13-2003).

McCarthy, Patrick, Dr. "Brief Outline of the History of I/O Psychology." .(accessed 02-13-2003).
View Full Essay

dynamic network theory article on psychology

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23439774

Westaby, J.D., Pfaff, D.L. & Redding, N. (2014). Psychology and social networks. American Psychologist 69(3): 269-284.
Westaby, Pfaff & Redding (2014) attempt to fill a gap in the literature on social networks by focusing on how social networks influence goal striving via emotional pathways. The authors base their research on dynamic network theory, and the results can be applied to numerous practical or clinical settings including organizational-industrial behavior or even information science. The dynamic network theory orientation also sheds light on numerous types of social networks and organizations, illuminating both individual and collective behavior. Although not an experimental research or a meta-analysis, the study does direct psychologists and researchers toward potentially fruitful areas of investigation.
The authors explain dynamic network theory in depth, centering their attention on the importance of emotional responses in social networks, and then outline the most important roles social networks fulfill in human behavior. Dynamic network…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Branch of Organizational Design That I Am

Words: 533 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92833927

branch of organizational design that I am going to investigate is participative management, which was an idea developed by Likert in the 1960s based on his observations of changes in the management techniques at the time.

Participative management was explained by enis Likert. At the University of Michigan, he started Michigan Survey esearch Center. In 1961 he published his New Patterns of Management that described participative management. He would elaborate on this theory quite a bit in later books, especially in 1966 and 1967. He had noticed that there was a new style of management that had arisen that was different from the old, authoritative style. Likert would then outlined four different types of participative management -- exploitive authoritative, benevolent authoritative, consultative, and participative group systems.


At the time, Likert's work was received well. He was successful in explaining a phenomenon that existed in the business world, so while…… [Read More]


Kim, S. (2002). Participative management and job satisfaction: Lessons for management-leadership. Public Administration Review. Vol. 62 (2) 231-341.

Koppes, L. (2007) Historical Perspectives in Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Psychology Press: New York.

Marchant, M. (1971). Participative management as related to personnel development. Library Trends. July 1971, 48-59.
View Full Essay

Improving Organizational Performance Simulation Summary Improving Organizational

Words: 1216 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63305342

Improving Organizational Performance Simulation Summary

Improving organizational performance

One of the challenges that organizations are faced with is performance improvement. For the organization to grow and survive it would need to depend on the commitment and passion of its employees. Airdevils is a professional stunts company based in Salt Lake City. The company was founded by Celsey Evans who was later joined by four of her colleagues. The company soon expanded and currently has 115 employees. The company's daring and dramatic stunts have won it many awards and loyal customers. ecently, some of the loyal customers have been expressing dissatisfaction in regards to the stunts, and some key employees have resigned. The employees have been expressing their dissatisfaction on an internet blog.

The first phase of the simulation was problem identification. This involved researching why the job satisfaction was too low within the organization. After analyzing the blogs, comments, and…… [Read More]


Bernstein, D.A., Penner, L.A., Clarke-Stewart, A., & Roy, E.J. (2007). Psychology. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Mynatt, C.R., & Doherty, M.E. (2001). Understanding Human Behavior. Columbus, Ohio: Allyn and Bacon.

Nijstad, B.A. (2009). Group Performance. Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4SB: Taylor & Francis.

Spector, P.E. (2008). Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Research and Practice. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
View Full Essay

Managing Organizational Culture

Words: 9860 Length: 34 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 60831953

Human esources

Managing Organisational Culture

The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization make up the organizations culture. Organizational culture is the summation total of an organization's past and current suppositions, incidents, viewpoint, and values that hold it together, and is articulated in its self-image, inner workings, connections with the outside world, and future prospects.

In dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly essential to recognize as fully as possible the characteristics of the existing or new target culture to include the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that strengthen the culture. Organisational culture is not something that can be viewed very easily it is consequently quite hard to replace it. Usually when certain leaders form a company, their values are converted into the actions of the members of that organisation. When other leaders take over, it may not…… [Read More]


Background To Business in China. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at:  [Accessed 18 August 2012].

Campbell, B. 2010. [ONLINE]. How To Improve Your Corporate Culture. Available at:  [Accessed 15 August 2012].

Differences in Culture. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at:  [Accessed 24 August 2012].

Edgar H. Schein's Model of Organizational Culture. 2010. [ONLINE]. Available at:  [Accessed 18 August 2012].
View Full Essay

Comparison of Three Categories of Motivation Theory

Words: 946 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42185921

Organizational Psychology - Motivation

Landy and Conte (2013) define industrial-organizational psychology as "the application of psychological principles, theory, and research to the work setting" (p. 7). A prominent line of research in industrial-organizational psychology is the study of worker motivation. Over many decades, as management theory has developed, several philosophical and psychological strands have emerged, and are often referred to as: 1) Person as machine; 2) person as scientist, and 3) person as intentional.

Person as Machine

Theory X managers are known to take "the carrot and the stick" approach to supervision since they believe that people work only for the monetary compensation, which means that coercion, threat, and punitive measures must be used to extract efficient workplace effort from employees. Manifestations of Theory X management include high levels of mistrust between employees and employers, and a tendency of management to blame workers for inefficiencies or mistakes rather than looking…… [Read More]


Buckingham, M. And Clifton, D.O. (2001). Now, Discover Your Strengths Hardcover. New York, NY: Free Press (a Simon & Schuster imprint)

Kanfer, R. (2009). Work motivation: Identifying use-inspired research directions. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2(1), 118-127. doi: 10.1111/j.1754


Landy, F.J., & Conte, J.M. (2013). Work in the 21st century: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
View Full Essay

Looking Into Psychology of Work

Words: 1530 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49270953

Psychology of Work

Politics in the organizational context represent unofficial, informal, and sometimes, secret attempts at selling ideas, increasing power, achieving other aims, or influencing the organization. This phenomenon has been occurring since many millennia. Companies need skills to manage changing power bases and contradictory agendas. Successful politics does not mean to win at any cost; rather, it is concerned with maintaining relationships whilst achieving desired results. While this is typically depicted in a negative light, company politics aren't intrinsically bad. Nevertheless, knowing the likely destructive elements associated with organizational politics, for minimizing its adverse effect, is imperative. Examples of negative politics are: circumventing organizational command chain for receiving authorization for any special venture; lobbying people at the top of the organizational hierarchy leading to any major promotion decision or using improper channels for obtaining special favors (iggio, 2015). Such actions undermine workplace fairness, as every employee won't involve in…… [Read More]


Bauer, T., & Erdogan, B. (n.d.). Organizational Behaviour, v. 1.0. Retrieved February 06, 2016, from 

Greenberg, J. (n.d.). Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges and Solutions. Retrieved February 06, 2016, from

Gupta, M., & Chandwani, R. (n.d.). JOB STRESS AND PERFORMANCE. Retrieved February 06, 2016, from 

Josias, B. A. (2005). The relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism in a selected field services section within an electricity utility in the Western Cape (Doctoral dissertation, University of the Western Cape).
View Full Essay

Ethnography Studies Od Organizations

Words: 708 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12609251

Organizational Psychology

Qualitative research is conducted according to several different philosophical orientations, one of which is phenomenology. The science of phenomenology studies the consciousness of individuals according to a first-person point-of-view. Experience is structured by meaning and intentionality toward something or some object, and phenology is the effort to describe the meanings of the lived experiences of individuals. That is to say that, the first person accounts of individuals constitute meaningful, authentic qualitative data. Ethnography is a form of qualitative research in which the investigator becomes immersed in the context in which the inquiry is taking place (ouleau, et al., 2014).

An ethnographic researcher essentially indwells in order to obtain thick, rich data about individuals in a population and about the environment in which they live their lives (ouleau, et al., 2014). The field of ethnology requires the researcher to be at once acutely tuned-in to the individuals in the…… [Read More]


Rouleau, L., de Rond, M., Musca, G. (2014). From the ethnographic turn to new forms of organizational ethnography. Journal of Organizational Ethnography, 3(1), 2-9. Retrieved  doi: 10.1108/JOE-02-2014-006

Saka-Helmhout, A. (2007). Unravelling learning within multinational corporations. British Journal of Management, 18(3), 294-310. (EBSCOhost Accession Number: AN26260657).
View Full Essay

Open System Model and Organizational Change

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83367091


The rate of teacher burn out has reached alarming numbers. Each year teachers are fleeing from the field as they become overwhelmed following the first few years in a classroom. This school system has voted to incorporate a new organizational structure using the open system model as its guide. The new system will utilize a Consult Team of senior experienced teachers who will be trained in how to assist the new teachers in their first five years of the career ladder. This team will be compensated at a higher rate of pay and will be relieved of their extra duties within their school day so that they may be available to work more closely with their assigned new teachers in helping them settle in and learn to navigate the balance between teaching and career building. The system will be revisited in five years to determine whether it has had…… [Read More]


Klein, Stuart (1994) Communication strategies for successful organizational

Industrial Management;

Luneburg, Fred and Ornstein, Alan

Manz, Charles Bastien, David Hostager (1991) Executive leadership during organizational change:
View Full Essay

role of inclusive leadership in'strengthening organizational culture

Words: 1450 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80325986

The trend of a global marketplace has given rise to needs for multinational companies. Literature on global business, HR development and management, social problems, etc. has, of late, greatly focused on the key subject of global leadership efficacy (Caligiuri & Tarique, 2012). Leadership represents a central element of every firm. However, leadership ability and function is increasing in complexity with enhanced engagement in technological development and globalization (Ulrich & Smallwood, 2012). People hailing from diverse cultures may have different ideas regarding, and expectations from, corporate leaders. Hence, this paper aims at determining an inclusive leadership approach's contribution to reinforcing corporate culture within a diverse international workforce, having individuals hailing from the US, Germany, Greece, Iran and Singapore.

An overview of the traits of inclusive leadership

Commitment: Developing an inclusive, assorted workforce requires commitment of corporate leaders' energy and time, which are the two elements most important for them. Besides having…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Leadership Priorities and Practice in Organizational Management

Words: 2127 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 10230667

Leadership Priorities and Practice in Organizational Management

The enterprise software industry is going through a series of disruptive innovations that are disrupting the economics of the industry while also shifting the balance of power away from the Chief Information Officer (CIO) to the line-of-business leaders including the Vice Presidents, General Managers and Directors of Business Units. As this balance of power shifts throughout enterprise software, many long-standing approaches to developing, delivering, monetizing, and supporting software are also changing. One of the most successful companies in the enterprise software industry, specifically in the Aerospace and Defense sector, is Cincom Systems. Cincom has been able to attain a highly profitable business model by creating very customized systems for customers' needs while at the same time creating maintenance agreements that ensuring highly profitable recurring revenue stream over the long-term. This strategy has been largely responsible for the company's ability to withstand the recurring…… [Read More]


Adler, P.S., McDonald, D.W., & MacDonald, F. (1992). Strategic management of technical functions. MIT Sloan Management Review, 33(2), 19-19.

Carroll, S.J., & Gillen, D.J. (1987). Are the classical management functions useful in describing managerial work? Academy of Management. The Academy of Management Review, 12(1), 38-38.

Cunningham, J.B. (1979). The management system: Its functions and processes. Management Science, 25(7), 657-657.

Gold, B. (1991). Towards the increasing integration of management functions: Needs and illustrative advances. International Journal of Technology Management,, 10-10.
View Full Essay

Industrial Management Continues to Remain Competitive As

Words: 515 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4822551

industrial management continues to remain competitive. As the economy changes over time, the field of industry follows suit. Industrial managers are charged with maintaining productivity and profits regardless of the economy. In addition, they are responsible for maintaining the workforce at its optimum performance level.

One thing that often has a negative impact on the performance level of the workforce, is absenteeism. Absenteeism can create problems in the field of industry in several ways. One of the first problems it causes is a slow down in production. If there is a problem with absenteeism and a significant number of employees are calling out sick it can be detrimental to the production of product. In addition, when people call out sick, temporary workers are often brought in and they must be quickly trained and try to keep up production speed. This training can be costly and their lower level of performance…… [Read More]

Everett, Michael J., and Alanson P. Minkler. "Evolution and Organisational Choice in Nineteenth-Century Britain." Cambridge Journal of Economics 17 (1993): 51-62.

Fanning, C.M., and T. McCarthy. "A Survey of Economic Hypotheses Concerning the Non-Viability of Labour-Directed Firms in Capitalist Economies." In Labor-Owned Firms and Workers' Cooperatives, edited by S. Jansson and A. Hellmark, 7-50. Aldershot: Gower, 1986.

Rooney, P.M. "Employee Ownership and Worker Participation Effects on Health and Safety." Economic Letters 39 (1992): 323-328.
View Full Essay

Organizations Need an Awareness of

Words: 2804 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80188991

, 1999). Generally speaking, the results of this study showed that increased levels of diversity within the top leadership team had a negative impact on their ability to reach strategic consensus because of both direct and indirect effects (Knight et al., 1999).

These findings are not that surprising, of course, given that it is intuitive that as diversity within a top leadership team increases, so too will the range of views that will be brought to the management table for consideration. Despite these constraints to consensus building, there are some highly desirable outcomes that can be achieved using the strategic diversity management approach that make it worthy of consideration by organizations that are "stuck in a diversity rut."

Strategic diversity management can improve organizational effectiveness by facilitating communication between superiors, peers and subordinates. Although many organizations have recognized the importance and value of a diversified workforce, some have failed to…… [Read More]


Arnold, V.D. & Krapels, A.H. (1996, May/June). 'Motivation: a Reincarnation of Ideas.'

Industrial Management, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 8-10.

Davidson, M.J. & Fielden, S.L. (2003). Individual Diversity and Psychology in Organizations.

Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
View Full Essay

Organizational Culture An Analysis Based on Morgan's

Words: 2584 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46542103

Organizational Culture:

An Analysis Based on Morgan's Cultural Metaphor

When one thinks about the word "culture," one tends to think about some far-away, exotic place where people in elaborate costumes perform mysterious rituals. While it is certainly true that people on the other side of the world from wherever one lives certainly have their own culture, it is vital to remember that all people have their lives deeply influenced by culture. We each live in a number of different cultures: The culture of our family, of our neighborhood, of the place where we work, sometimes of a religious and ethnic community. Culture is simply an agreement among the members of a group about how they will behave, what their values are, and how they will communicate with each other. Culture determines how we each interact with each other on a daily basis.

The paper examines the organizational culture of a…… [Read More]


Grisham, T. (2006). Metaphor, poetry, storytelling and cross-cultural leadership. Management Decision, 44(4), 486-503.

Harris, J. & Barnes, K.B. (2006). Leadership storytelling. Industrial and commercial training, 38(7), 350-353.

Jensen, D.F.N. (2006). Metaphors as a bridge to understanding educational and social contexts. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5(1), Article 4, 1-17.

Leder, G. (2007). The power of metaphors: Use of clever analogies to simplify complex subjects and you might just get clients to take your perspective. On Wall Street 17 (5), 88.
View Full Essay

Industrial Psychology Consulting Case Study Diagnostics Phase

Words: 1087 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 31223536


Industrial Psychology Consulting Case study - Diagnostics Phase

The inter-group situation

The current situation at the described office is marked by intense, apparent divisiveness. On the surface, there seems to be no cohesion to the existing organization. Sales reps are said to be more interested in bolstering their personal reputations than the reputation of the company, hence their tendency to make promises that they cannot fulfill to clients. They are, however, highly motivated to promote the company, given that they work largely on commission. In contrast, the operations staff is unionized and actually has a motivation to work more slowly, rather than swiftly, thwarting the goals of the salespersons.

The issues of this company are organizational, informational, and psychological. First and foremost, there are two sets of employees with apparently very different goals. The sales staff is profit-driven, while the operations staff is procedure-driven. Both are necessary for the…… [Read More]


Block, Peter. (2011). Flawless Consulting. Jossey-Bass.

Dewhurst, M. & Kellett, T. (2013). Evaluating client capabilities and business opportunities.

From Management Consulting.
View Full Essay

Organization Dynamics & Development it

Words: 7722 Length: 28 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24180658

Despite their supposed differences, all of the foregoing organizational management techniques and approaches share some common themes involving getting a better handle of what is actually being done in companies and how better to manage these things. Unfortunately, another common theme these management approaches share is the inappropriate or misapplication of these approaches by managers who either do not understand how they work or by rabid managers who insist on absolute conformity with these processes and procedures without any room for flexibility according to the unique needs of the organization. In fact, according to Mills (2003), "Analysis of the data suggests that the implementation of organizational change, particularly selected change programs such as Culture Change, TQM and BP, does not follow the rational, orderly decision-making processes indicated by advocates" (p. 2). Nevertheless, some of the more recent management approaches do provide a more comprehensive analysis of what can reasonably be…… [Read More]


Ashkenas, R.N. (1994). Beyond the fads: How leaders drive change with results. Human Resource Planning, 17(2), 25-27.

Bailey, J. (1996). After thought: The computer challenge to human intelligence. New York: Basic Books.

Bennis, W. & Mische, M. (1995). The 21st century organization: Reinventing through reengineering. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders. New York: Harper and Row.
View Full Essay

Industrial Psychology

Words: 1734 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47512075

omen's Military Rights

In the United States, female citizens have strived for a long time for their basic rights in every field but the most important question relevant to their rights that should be answered is and which the nation has faced in the past, present and future is the argument whether to allow women the privilege to defend our motherland and share along with men of the forces emotions, feelings and true sentiments such as dignity, honor and prestige which are true reflections of this service.

Many people argue that there are some factors which just can not be ignored because of which it is imperative to draw a line when involving, selecting female citizens for the military.

Military Selection Problems and Fears

The major objection to the proposed integration comes from military officers and enlisted men whose primary fear is that, that because of women in the forces,…… [Read More]

Works Cited 

10. Author Unknown, Affirmative Action and Equal Opportunity in the Military: Selection


11. Author Unknown, Common Military Questions: Military Training: What are the opportunities for women in today's military?
View Full Essay

Daily Life Typically When One Hears the

Words: 822 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54590051

Daily Life

Typically when one hears the word "psychology" one immediately is drawn to thoughts of psychotherapy, people on a couch, Sigmund Freud like analysts using terms like "how does that make you feel?" And similar associations. Other things that immediately come to mind are: our lives are determined by our childhood experiences ("it's all my Mom's fault"), our desires are hidden in our unconscious and emerge in our dreams, drugs can cure depression, etc. Psychology typically brings to mind aspects of therapy and clinical work; however, if one thinks harder one can also envision animal studies of learning, subliminal persuasion studies, and other research topics. In social circles we often hear of people playing "mind games" in relationships or using "reverse psychology" as a means to get someone to do something they otherwise might not do voluntarily. We are all innate psychologists in our own way creating theories about…… [Read More]


American Psychological Association (2012). How does the APA define psychology? Retrieved on September 6, 2012 from

Diener, E. (1979). Deindividuation, self-awareness, and disinhibition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(7), 1160-1171.

Jex, S.M., & Britt, T.W. (2008). Organizational psychology. Hoboken: Wiley.

Kline P. (2000). The handbook of psychological testing. London: Routledge.