Gender Differences in the Perception Research Proposal

Excerpt from Research Proposal :

The quantitative approach, meanwhile, will make use of the survey method, focusing on three (3) segments each for males and females (criteria mentioned earlier in the preceding section).

Diary Method

The diary method is recommended because this will generate information that is insightful and in-depth, as it provides participants with an opportunity to express their thoughts and feelings without being conscious of the people who might be interviewing them or be with them, as what happens during an FGD.

Focus Group Discussion (FGD)

The FGDs will provide breadth of information about perceived pain. There will be twelve (12) mini-groups per segment, broken down into the following discussant types:

Group Type

Age group

Males

Youth/Young Adult (13-25 years old)

Adults (26-55 years old)

Females

Youth/Young Adult (13-25 years old)

Adults (26-55 years old)

Survey

The survey method will make use of the multi-stage sampling, using once again the respondent criteria enumerated in the previous section. Quota sampling will be set, however, to control for the number of interviews per sex type per segment (i.e., males and females per segment).

Variables & Measures

Variables for the study are as follows: pain perception (self-assessment), personality type, coping strategies, and pain as perceived and reported by medical staff and family members. In addition to these variables, instruments gauging the level of perceived pain will be used, particularly the Eysenck Personality Inventory and the Pain Beliefs Questionnaire. An index of attitudes and perceptions on pain will also be formulated, and will be tested for internal and construct validity.

Data Analysis

Data analysis will make use of both bivariate and multivariate analysis. For the multivariate analysis, step-wise logistic regression is recommended, to determine which among the variables under study has the significant relationship with pain perception. Analyses will be set at 95% confidence level and 2% margin of error.

Relevance of the Study

Results of the study will be particularly useful in unearthing new dimensions related to perceived pain -- that is, psychological and social dimensions to perceiving pain. Ultimately, a suggested 'unified' theoretical framework to understanding pain and perceptions of it is the ideal end-product of this study, taking into account biological (physiological), psychological, and social dimensions significantly influential to pain.

Bibliography

Babl, F. (2008). "Procedural pain and distress in young children as perceived by medical and nursing staff." Pediatric Anesthesia, Vol. 18.

Carlson, K. (2000). "Using distraction to reduce reported pain, fear, and behavioral distress in children and adolescents: a multisite study." JSPN, Vol. 5, No. 2.

Hama, a. (2004). "Sex differences in pain perception: a biological perspective." Mankind Quarterly, Vol. XLIV, Nos. 3 & 4.

Ibid., (2000). "Racial differences in pain perception: a biological basis." Mankind Quarterly, Vol. XLI, No. 1.

Ramrez-Maestre, C., a. Martinez, and R. Zaragaza. (2004). "Personality characteristics as differential variables of the pain experience." Journal of Behavioral Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 2.

Tiengo, M. (2003). "Pain perception, brain and consciousness."…

Sources Used in Document:

Bibliography

Babl, F. (2008). "Procedural pain and distress in young children as perceived by medical and nursing staff." Pediatric Anesthesia, Vol. 18.

Carlson, K. (2000). "Using distraction to reduce reported pain, fear, and behavioral distress in children and adolescents: a multisite study." JSPN, Vol. 5, No. 2.

Hama, a. (2004). "Sex differences in pain perception: a biological perspective." Mankind Quarterly, Vol. XLIV, Nos. 3 & 4.

Ibid., (2000). "Racial differences in pain perception: a biological basis." Mankind Quarterly, Vol. XLI, No. 1.

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