Six studies present varying results on the effect of gender on self-esteem. Watkins & Yu (1993) found gender to have little effect on self-esteem but much on self-concept and self-satisfaction, especially among Chinese women. Zhang & Leung (2002) suggested the moderating factors of gender and age in the connection between individual and collective self-esteem and life satisfaction. Their research concluded that the connection is stronger on the male, thus the genders require different tasks in order to be effective. Huang et al. (2012) found that the androgynous personality type as the ideal one and that gender and grade influenced the distribution of personality types. Yang & Xia (2006) listed the cognitive and social factors in condom use among Shanghai commercial sex entertainment workers. Zhao et al. (2011) established the importance of attachment relationship with caregivers to vulnerable Chinese children. Most caregivers are female. Li et al. (2010) enumerated the parental, behavioral and psychological factors to smoking among Chinese teenagers, including female. Other studies (Somislo & Ortho, 2013; Mak et al., 2012) say that gender does not significantly affect low-self-esteem or depression and that Chinese teenage boys tend to have a higher body esteem than girls.
Gender Affects Self-Concept and Self-Satisfaction
A 1993 study conducted with male and female students in mainland China found little difference in the effect of gender on their level of self-esteem (Watkins and Yu, 1993). But it supplied evidence on the effect of gender to their self-concept and self-satisfaction. Respondents to the study were 99 male and 90 female undergraduates. The results indicated the necessity for conducting multidimensional measures of the self and to preserve the distinction between self-concept and self-esteem (Watkins and Yu).
Stronger in the Male
A 2002 study drew on the findings of earlier studies on the effect of both individual and collective self-esteem on life satisfaction (Zhang & Leung, 2002). When these earlier studies found a connection, it suggested further study on the influence of other conditions, this present study sought to discover the moderating effects of gender and age on that connection among the Chinese. The respondents were 1,347 mainland Chinese, aged 14 to 88 from three generations, 52.3% of whom were female. Their responses were taken from the General Life Satisfaction Scale, Life Domain Satisfaction Scale, Self-Esteem Scale, and Collective Self-esteem Scale. Analysis showed that the connection was stronger among male than female respondents. The results suggested different tasks between the genders (Zhang & Leung).
Personality Type, Coping Style and Self-Esteem
Another study investigated the connection among these factors in Chinese university undergraduates (Huang et al., 2012). Sampling consisted of 434 volunteers possessing four gender role types, namely masculine, feminine, androgynous and undifferentiated. An androgynous person is one with a combined masculine and feminine types of personality. Results revealed that the respondents' personality types were mainly androgynous and undifferentiated and that gender and grade largely influenced the distribution of gender role types. Those with androgynous personality types had the highest self-esteem level, used positive coping approaches, and was considered the ideal gender role type as compared with the other three (Huang et al.).
Gender, Work and HIV Risk
Another study looked into the influence of cognitive and social factors in the use of condoms in commercial sex, HIV education and prevention intervention, self-efficacy training and the promotion of social support (Yang & Xia, 2006). It delved into women's unequal power in sexual relationships along with information-motivation-behavioral skills, group norms, peer influence, and interventions that can raise self-esteem and reduce the social stigma among women entertainers. Data were gathered from 159 female entertainment workers from 15 establishments in Shanghai who were surveyed on the cognitive and social influence of these factors on the consistency of condom use. Approximately 21% of the respondents reported using condoms. The study found that individual cognitive and social influence significantly lead to condom use, with the perceived access to condoms as the strongest determinant. It helped translate information on HIV into knowledge and prevention motivation into behavior. The study recommended the introduction of prevention intervention that will focus on providing self-efficacy training and in creating supportive social and working milieus (Yang & Xia).
Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in China
Another study provided further support to the general assumption…