The long established concepts and specialists reports have progressively been substituted by more organized reviews on the basis of latest researches (Heming and Brereton, 2009). An effort is made to maintain the same standards of researches that were previously maintained, by these organized reviews (Hemingway and Brereton, 2009). Findings on which the review is based should be properly expressed so that the data can be utilized again if needed (Hemingway and Brereton, 2009).
Reviews and researches, based on systematic studies aim to:
Classify all the data which is available on the subject.
Make a superior selection for preparation of report.
Evaluate the standard of research studies.
Compose the results by impartial methods
Understand what the findings mean and depict a well rounded and an unbiased picture of the conclusions while giving sufficient attention to the mistakes present in the proof gathered (Hemingway and Brereton, 2009).
Numerous researches lay emphasis on correction of errors if any (Hemingway and Brereton, 2009). Most of the reviews that are assessed by the peers and are of high standards are provided in many scientific journals and in other electronically stored data (Hemingway and Brereton, 2009). Many evidences are evaluated in these reviews and if the review is based on more than two types of data or evidences the process is termed as the mixed method of carrying out systematic assessment (Hemingway and Brereton, 2009).
Progress is observed in the techniques used in many reviews. The most valued aspect is the medical usefulness in any review. Along with this aspect many other areas are also being considered such as suitability and effectiveness (Hemingway and Brereton, 2009). All the available records and reviews are not a reliable source of information as they are not prepared by due hard work and sincerity therefore reliance on them will sometimes be misleading. By verification and rechecking of the studies, deficiencies can be removed (Hemingway and Brereton, 2009).
By critical review we mean that it is an assessment that revolves around a combination of critical observations and a related synopsis (Australian School of Business, 2011). What is the significance of an analytical assessment report? In few courses of Australian School of Business students have to present analytical assessment reports so that they can understand the main concept of the theoretical background, evaluate the concepts and present the study based on selective findings through an intelligent approach (Australian School of Business, 2011).
The aptitude of reading and understanding it is not only useful in college studies but it is also a requirement of any business. By strong analytical skills an up-to-date evaluation can be made and any change is efficiently applied so that problem is addressed. Steps that should be considered in assessment of an article are given as follows (Australian School of Business, 2011):
1- Study the main synopsis of the subject, including the introduction and the conclusion (Australian School of Business, 2001).
2- Understand the overall concept along with the main idea by reading it.
3- Gather the main information written in the article. Mark the main issues. Note the important points (Australian Business School, 2011).
4- Evaluate and confirm that the notes include: the concept of the article, along with the procedures applied and the conclusion.
5- Write a summary by using the information.
6- Make sure that you have not copied the words of the author or make use of quotes carefully (Australian Business School, 2011).
What does critically commenting on any article entail? Critically reviewing an article revolves around carrying out a process of assessment and analysis. The process of analysis then centers on dividing the information that is being depicted so as to seek and clarify the objective, the salient features, the method used and the outcomes and results deduced from the article. This is usually carried out in the preliminary step that entails summarizing (Australian School of Business, 2011).
Moreover, evaluating the article critically revolves around trying to find:
Presumptions that have not been stated
The argument steps that are not considered rational
Any other objectives of the respective article which are not clearly mentioned
Carrying out an assessment of the article revolves around formulating judgments about the significance of the respective article that can either be negative or positive against a particular benchmark (Australian School of Business, 2011). The question that arises is: what is the benchmark that could be used with respect to critically assessing any given article?
Below are some examples of the points that can be used as a criterion while reviewing an article. However, it is not necessary to make use all of them while carrying out the evaluation on account of they being irrelevant, depending upon the respective article (Australian School of Business, 2011):.
The promptness with which the article is written and published
The extent to which the given article has made a contribution that is original
The rationale of the perspective that is put forth
The feasibility of the proof that is being presented
The methodology being considered
The framework being employed
What one should consider is most importantly, is the methodology appropriate? Has the structure being implemented correctly?
The questions that should be answered by the assessor are whether the framework used is correct and appropriate for the given article? Has the approach or strategy being described in an unambiguous manner? Does the framework contain any flaws or mistakes that can be rectified? Other questions that need to be answered include: has the study been done in a thorough manner and whether it is comprehensive, complete and has all the necessary details? Has anything been deleted while carrying out the research from being included in the article (Australian School of Business, 2011)?
The outcomes or conclusions
Have the outcomes and the conclusions been presented and explained completely, and unambiguously? Do the outcomes and results appear to be valid and logical? The possibility of the information being understood in more than one way should also be considered. Another point that can be considered is whether the writer takes into account everything that he or she came across in his research or he has neglected things that could have had a significant influence on the article (Australian School of Business, 2011)?
Other things that can be considered are given follows:
The feasibility of the findings and opinions formed
The completeness and comprehensiveness with which the article addresses the subject
The significance of the article with respect to the other articles on the same subject
Whether the article is appropriate, given the target audience
The degree to which the article meets the particular requirements of a certain reader or user (American School of Business, 2011)?
Similar to most of the writing that is carried out at university level, a critical review consists of an introductory section, the main body of the article and a conclusion that is presented in the last (Australian School of Business, 2011).
The introduction ought to:
Offer a backdrop or a setting for the article, for instance information that clarifies the background or shared knowledge
Present the title or the headline of the respective article and introduce the author (usually a full name is mentioned here)
Clarify the profession of the writer when applicable
Take into account the factors that make the topic significant and include them in the review
Clarify the objective with which the article has been written
Depict a sign or tendency that represents the general view of the article as a whole (Australian School of Business, 2011)
The main body of the critical review ought to:
Shorten and evaluate the main points present in the article
Clarify that the view of the authors are being depicted and not of the assessor. This can be done by appropriately referencing.
Assess the article
The conclusion ought to:
Present a summary of the earlier discourse
Depict a final judgement about the significance of the article
Make a comment upon the upcoming subjects or matters and consequences of the opinion that has been presented (Australian School of Business, 2011).
Part 2: HIV in Africa
Since a number of years, the area of Sub-Saharan African account for majority of globally reported HIV. Almost twenty three million people that reside in the area are afflicted with HIV / AIDS (PLWHA). Even though the greatest number of people suffering from HIV existed during the mid years of the 1990s, HIV today is still one of the biggest obstacles to the development and health of most of the nations in Africa (USAID, 2011a).
The prevalence and severity of HIV differs in every country over the entire continent. The occurrence rate of HIV in Madagascar is about 0.1% while countries that are present in the southern cone have a prevalence rate that is greater than fifteen percent. However, the number of deaths caused by the ailment has decreased over the past few years as a result of the 'prevention of mother-to-child transmission' of HIV (PMTCT) and…