¶ … Health Care (PHC) and Colorectal Cancer Participation of a large proportion (more than 50%) of the population in testing is crucial for the success of screening programs" (Ramos, et al., 2011).
Authorities around the world have expressed the need for development of an incorporated health care system with augmented emphasis on primary health care, and integration of principles and practices of health promotion. Primary health can be defined as the care provided at the first point of contact with the health care system, the point at which health services are assembled and synchronized to promote health, prevent illness, care for common illness, and manage health problems. This definition includes a focus on a primary care model, typically provided by family physicians, and a broader notion that includes a range of health and social services offered by way of multidisciplinary teams. Primary health care is the natural entry-point to reorient a health system towards health promotion. Health promotion is the procedure of facilitating people to amplify control over, and to advance, their health and well being (Frankish, Moulton, Rootman, Cole & Gray, 2006).
Health promotion is made up of multiple, interrelated concepts that need to be included into the daily practice of primary health care. People working in primary care or health promotion share common culturally transmitted values in regards to health and health services. These values are primary in affecting which health issues are tackled, and the approaches that are used. Values and norms inside an organization are frequently understood and may be overlooked or go unnoticed in thinking of health promotion (Frankish, Moulton, Rootman, Cole & Gray, 2006).
Health is predisposed by more than just provision of health care. Health promotion subscribes to an affirmative, multidimensional view of health that centers on the whole, physical, mental and social person or the community. It distinguishes the role of extensive determinants like income, social support, education, employment or working conditions, housing, food security, social environments, physical environments, health practices, coping skills, child development, gender, culture, genetics, health services in creating and maintaining health and quality of life. These determinants may each interact with one another. To better add in health promotion values, the practice of primary care must address causal conditions, not just treatment (Frankish, Moulton, Rootman, Cole & Gray, 2006).
Health is more than the nonexistence of disease or disability; it includes susceptibility to disease and disability. Health promotion is concerned with health problems prior to their development or worsening, not only after they become visible. Health promotion aims to decrease differences in health status and vulnerability, and to make sure equal opportunities and resources to facilitate all people to attain their fullest health potential and quality of life (Frankish, Moulton, Rootman, Cole & Gray, 2006).
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a large health problem in developed countries, both because of its high occurrence and because it is accompanied by high mortality (Ramos, Llagostera, Esteva, Cabeza, Cantero, Segarra, Martin-Rabadan, Artigues, Torrent, Taltavull, Vanrell, Marzo, & Llobera, 2011). There have been roughly fifty thousand deaths from colorectal cancer in the United States in 2011 (Colon and Rectal Cancer, 2011). Colon cancer and cancer of the rectum typically begin as a small polyp. While most colon polyps are benign, some do become cancerous. Colon cancer symptoms may consist of a change in bowel habits or bleeding, but typically colon cancer strikes without indication. That's why it's so important to get a colon cancer screening test, such as a colonoscopy. If the cancer is found early, the doctor can use surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy for successful treatment. About a quarter of all adults in the U.S. over the age of fifty will have at least one colorectal polyp in their lifetime. Most colorectal cancers develop from polyps that are present in glandular tissue of the intestinal lining (Colorectal Cancer Health Center, 2011).
CRC is one of the few kinds of cancer for which both primary and secondary prevention are possible. "With ...
Cancers of the colon and rectum are the third most common cancer in the U.S., with approximately one hundred and fifty thousand cases diagnosed each year. Like a lot of cancers, colorectal cancer is of particular concern for people older than age fifty. Even though diagnosis is frequently possible at an early stage, a lot of people put off seeking medical care because they are embarrassed or afraid of symptoms related to their bowels. Risk increases considerably after age fifty and continues to go up with age (Colorectal Cancer Health Center, 2011).
People with an average risk of colon cancer should consider screening beginning at age fifty. But people with an increased risk, such as those with a family history of colon cancer, should consider screening much sooner. African-Americans and American Indians should start colon cancer screening at age forty-five. Numerous screening options exist today, each with its own benefits and drawbacks. One should talk to their doctor about their options and together decide which tests are appropriate. Options may include:
yearly fecal occult blood testing flexible sigmoidoscopy done every five years colonoscopy every ten years
virtual colonoscopy (CT colonography) done every five years stool DNA testing -- since this is a new screening approach it's not clear how frequently it should be repeated (Colon Cancer, 2011).
There are also things that a person can do to decrease their risk of colon cancer. These include making changes in ones everyday life to:
consume an assortment of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Fruits, vegetables and whole grains contain vitamins, minerals, fiber and antioxidants, which are thought to play a role in cancer prevention. A person should choose a variety of fruits and vegetables so that they get an array of vitamins and nutrients.
drink alcohol in moderation, if at all - if one chooses to drink alcohol, they should limit the amount to no more than one drink a day for women and two for men.
stop smoking -- one should talk to their doctor about ways to quit exercise most days of the week -- one should try to get at least thirty minutes of exercise on most days. If one has been inactive, they should start slowly and build up slowly to thirty minutes.
maintain a healthy weight - if one has a healthy weight, they should work to maintain their weight by combining a healthy diet with daily exercise. If a person needs to lose weight, they should ask their doctor about healthy ways to attain their goal (Colon Cancer, 2011).
A screening test is used to look for a disease when a person is not experiencing any symptoms. Cancer screening tests, including those for colorectal cancer, are successful when they can detect disease early. Detecting disease early can lead to more effective treatment. In some cases, screening tests can detect something that shouldn't be there, such as a polyp in the colon or rectum, before it has a chance to turn into cancer. Eliminating polyps in the colon and rectum prevents colorectal cancer from developing. A diagnostic test differs from a screening test because it is used when a person has symptoms. A diagnostic test is used to find the cause of the symptoms (Colorectal Cancer Screening, 2011).
The World Health Organization recognizes that early discovery of cancer greatly increases the chances for successful treatment. While identification of early warning signs and symptoms of cancer may add to early detection, it is screening that offers the occasion to diagnose the disease at an asymptomatic or even premalignant stage of aetiology (Integrated Primary Care & Cancer Services Model of Care, 2008).
Modern cancer prevention initiatives are frequently presenting in the context of a broader chronic disease prevention approach in that many cancer risk factors are also risk factors for other chronic diseases. "Tobacco control, programs promoting healthy weight, healthy diet, physical activity, sun protection, lower levels of alcohol consumption and the like require a comprehensive multi-faceted approach which includes community education, the influence of social norms through policy and legislation, specifically targeted interventions for higher risk groups and structural reforms to the environment, both built and natural and more" (Integrated Primary Care & Cancer Services Model of Care, 2008).
When CRC is diagnosed at the early localized stage, the five-year survival rate is ninety percent. When it is not diagnosed until the late distant stage, the five-year survival rate is only ten percent. CRC can be prevented by way of the early identification and removal of pre-cancerous polyps detectable only through screenings. It is critical, consequently, that barriers to screening be removed and that screening rates for the average-risk population, those people over the age of fifty, be increased (Colorectal Cancer Screening & Treatment for the uninsured, 2011).
Despite the fact that CRC screenings have proven to decrease cancer mortality only half of men and…
Participation of a large proportion (more than 50%) of the population in testing is crucial for the success of screening programs" (Ramos, et al., 2011).
The documents we provide are to be used as a sample, template, outline, guideline in helping you write your own paper, not to be used for academic credit. All users must abide by our "Student Honor Code" or you will be restricted access to our website.
Later, as they grow, constipation or diarrhea, bloody or black stool, persistent cramping, gas or abdominal pain may become evident (Colon cancer, 2008, the Mayo Clinic, p.1). Patients may experience a sense of their bowl not completely emptying (Colon cancer, 2008, the Mayo Clinic, p.4). However, many of these symptoms have other origins, yet another reason that early screening to determine that cancer is the cause. Symptoms As the disease progresses,
The second option is worth considering for patients with large or multiple liver lesions because this route results in delivery of a higher dose of chemotherapy to the liver metastases. The underlying principle is that liver metastases derive their blood supply primarily through the hepatic arterial circulation, whereas normal liver derives most of its blood supply through the portal vein. The major adverse effect of intraarterial FUDR is sclerosing
Who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/ Colon Cancer." (2008). Mayo clinic.com. Retrieved on February 27, 2008 at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/colon-cancer/DS00035 Colon Cancer Treatment." (2007). National Cancer Institute. Retrieved on February 27, 2008 at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/colon/patient Lee, Dennis. "Colon Cancer (Colorectal Cancer)" (2007). Medicine net.com. Retrieved on February 27, 2008 at http://www.medicinenet.com/colon_cancer/article.htm Myers, Donna. (2008). "Overview of Colon Cancer Symptoms." About.com: Health. Retrieved on February 27, 2008 at http://coloncancer.about.com/od/cancerprevention/a/Cancer_Symptoms.htm The colon is part of the body's digestive system, which consists of the esophagus, stomach,
HEALTH COLON CANCER CASE STUDY Colon cancer is popular as rectal or bowel cancer. The condition refers to cancer development of rectum or colon throughout the large intestine. The cancer is caused by abnormal increase of cells with an ability of invading or spreading to subsequent body parts. Symptoms and signs of the cancer include blood in human stool, weight loss, changes in bowel movements, and continuously feeling tired (Young, Hobbs &
Colon Health Statement of the theme risk factors prevention Diet Exercise Dietary supplementation No one really wants to talk about the subject of their colons. We all started out life with one, most of ours are working very well as we sit here today. But though speaking about the colon seems to be dirty or disagreeable, it is very important that we all pay attention to the colon. Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer death
Sigmoidoscopy Screening using sigmoidoscopy usually results in minimal discomfort as it's quick, biopsy is possible in some cases and cleansing of the colon is not detailed while on the other hand it's disadvantageous in that only the lower colon and the rectum is viewed, minimal risk of perforating the lining of the colon and other procedures maybe required if problems are detected Services, 2011() Colonoscopy Colonoscopy allows for the viewing of the whole