Nursing Case Study and Theoretical Knowledge of Healthcare System
Significant evidence shows that the responsibilities of the primary and acute care nurses vary significantly. The variation creates differences in the scope of work for the nurses, as they are engaged in different job perspectives. Primary and acute care nurses provide an array of services that aim at promoting health, preventing the occurrence of diseases, treating the sick, and providing the e clients with services, meeting their needs alongside creating public awareness to issues that affect their health and well-being. The difference of the services provided by the two becomes evident by the fact that the acute care nurses provide their services to patients who are critically sick, creating continuum variation in the services provided. In addition, nurses involved in the provision of nursing care services in the acute setups require specialized knowledge, skills, and expertise that allows them to provide hope to those under close monitoring and observation due to their conditions (Egger, Spark, & Donovan, 2005).
According to Brown et al., (2011), the philosophy of health care aims at ensuring the promotion of health of the sick and wellness through the provision of health care with unique characteristics such as holistic, affordable, accessible, equitable, and relevant to the needs of the public. Similarly, the philosophy holds the need for the provision of healthcare to the patients using evidence-based practices to ensure the safety and positive outcomes of the clients. As such, Long (2000 p. 78) concludes that achieving the goals of the philosophy of the primary care is only possible with community involvement. On the other hand, the principle of wellness underpins the earlier principle by recognizing the need for allowing individuals to take responsibility of promoting their health.
Data, the nurse will use for completing risk assessment for Mr. Alexopoulos
A risk assessment that will be conducted by the nurse will consider various issues related to the health of the client. The nurse will obtain a relevant history that might have predisposed the client to falls such as history of similar events, presence of underlying health conditions such as fracture, osteoporosis, mental health related conditions such as dementia. Moreover, the success of the assessment will focus on impairments such as vision that could have contributed to the fall. Biopsychosocial and cultural information will also form the basis of the risk assessment information collected by a nurse. Cultural variable focuses on the health beliefs and perception related to old age held by the client's family alongside the cultural factors that might affect the care provided to the client and client's view of the care. Biopsychosocial assessment will focus on the economic status of the patient, mental status, social stratification, marginalization of the client's race, and attitude of the patient and his family towards the care needed (Organista, 2007).
Environmental risk factors
The risk assessment will also focus on the environmental factors contributing to the falls. As such, the nurse will first consider on determining the support available for the client. If support is present, then it might be an indication of neglect by the members of the family. Lighting within the homestead will also be determined. Lack of enough illumination of the homestead will indicate its possible contribution to the fall. In addition, the nature of the floor of the house will also be determined. Slippery floor increases the risk of falls as compared to the rough floor. Other environmental assessments that are important include the type of footwear used by the client and supportive equipment (Thai, Wimberley, & McManus, 2002).
Specific interventions for client's safety
Identifying the cause of the fall will be imperative. For example, if the floor is slippery, the family will be advised to adopt required strategies such as ensuring the floor is kept dry. Supportive glass lenses will be provided to the client is he has vision impairment. Referring a client to the hospital and advising on calcium-containing diet will be advised if the client is suffering from bone related conditions such as osteoporosis. In addition, symptom management will be provided if the client was injured due to the fall or referred for further management in case of severe injuries (Woods & Kettles, 2009).
Findings showing that the client should not stay alone in the home
The client is new to the environment where he lives. He understands only one-language implying he has reduced interaction abilities. The client is old (80 years), therefore, unable to provide for himself. He has a history of a fall, increasing his risk of future falls. He has developed phobia towards walking alone and relies on the support from his family, therefore, necessitating the need for the presence of support for him.
Allied community and health referrals for the client
The client should be referred to a hospital for special treatment of injuries caused by the fall and management of the fracture. In specific, he will be referred for services such as physiotherapy, occupational therapy, fracture management, and counseling in case of mental involvement. The client will also be referred to community groups for the elderly where he will receive the required psychological support (Murray & Zentner, 1993).
The psychosocial theory recognizes the need for the provision of heath care services that meet the internal-related psychological factors and external-socially related factors. Based on this, the theory is applicable in various health related areas including providing geriatric care, palliative care, and organizations such as the mental health organizations. The theory also presents stages that individuals must undergo for their normal growth and development. Failure to undergo through one of the stages identified by Erikson often results in a crisis that should be resolved during that specific stage of normal development. The success of each of the developmental stages of human beings rely on the one's characteristics and support availed by their social environment.
Ideally, the old requires special care and attention for them to meet the demands of the daily living. However, if the old are suffering from a problem related to a specific developmental stage, the nurses take the responsibility of providing services that allow them to meet these needs. For example, the nurse will play the responsibility of helping the old in despair to appreciate their achievements in life rather than being saddened by their failures. Patients who require palliative care require various psychosocial interventions for the health and well-being. For instance, patients suffering from the terminal illness require spiritual care and closeness to the family members for the spiritual needs. As such, it is the role of the nurse to ensure that these needs are provided to the patient, hence, dignified care. Similarly, mental organizations employ the use of the psychosocial theory for developing treatment interventions for improving the health and outcomes of the individuals suffering from mental related conditions (Olson, 2001).
The financial status of an individual influences significantly the quality of care provided. Empirical evidence shows that a great similarity in the quality of care occurs due to the effects of financial abilities of the consumers seeking the health care services. A study conducted by Brown et al., (2011) to evaluate the effect of the financial status of an individual on the quality of care provided showed that those who were well off financially received high-quality care as compared to those of the middle and low financial abilities. Similarly, a review conducted by Wimo, Gustafsson, & Mattson (1992) showed that the current contemporary society experiences significant differences in the quality of care provided to the patients due to the influence of the financial abilities of the healthcare consumers.
Society dictates individuals considered financially stable, middle earners, and those making up the low earners or those considered financially challenged. The social construction of the financial abilities of individuals extends to the health care systems, thereby, affecting the quality of care provided to individuals from these social classes. As such, Meert, Paul, & Cornette (2013) recognize that despite the fact the medical, legal ethics recognize the need for the provision of universal care to the clients, the issue of social stratification remains a major hindering factor to the upholding of the ethical value. Some of the social determinants of health as identified by Crowen & Carlyle (2003) include availability of health resources, access, and affordability, relevance of the healthcare services, and attitude of the consumers to the health care services. Similarly, poverty, social support, and norms determine the health of the individuals in the society. Of the major social key determinant of the health at the ATSI community is poverty. It makes access to and utilization of the available resources a challenging process.
The Australian government is responsible for providing funds for health care organizations, i.e. state funding. The funds are used to ensure smooth running of operations of the health care organizations and the provision of high-quality care to the consumers of the healthcare services. The federal funding is the second source of health care financing…