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The ten leading health indicators, as listed on the Healthy People 2010 website, "were selected on the basis of their ability to motivate action, the availability of data to measure progress, and their importance as public health issues." They include: Physical Activity; Overweight and Obesity; Tobacco Use; Substance Abuse; Responsible Sexual Behavior; Mental Health; Injury and Violence; Environmental Quality; Immunization; and Access to Health Care ("hat Are the Leading Health Indicators?"). Almost all of the ten leading health indicators can be controlled by the individual. The first three listed: Physical Activity, Overweight and Obesity, and Tobacco Use, especially remain in control of the average American and therefore, information on how to prevent disease and maintain health can be extremely helpful.
For example, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) offers strong and viable advice on physical activity as a means to promote optimal health. According to the CDC website,…
'Overweight and Obesity: A Vision for the Future." United States Department of Health and Human Services. < http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/topics/obesity/calltoaction/fact_vision.htm >.
"Physical Activity and Health." Center for Disease Control. < http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/sgr.htm >.
"Tobacco Use and Periodontal Disease." American Academy of Periodontology. < http://www.perio.org/consumer/smoking.htm >.
"What Are the Leading Health Indicators?" Healthy People 2010. < http://www.healthypeople.gov/LHI/lhiwhat.htm >
While some health problems and diseases are congenital, health is largely a matter of common sense and lifestyle habits. Therefore, any community health program must include means by which citizens can make healthy lifestyle choices. Choices must be affordable, accessible, and convenient. For example, the community should have free sports facilities that appeal to a wide range of people. For example, skateboard parks should be installed for young people, and shuffleboard facilities for the older population. Basketball courts, tennis courts, and other facilities that encourage free usage would also be helpful. Moreover, people in the community should be encouraged to walk more often, so sidewalks should be maintained and stores should be located within walking distance to people's homes. Bicycle lanes and paths would encourage bicycling over driving. Also, walking and bicycle riding would be encouraged if the neighborhood is kept attractive, by planning more trees and flowers.…
The advance practice nurse is a professional healer that deals with many people on a daily basis. Coworkers, administrators, patients and their families all interact with the nurse throughout the working hours, and the relationships that are built form the basic structure that supports the nurse's career and very much determines the degree of success that will be achieved. The people with whom the nurse will interact come from many walks of life; the nurse will be exposed to people of many different races, ethnicities, religions, genders, sexual orientations, nationalities, social statuses, political opinions, and physical appearances. In order for the nurse to have healthy relationships with those around him or her, it is vital to be culturally accepting and understanding of anyone that might be a part of his or her professional relationships. President John F. Kennedy once said, "Let us not be blind to our differences…
American HIV Prevention in an Era of False Security - an Investigative Study
AIDS is one of the most dangerous diseases to affect humankind. AIDS awareness is best-funded and best-taught in the United States of America. This realization is especially apparent when HIV rates are examined in African countries and some Asian countries such as India. Education levels about sexually transmitted diseases in general - and funding for prevention and treatment programs - are very low in many foreign countries.
Americans, on the other hand, have been very fortunate to enjoy a high level of free and public education and impressive levels of funding for prevention and treatment programs. Almost every urban center in America has clinics that offer free HIV testing and counseling. This awareness and general academic and emotional acceptance of AIDS has, during the last two decades, fought hard against the spreading of the disease.…
'Health' is one of the most desired assets since it is a well-acknowledged fact that only a healthy person can enjoy the various beauties and bounties of this world. But for a person to stay healthy, it is not only the medical illnesses that he needs to avoid but also passivity and a lethargic lifestyle. An inactive life is just as bad as a life with some chronic medical illness since it breeds boredom, obesity, frustration, stress and leads to a poorer self-image. An active person on the other hand is more likely to enjoy life to the fullest. For this reason, exercise must be part of our daily routine.
However though health is desired and benefits of exercise are well-known, still many people find it difficult to adhere to a work-out regimen or some form of daily exercise. Most people complain of lack of motivation and others…
The three levels of prevention in health promotion in nursing practice are primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. The process of prevention in nursing practice is made up of preventing diseases, curing them, and restricting their progression. These three levels of prevention work towards health promotion, which is described as the combination of academic and environmental support for living conditions and actions that contribute to the well-being of an individual and the community. The main goal of health promotion is to allow people to make informed decisions about their behaviors and actions in relation to health and well-being. As previously mentioned, health promotion is achieved through primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Primary prevention deals with specific protection while secondary prevention involves early diagnosis, treatment, and restricting illness and tertiary prevention focuses on restoration and rehabilitation.
eview and Comparison of Articles:
As an important aspect in nursing practice, health promotion…
Lawrence, M., Kerr, S., Watson, H., Jackson, J., & Brownlee, M. (2009). A Summary of the Guidance Relating to Four Lifestyle Risk Factors for Recurrent Stroke. British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 5(10), 471-476.
Peckham, S., Hann, A. & Boyce, T. (2011). Health Promotion and Ill-health Prevention: The
Role of General Practice. Quality in Primary Care, 19, 317-323.
Perry et al. (2010, December). Addressing Mental Health Promotion in Chronic Disease
Health Promotion and Nursing Practice
During the last three decades the concept of health promotion has emerged from within the overall field of nursing, presenting a proactive method through which health care workers can empower their patients to prevent disease and maintain optimal health. While scholars, medical researchers, and professional nurses have all classified the practice of health promotion in varying terms throughout the years, the consensus definition of the term was provided by the World Health Organization's Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion in a Globalized World, which stated that "health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and thereby improve their health" (2005). Health promotion programs have since become a fundamental aspect of nursing practice, because modern nurses are expected to exceed the previous standard of evaluation and treatment by becoming actively partnering with their patients to assure positive health…
Barnes, J. (2009), Health promotion in sexual health: Different theories and models of health promotion. Nursing Times, 105: 13. Retrieved from http://www.nursingtimes.net/nursing - practice/clinical-zones/sexual-health/health-promotion-in-sexual-health-1-different- theories-and-models-of-health-promotion/5001125.article
McElligott, D., Capitulo, K.L., Morris, D.L., Click, E.R. (2008), The effect of a holistic program on health-promoting behaviors in hospital registered nurses. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 20:10 1-9. Retrieved from http://fpb.case.edu/News/Docs/ClickMorris_HolisticNursing2010.pdf
Whitehead, D., Wang, Y., Wang, J., Zhang, J., Sun, Z. And Xie, C. (2008), Health promotion and health education practice: nurses' perceptions. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 61: 181- 187. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04479.x
Finally, the transtheoretical model proposes five stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation for action, action, and maintenance. These five stages illustrate health behavior. The transtheoretical model can be viewed more as an outcome of health promotion rather than a theory underlying health promotion strategies. However, the theoretical model can inform best practices in health promotion by nurses who work directly with clients. The theory helps health care workers evaluate the effectiveness of health promotion programs.
While each of these four theories should ultimately be integrated and synthesized into a model for health promotion, I will focus on the Health Belief Model and the Motivational Interviewing Model to demonstrate direct, specific ways nurses can contribute to health promotion in their practices.
Integration of Theory with Nursing Practice
The Health Belief Model shows why individuals make the health-related choices they do. For example, young people are far less likely to perceive the…
Center for Health Communications Research at the University of Michigan (2009). "Health Behavior Theories." Retrieved online: http://chcr.umich.edu/how_we_do_it/health_theories/healththeories4/chcr_document_view
"Health Literacy." (2010). Health Service Executive. Retrieved online: http://www.healthpromotion.ie/health/health_literacy
Health Promotion Agency (2009). What is health promotion? Retrieved online: http://www.healthpromotionagency.org.uk/Healthpromotion/Health/section2.htm
O'Donnell, M.P. (n.d.). Tobacco killed my little brother. American Journal of Health Promotion. Retrieved online: http://www.healthpromotionjournal.com/publications/journal/en2010-11.htm
Christodolous et al. (2006) find that "children who reported less than 30 minutes of daily participation in physical activity demonstrated lower prevalence rates for overweight and obesity as well as superior fitness performance. The detrimental effect of the summer break on the progress of physical fitness was less in children who did participate in physical activity than in those who did not." (Christodolous et al., 199) This helps to suggest a secondary level of health promotion which uses crucial avenues for shared physical activeness as a way to court better heart health.
Here, health promotion is defined as the drive to gain participation for youths in activities which can serve as a measure of prevention against negative heart health indicators such as obesity, high blood pressure and sedentary lifestyle. The purpose of the promotion would be to increase direct participation in activities such as organization sport leagues, intramural leagues, recreational…
Christodoulos, a.D.; Flouris, a.D. & Tokmakidis, B.P. (2006). Obesity and physical fitness of pre-adolescent children during the academic year and the summer period: effects of organized physical activity. Journal of Child Health Care, 10(3), 199-212.
Nies, M.A. & Partridge, T. (2006). Comparison of 3 Interventions to Increase Walking in Sedentary Women. American Journal of Health Behavior, Vol. 30, No. 4, p. 339-352.
Health promotion, disease prevention, and health maintenance are related terms that all pertain to public health. The World Health Organization (WHO, 2011) defines health promotion as "the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behaviour towards a wide range of social and environmental interventions." Promoting health involves marketing and publicizing information that can help individual consumers, communities, and organizations make decisions that reflect scientifically proven methods of creating health. For example, if scientists discover that smoking causes cancer, a public health organization can create public service announcements related to that finding. The public service announcements might include television advertisements as well as advertisements in newspapers and magazines. In addition to using marketing channels, a public health promotion program can include changing public policy to reflect public health and evidence-based practice. For instance, the banning of smoking in…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2011).
Cleveland Clinic (2011). Health maintenance guide for adults. Retrieved online: http://my.clevelandclinic.org/Documents/Family_Health_Centers/adult-health-guidelines.pdf
WHO (2011). Health promotion. Retrieved online: http://www.who.int/topics/health_promotion/en/
Minority health is one of the most critical components of public health promotion in the United States. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014), "some minorities experience a disproportionate burden of preventable disease, death, and disability," versus "non-minorities," meaning whites. Health promotion depends on ensuring equitable distribution of resources as a matter of social justice. While there are many diseases endemic to specific populations for genetic reasons, health disparity among different minority groups is more often than not related to socio-economic factors ranging from perceived accessibility of the health care system, the system being unable to meet the needs of cultural or linguistic diversity, and the impact of poverty on health outcomes. This paper will analyze the implications for health disparities in the United States by focusing on one of the largest ethnic contingencies in the United States, African-Americans.
Health Status of African-Americans
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014). Minority health. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/minorityhealth/index.html
Dreeben, O. (2001). Health status of African-Americans. Journal of Social Health Policy 14(1), 1-17.
Henderson, K. (2014). Health promotion and the African-American community. Minority Nurse. Retrieved online: http://www.minoritynurse.com/article/health-promotion-and-african-american-community
Health Promotion is one of the most challenging areas in today's nursing environment. Today, encouraging individuals to make personal changes in health promotion is often built on the concept of enabling individuals to improve their own health. Theorists like Dorothea Orem and Nola J. Pender have contributed greatly to our understanding of self-care and its impact on health promotion. Specifically, Orem's self-care theories outline the importance of understanding an individual's ability for self-care, their societal context, and the health of the individual in health promotion. Similarly, Pender's theories focus on how the relationship between individuals, their peer group and families, and health care professionals can impact health-promoting behaviors. Taken together, the theories of Orem and Pender have had a large impact on health promotion that focuses on the combined interaction of the individual's ability for self-care, nursing professionals, individual health, and a complex variety of social and cultural factors.
NWT Department of Health and Social Services. Health Promotion Strategy: Health Promotion Defined. 04 March 2004. http://www.hlthss.gov.nt.ca/Features/Initiatives/HPstrat/index.htm
Parissopoulos, S. And Kotzabassaki, S. 2004. Orem's Self-Care Theory, Transactional Analysis and the Management of Elderly Rehabilitation. ICUS NURS WEB J, Issue 17, January- March. 05 March 2004. http://www.nursing.gr/OREM.pdf
Pender, Nola. Assumptions and Theoretical Propositions of the Health Promotion Model (HPM). University of Michigan School of Nursing. 05 March 2004. http://www.nursing.umich.edu/faculty/pender/HPM.pdf
Pender, Nola J. MOST FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT THE HEALTH PROMOTION MODEL AND MY PROFESSIONAL WORK AND CAREER. University of Michigan School of Nursing. 05 March 2004. http://www.nursing.umich.edu/faculty/pender/pender_questions.html
Health Promotion Intervention to raise awareness of the risk factors associated with binge drinking amongst Undergraduate Students at London Metropolitan University
The main aim of this health intervention is to lay emphasis on the fatal and harmful levels of binge drinking that is common among the student community of Undergraduates at the London Metropolitan University.
Moreover, this intervention shall work to increase the awareness of the risk factors pertaining to the normal health of the students, associated with binge drinking. We shall also use this intervention to highlight and then make use of the appropriate information so that campaigns on the promotion of health in individuals can be launched. One of the aims is also to intervene in order to prevent the future health risk and high level of harm so that injury and death rates can be reduced; of the injuries and deaths that are caused by acute intoxication.…
Bhullar, Naureen; Simons, Lori; Joshi, Khushbu; Amoroso, Kristen. 2012. The Relationship among Drinking Games, Binge Drinking and Gambling Activities in College Students. Academic journal article from Journal of Alcohol & Drug Education, Vol. 56, No. 2.
Coleman, L. & Cater, S. 2005. Underage 'binge' drinking: A qualitative study into motivations and outcomes. Drugs: Education, Prevention & Policy.
Durkin, Keith F.; Wolfe, Timothy W. et al. 1999. Social Bond Theory and Binge Drinking among College Students: A Multivariate Analysis. College Student Journal, September 1999.
Gill, J. And O'May, F. 2007. How 'Sensible' is the UK Sensible drinking message? Factors which impact on levels of alcohol consumption among newly matriculated female university students.
It is important to remember the role of weight loss in diabetes health promotion and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. A nurse must stress the need for caloric limitation, as well as merely monitoring blood sugar and consumption of high-sugar foods, as fat-dense, high calorie foods that contribute to obesity can be equally dangerous. (Dyson, 2004, p.1) This can be difficult when patients do not experience complications from their condition, but merely have diabetes as a silent presence in their lives. Nurses must provide support to making lifestyle changes, and accomodating cultural tastes and needs, as well understanding as psychological conflicts over conflicting media advice when ensuring that the secondary health promotion intervention is effective.
Article 3: Tertiary
Jensen, Gordon L. & Janet M. Friedman, Donna Henry K, Annalynn Skipper, et.al. (Jan/Feb 2003). "Noncompliance with body weight measurement in tertiary care teaching hospitals." JPEN: Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.…
Feinstein, Alvan. (Jan 2005) "Does 'health promotion' really promote health? American
Journal of Economics and Sociology. Retrieved 11 Dec 2006 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0254/is_1_64/ai_n13798793/pg_1
Dyson, Pam. (Apr 2004) "Diet and diabetes -- the new recommendations." Journal of Diabetes Nursing. Retrieved 11 Dec 2006 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0MDR/is_4_8/ai_n6180372
Jensen, Gordon L. & Janet M. Friedman, Donna Henry K, Annalynn Skipper, et.al. (Jan/Feb 2003). "Noncompliance with body weight measurement in tertiary care teaching hospitals." JPEN: Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. Retrieved 11 Dec 2006 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3762/is_200301/ai_n9171099
The benefits of aerobic exercise include a strengthening of the respiratory muscles and heart, core muscle toning and increasing the body's number of red blood cells. Further, aerobic exercise improves the muscles' ability to use fats during exercise, thus burning fat.
However, some critics argue that the opposite is actually true and that in fact strength training anaerobic exercises are in fact more effective at reducing obesity. According to this line of research, aerobics does not increase the resting metabolic rate as much as some anaerobic exercise does, therefore being less effective at reducing obesity. However, on the other hand, aerobic exercise does allow for longer and more frequent activity that consumes more energy, otherwise known as fat. More so, the metabolic, or fat burning activity, of the individual is higher for an estimated several hours following the aerobic activity.
What can be taken away from this information is that…
Berman, Audrey. (2007): Fundamentals of Nursing. New York: Prentice Hall.
Gulanick, Meg. (2006): Nursing Care Plans: Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention. New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Jarvis, Carolyn. (2003): Physical Examination and Health Assessment. New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Health Promotion Settings
One of the most important topics listed on the New Healthy People 2020 website is "Physical Activity." The goal intended with this topic is for daily physical activity to be practiced widely by the general population in order to achieve improvements in health, fitness, and quality of life. It is indicated by HP2020 that over 80% of adults in the United States do not get enough exercise, and the numbers are similar for youth as well. This certainly contributes to the rising rates of obesity within the Unites States alone with chronic conditions associated with obesity. The objectives set out by HP2020 with regard to physical activity include increasing public awareness about how structural environments contribute to physical activity. Examples of structural environments include the availability of parks, bike lanes, and sidewalks that facilitate exercise and promote active lifestyles. Another objective is the implementation of public policies…
Healthy People (2012). Healthy People 2020. Retrieived 4 April 2012 from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/default.aspx .
Health Promotion Proposal
Family Nurse Practitioners (FNP) are registered nurses in advanced nursing practice who either work independently or alongside other health care professionals in the provision or delivery of family-centered care. In essence, these professionals primarily focus their healthcare services on the family unit because of the broad nature of the patient population. Some of the major health care responsibilities of these practitioners include developing treatment plans for chronic and acute illnesses and managing lifestyle and development issues relating to patient care. These responsibilities or duties are sometimes geared towards health promotion and disease prevention initiatives.
This proposal will focus on health promotion and/or disease prevention initiative that is specific to the role of a Family Nurse Practitioner. The identified target population for the health promotion or disease prevention initiative is minorities. The United States has four minority groups i.e. Native Americans, African-Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics. The growth…
"Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP)." (n.d.). Graduate Nursing. Retrieved from Graduate Nursing website: http://www.graduatenursingedu.org/family-nurse-practitioner/
Nickens, H.W. (1990). Health Promotion and Disease Prevention among Minorities. Health Affairs, 9(2), 133-143.
Not noted by Shay, but important to remember is the frequent underestimation of portion size by dieters. Even if nutritional information about calories is available, dieters must still monitor how much they eat, as well as what they eat, with some degree of accuracy. Whether it is tabulated online or on paper, the dieter must take the time to weigh and measure, or at least estimate serving sizes. If he or she does not, portion sizes can easily wreck havoc upon weight loss even with a nutritionally balanced diet.
However, an admittedly small, recent 2010 pilot study, entitled "A community intervention on portion control aimed at weight loss in low-income Mexican-American women" reported by Mary Ann Faucher in the Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health questions the notion of whether detailed education in portion sizes, calories, or overall nutrition is really that valuable for the average dieter. The researchers unintentionally…
Faucher, Mary Ann. (2010, January). A community intervention on portion control aimed at weight loss in low-income Mexican-American women. The Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 55 (1): 60-64.
Shay, L. (February, 2008). Self-monitoring and weight management. Online Journal of Nursing
Informatics (OJNI), 12, (1) [Online]. Retrieved December 14, 2010 at http://ojni.org/12_1/shay.html
journal articles (one of each of the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of health promotion) in nursing practice.
Health promotion as a whole is defined as the best way to promote health of the patient, be that by preventing disease from occurring, by impeding the illness in its beginning stages, or by reducing pain and helping the patient feel comfortable.
The purpose of nursing is that healing can properly occur once health promotion is practiced. Nursing equals health promotion for 'nursing' literally means making the patient better. However, nursing is a holistic practice which also extends to making the patient feel comfortable and showing him / her how to prevent the disease form occurring in the first place. Nursing, in other words, doesn't only extend to curing disease, but also to alleviating pain and to instructing prevention of disease.
For that reason, health promotion (namely, nursing) falls into the following…
Bhatnagar, S. et al. (2012) Advanced Laser Technology for Curing Cancer Affected Melanoma-Cell Journal of Electronic Design Technology, Vol 3, No 1
Broe, K et al. (2008) A Higher Dose of Vitamin D Reduces the Risk of Falls in Nursing
Home Residents: A Randomized, Multiple-Dose Study JAGS 55:234 -- 239
Hanlon, JT et al. (2010) Pain and Its Treatment in Older Nursing Home Hospice/Palliative Care Residents J. Am Med Dir Assoc. 11(8): 579 -- 583.
The health promotion model was initially created by Nola J. Pender and her concept was to be a matching complement to other models of health protection. The model helps define ways to increase health through living in a complete healthy atmosphere that is also disease free. The goal is to help individuals live more in harmony with themselves. This model tells the many aspects of a person's nature through his or her interactions with all aspects of the environment. This particular case will focus on following three areas for the client: his individual characteristics and life experiences, his behavior-specific cognitions and their affect, and his behavioral outcomes. His personal factors are:
Mr. MT's biological background is that he is a 61-year-old African-American male. He is not currently overweight but has a history of working in a job that is sedentary. He has a history of hypertension and has…
Foundations of Health Promotion
The fact that health and wellness mean different things to different people is not immediately apparent to all healthcare professionals. Cultural differences and individual differences related to perceptions of personal health, healing, and illness need to be taken into consideration as part of the duty to care. Respect for the person, and respect for autonomy remain primary ethical obligations in nursing. At the same time, nurses can also help patients to conceptualize health and healing in different ways, offering alternative perspectives and points of view without confronting, challenging, or criticizing a patient’s personal beliefs.
Nurses should also remain aware of theoretical orientations that guide their professional practice, and those of their colleagues and institutions. Theoretical orientations promote cross-cultural understanding, and illuminate the social determinants of health. Similarly, theoretical orientations may show why some patients use preventative services more often than others; or why some patients have…
Savage, C. & Kub, J. (2009). Public health and nursing. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 6(11): 2843-2848.
“Social and Behavioral Theories,” (n.d.). https://obssr.od.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Social-and-Behavioral-Theories.pdf
promote your health each day?
Preventative medicine is the key to personal health promotion. However, health promotion on a personal level is not about making grand, lifestyle changes overnight. Rather, health promotion is taking a series of simple, positive steps to ensure an individual's good health on a daily basis. A healthy daily life does not minimize the need for long-term care such as regular check-ups, but it can minimize the wear and tear of daily life and thus forestall the development of chronic conditions and the inevitable consequences of aging.
For example, waking up at the same time everyday, and not hitting the snooze alarm can contribute to a rejuvenating and restful night's sleep at the end of the day. Having a properly balanced breakfast of slow-burning carbohydrates such as cereal, mixed with a dairy protein also ensures good health and a source of energy throughout the morning. Regular…
Health promotion is a behavioral social science that draws from the environmental, biological, physical, psychological, and medical sciences to promote the health of individuals and prevent diseases, premature death, and disability by educating the community. The main purpose of health promotion is to positively influence the health behavior of communities and individuals. There have been increased efforts for cervical cancer screening using PAP tests, which have led to the declining mortality rates, especially in the developed countries like the United States (Abboud et al., 2017). However, this has not been the case for middle eastern women. The screening rates for these women remain low even for those who are located in developed countries, which puts them at a higher risk of advanced cervical cancer and poor health outcomes. Considering that cervical cancer is almost entirely preventable or curable if it is detected early middle eastern women must begin undergoing…
Flushing and Whitestone Disease Prevention Plan
New York is a city that comprises of several different neighborhoods. What makes this city to be distinct are how diverse these areas are, their vast historical account and also the people. However, protracted and gradually increasing income inequality, coupled with a past of racial seclusion of residents, has given rise to startling health discriminations between neighborhoods. There is a tendency of deteriorating health results gathering in areas that individuals of color consider to be their homes and where several people reside in poverty. The purpose of this paper is to lay emphasis on the disease prevention plan for the neighborhoods of Flushing and Whitestone.
Community Setting and Role
Within this expanse, the most prevalent cause of premature death is cancer with a likelihood of 24 percent followed by heart disease, which has a likelihood of 21 percent. Other causes constitute 42 percent, and…
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Flushing Hospital Medical Centre, FHMC, (2012) Community Service Plan 2013-2017 Prevention Agenda
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NYC Health (2015). COMMUNITY HEALTH PROFILES 2015: FLUSHING AND WHITESTONE
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Throughout the life-cycle, nutrition is very important in the wellbeing and health of an individual. In this growing world there’s unavailability of foods with adequate nutrition hence increased malnutrition. In some cases, food can be plentiful but still people suffer from micronutrients deficiency as a result of not having the right amount of micronutrients in what they eat (Boushey et al 15).
Importance of nutrition differs widely for various patient populations as it depends its role in treatment, management and prevention of an ailment or a disability. In many families, people are putting in extra efforts to get information about the best ways to manage the outcomes of the diseases affecting them or their relatives. The society too has an interest in getting the best health outcomes and achieve a healthier long life. There are certain disease groups which have been able to address nutritional issues directly so…
Boushey, C. J., Coulston, A. M., Rock, C. L., & Monsen, E. (Eds.). (2001). Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease. Elsevier. (Boushey et al 15).
Kumar, Sanjiv and Gs Preetha. “Health promotion: an effective tool for global health” Indian journal of community medicine: official publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine vol. 37,1 (2012): 5-12.
Steyn, Krisela, and Albertino Damasceno. \\"Lifestyle and related risk factors for chronic diseases.\\" Disease and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa 2 (2006): 247-265.
Health Promotion Project
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - CDC is categorical that “the use of e-cigarettes is unsafe for kids, teens, and young adults” (CDC, 2020). As a matter of fact, most e-cigarettes, as CDC further points out, have nicotine as one of the ingredients. In addition to having a negative effect on the brain development of adolescents, nicotine is also highly addictive and as CDC observes, teens who smoke e-cigarettes have a significantly high likelihood of embracing cigarette smoking later on in life (CDC, 2020). According to the County Government of Placer, teen vaping has been on the increase in the county (County of Placer, 2019). Indeed, in this very county, “nearly a quarter of 11th graders reported having used an e-cigarette in 2018 — significantly higher than the number smoking whole cigarettes” (County of Placer, 2019). A wide range of reasons that have contributed to…
The absence of illness does not thoroughly explain "Health", it can as well be described as wellness of the body and mind. More technically, health can be defined from two perspectives -- bodily and psychological health. A state of well-being due to regular exercises, adequate nutrition, sufficient rest, sensitivity to signs of sickness and when to seek help is referred to as Physical health. A person's fitness is showcased by his/her body make-up, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular stability, and adaptability. Mental wellness refers to psychological and emotional welfare.
As defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO), mental health is "a state of wellness in which an individual discovers and harnesses his abilities, make headways regardless of stress encountered in life, can complete tasks adequately and profitably with substantial end product, and also contributes immensely to the uplift of his or her locality." (Nordqvist, 2015). A means of enabling people…
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Cuijpers, P. et al., 2014. EU-Compass for Action on Mental Health and Well-being. PREVENTION OF DEPRESSION AND PROMOTION OF RESILIENCE. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/mental_health/docs/ev_20161006_co03_en.pdf [Accessed June 27, 2017].
Gillham, J.E. et al., 2012. Preventing Depression in Early Adolescent Girls: The Penn Resiliency and Girls in Transition Programs. Handbook of Prevention and Intervention Programs for Adolescent Girls, pp.124 -- 161.
Pender's is a theory of preventive medicine, for the healthy rather than the chronically ill. However, in an age where lifestyle-related disease are on the rise, it can provide an important function, particularly for nurses facing an epidemic of pre-diabetic and diabetic adolescents reared on poor diets and little physical activity. Some might protest that the genetic component to even Type II Diabetes, or obesity in general, might be unacknowledged in the model, but Pender would no doubt respond to her critics that although it is true that certain individuals have a greater predisposition to certain lifestyle diseases, everyone can act within those parameters to improve their life with preventative medicine, as counseled by her model.
McEwen & illis. (2007). "Chinn & Kramer Model." From Chapter 5 of Theoretical bases for nursing.
Pender, Nola J. (2003). "Most frequently asked questions about the Health Promotion
Model and my professional…
McEwen & Willis. (2007). "Chinn & Kramer Model." From Chapter 5 of Theoretical bases for nursing.
Pender, Nola J. (2003). "Most frequently asked questions about the Health Promotion
Model and my professional work and career." Last modified 4 Aug 2006. Retrieved 14 Sept 2007 at http://www.nursing.umich.edu/faculty/pender/pender_questions.html
Pender, Nola J., Murdaugh, C.L., & Parsons, M.A. (2002). "Assumptions and theoretical principles of the Health Promotion Model." Retrieved 14 Sept 2007 at http://www.nursing.umich.edu/faculty/pender/HPM.pdf
Community Teaching Proposal for Primary Prevention/Health Promotion
The objective of this study is to create a community teaching proposal for primary prevention and health promotion. The work of Kulbok, wet al (2012) reports that public health nursing practice is "population focused and requires unique knowledge, competencies, and skills." (p.1) Public health nursing makes the requirement of working with communities and populations "as equal partner and focusing on primary prevention and health promotion." (Kulbok, et al., 2012, p.1)
Community teaching for primary prevention and health promotion involves educating community members about what is required to address primary prevention and promotion of health. This can be accomplished through community-wide meetings held at a central location in the community. As noted by Kulbok et al. (2012) "In the 21st century, public health nurses practice in diverse settings including, but not limited to, community nursing centers; home health agencies; housing developments; local…
Anderson, DR, et al. (2012) Primary Care Nursing Role and Care Coordination: An Observational Study of Nursing Work in a Community Health Center, The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 17 No. 2. Retrieved from: http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-17-2012/No2-May-2012/Primary-Care-Nursing-Role-and-Care-Coordination.html
Connor, N. et al. (2012) Healthy People 2020 from Theory to Practice in a Nursing Program. The University of Central Florida. Retrieved from: http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.aptrweb.org/resource/resmgr/tp2012_presentations/conner_aptr_tp12.pdf
Kulbock, PA, et al. (2012) Evolving Public Health Nursing Roles: Focus on Community Participatory Health Promotion and Prevention. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 17. No. 2. Retrieved from: http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-17-2012/No2-May-2012/Evolving-Public-Health-Nursing-Roles.html
Health Promotion Pamphlet
• Layout appeal • Content quality • eading level • Clarity • Examples health promotion pamphlet • Usefulness • Cultural sensitivity competence • Helpful hints tips -care management • Appropriate literacy level target audience Include publication information pamphlet
The importance of fruits and vegetables:
A current health promotion pamphlet's appropriateness for the general public
Obesity is on the rise in America. Given this concern, the CDC (Centers for Disease Control) has produced a pamphlet on the need to incorporate more fruits and vegetables into meals. The title of the pamphlet reads: "How to use fruits and vegetables to manage your weight," so it is explicitly promoted as weight maintenance publication. The cover is orange and features photographs of a cauliflower, cherries, a banana, an orange pepper, and peas, presumably chosen because of their attractive colors, the balance they signify in the eater's diet, and also their relative…
How to use fruits and vegetables to manage your weight. (2012). CDC. Retrieved:
Nursing Case Study and Theoretical Knowledge of Healthcare System
Significant evidence shows that the responsibilities of the primary and acute care nurses vary significantly. The variation creates differences in the scope of work for the nurses, as they are engaged in different job perspectives. Primary and acute care nurses provide an array of services that aim at promoting health, preventing the occurrence of diseases, treating the sick, and providing the e clients with services, meeting their needs alongside creating public awareness to issues that affect their health and well-being. The difference of the services provided by the two becomes evident by the fact that the acute care nurses provide their services to patients who are critically sick, creating continuum variation in the services provided. In addition, nurses involved in the provision of nursing care services in the acute setups require specialized knowledge, skills, and expertise that allows them to provide…
Brown, L., Burton, R., Hixon, B., Kakade, M., Bhagalia, P., Vick, C., et al. (2011). Factors Influencing Emergency Department Preference for Access to Healthcare. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 13(5), 410-415.
Brown, S., & Stenner, P. (2009). Psychology without foundations history, philosophy and psychosocial theory. London: Sage Publications.
Crowe, M., & Carlyle, D. (2003). Deconstructing risk assessment and management in mental health nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 43(1), 19-27.
DiClemente, R.J., Crosby, R.A., & Kegler, M.C. (2002). Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research strategies for improving public health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
health promotion strategies that can be implemented upon the predictive characteristics of the family.
My health promotion strategy program will center around a Cuban-American family called the Garcias whose primary health issues center on hypertension, and the need for greater information about the importance of establishing a healthy lifestyle. This includes the importance of screening, exercise, establishing healthy habits, and monitoring one's lifestyle. Several members of the family indicate stress and hypertension whilst the grandmother also has cardiac disease and osteoarthritis, but is resilient to receiving information on how to alleviate her symptoms. In a similar way, Angelo, an addicted smoker, refuses to stop smoking and to deal with his chronic cough and mild chest pain, stating that, as man of the family, he has to continue working his overwhelming hours. Gerardo, the son, being active homosexually, seems to be vulnerable to AIDS; it is unclear whether or not he…
Boswell, T.D. & Curtis, J.R. (1984) The Cuban-American Experience. Culture, Images and Perspectives. NJ: Rowman & Allanheld Publishers
Cuban Americans http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr./Cuban-Americans.html
Health Promotion" that analyzes a current health care need and is appropriate for use in the general public. Present a detailed analysis as to why your analysis is appropriate for the general public.
Obesity is a significant problem for today's American children. The Northern California Cancer Center, for instance, calculates that more than 23 million children and teenagers are overweight and that this epidemic is growing. harma (2006) recommends that nutrition behaviors should focus on increased fruit and vegetable consumption, decreased fat intake, decreased consumption of carbonated drinks, adequate consumption of water and restricting portion sizes. This recommendation is appropriate for use in the general public particularly since children model what they see around them. If adults practice these recommendations too, children are more apt to model and less apt to become obese.
Further, after analyzing and comparing at least two (2) other health promotion pamphlets, present a comparison and…
NCCOR Childhood Obesity in the United States
Sharma, M (2006) School-based interventions for childhood and adolescent obesity The International Association for the Study of Obesity. Obesity reviews, 7, 261 -- 269
Osteoporosis and the Health Belief Model
Discuss the Health Belief Model
The Health Belief Model was initially a systematic mode of predicating and thus preventing health behavior. By focusing on the relationship between the practices and the behaviors of health services it aimed to create a theoretical presentation of the same. Later it was revised to motivate the general health for the 'purpose of distinguishing illness and sick-role behavior from health behavior'. [Brown, 1999] The HBM is essentially a concept that integrates psychological motivators with physical and social settings. Its said to have been initiated in 1952 by three socio-psychologists, Godfrey Hochbaum, Stephen Kegels and Irwin osenstock. During the 1950's the society realized a need to prevent disease rather than cure it. The U.S. Public Health Service was more concerned with preventing outbreaks which would have a nationwide impact than with trying to solve and cure the symptoms that individuals…
Brown, Kelli M. [January 11, 1999] HEALTH BELIEF MODEL Community and Family Health University of South Florida
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavior change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
National Osteoporosis Foundation [NOF]. (1999a). NOF Physician's Guide: impact and overview [Online]. Available: http://www.nof.org/physguide/impact_and_overview .
National Osteoporosis Foundation [NOF]. (1999b). Osteoporosis Fast Facts [Online]. Available: http://www.nof.org/osteoporosis/stats.htm .
Health Promotion Program for Alzheimer's Patients
The objective of this study is to construct a health promotion program for Alzheimer's Patients. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is "a form of dementia that interferes with a person's intellectual and social functioning." (NCPAD, 2012) One of the primary concerns for the individual with Alzheimer's is weight loss "due to eating problems such as poor-fitting dentures, problems in swallowing, and loss of appetite. Weight loss or loss of appetite may be caused by noise, odor, and/or conversation distractions while eating." (NCPAD, 2012) Caregivers are faced with many challenges in providing care for the Alzheimer's Patient. Findings in this study state that the primary components required for the health promotion program for the individual with Alzheimer's disease are those of: (1) nutrition; (2) physical activity; (3) mental activity; and (4) social activity and participation.
Health Promotion Program for Alzheimer's Patients
The objective of this study…
Adopt a Brain-Healthy Diet (2012) Alzheimer's Association. Retrieved from: http://www.alz.org/we_can_help_adopt_a_brain_healthy_diet.asp
Berkman, LF (1995) The Role of Social Relations in Health Promotion. Psychosomatic Medicine. Vo. 57, Issue 3. Retrieved from: http://www.psychosomaticmedicine.org/content/57/3/245.short
Gillett-Guyonnet, Sophie, et al. (2000) Weight Loss in Alzheimer Disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 71 no. 2. Retrieved from: http://www.ajcn.org/content/71/2/637s.full
Growing Stronger -- Strength Training for Older Adults (2011) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/growingstronger/index.html
Health Promotion Case Study
In this scenario the individual has been asked by a local law firm to come into the organization and establish a wellness program to promote the health of its employees. The firm includes a team of 20 lawyers, 3 managers, 45 paralegals, 5 administrative assistants, 2 information technologists and 4 part-time housekeeping and maintenance staff. The partners agreed last year to install a fully equipped gym in their building because otherwise they would receive a discount on the health insurance if 85% of the employees were participating in the gym at least an average of 90 minutes a week. At the time of renewal of the health care benefits package, the organization was disqualified from the discount because only approximately 10% of the employees were participating in the gym. This case involves a solution for engaging more of the law firm employees in health promotion activities…
Wieczner, J (2013) Your Company Wants to Make You Healthy. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from: SB10001424127887323393304578360252284151378
Gaines, M. (2012) How to Motivate Employees to Exercise. Chron. Retrieved from: http://work.chron.com/motivate-employees-exercise-1860.html
Garity, C. (nd) Corporate Fitness and Active Aging. Retrieved from: http://wellness.nifs.org/blog/bid/39826/Corporate-Fitness-Programs-Can-Motivate-Employees-to-Exercise-at-Work
Advanced Nursing Practice
Nora Pender Model of Health Promotion:
Improving healthcare access to underserved diabetes patients in rural areas
The health promotion theory used to justify this project will by that of the Nora Pender Model of Health Promotion. The focus of this study will be upon expanding access of rural communities to healthcare. Pender's model stresses the need to work with patients to empower them to make positive life choices. When healthcare access is limited, it is essential that patients are given the tools to make empowering choices regarding their healthcare on a day-to-day basis. ural patients are often hampered by access to both information and regular quality care. The model suggests that with knowledge and support provided by more accessible care at local clinics this can change.
The philosophy of the model is that health is "a positive dynamic state not merely the absence of disease"…
Health promotion model. (2012). Current Nursing. Retrieved from:
Massey, C. (et al. 2010). Improving diabetes care in rural communities: An overview of current initiatives and a call for renewed efforts. Clinical Diabetes 28 (1) 20-27. Retrieved from:
Health Promotion Plan
Health Promotion in Hospice
The use of Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Theory as the framework for the health promotion plan, for improving depressive symptoms among hospice patients (Nursing Theories, 2012), is appropriate and consistent with a patient-centered care model. This model provides enough room for a gradient of patient self-care efficacy, from fully autonomous to unconscious, which is appropriate for the hospice setting. The author of Health Promotion in Hospice emphasized the need to increase the care efficacy of both hospice patients and their caregivers and mentioned how the role of a hospice nurse must remain fluid to constantly changing care needs of hospice patients. Under Orem's model there is thus a gradient of self-care need and autonomy that is negatively correlated and where deficits emerge the nurse must step in to meet these care needs.
I would also emphasize the concept of 'nursing client' discussed in Orem's…
Hirdes, J.P., Freeman, S., Smith, T.F., & Stolee, P. (2012). Predictors of caregiver distress among palliative home care clients in Ontario: Evidence based on the interRAI Palliative Care. Palliative & Supportive Care, 10(3), 155-63.
Murray, R.B., Zentner, J.P., & Yakimo, R. (2008). Health Promotion Strategies Through the Life Span. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Ng, C.G., Boks, M.P., Roes, K.C., Zainal, N.Z., Sulaiman, A.H., Tan, S.B. et al. (2014). Rapid response to methyphenidate as an add-on therapy to mirtazapine in the treatment of major depressive disorder in terminally ill cancer patients: A four-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. European Neuropsychopharmacology, published online ahead of print 20 Jan. 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2014.01.016.
Nursing Theories. (2012). Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Theory. Accessed 2 Mar. 2014 from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/self_care_deficit_theory.html .
Health Promotion: Diabetes Education and Prevention
Given the need for specificity in nursing theory for addressing a particular topic such as diabetes education and prevention, Nola Pender’s Health Promotion Model would seem to be particularly useful. The model is designed to assist people in making needed lifestyle changes. It is based upon the presumption that people wish to maximize their health potential and possess enough self-awareness to grow in their capacity to self-regulate (Pender, 2013, p.5). While health professionals can act as facilitators, ultimately the model focuses on people’s ability to engage in self-initiated changes in behavior and in their environment. Type 2 diabetes is a lifestyle ailment for most individuals. Although the nurse can act as a teacher and a guide, it is the individual who is suffering from diabetes who must make decisions on a daily basis that will affect his or her life.
Pender’s model is particularly…
Nursing: Health Promotion Across the Lifespan
Which model or models of health are most applicable to Mr. And Mrs. Arahan and their family? Why?
Since Mr. And Mrs. Arahan seem to be well-assimilated within the American environment and also appear to be of good health, the initial model that appears to be applicable is one of self-care as well as community care. Community members in the church, for example, can help them dealing with minor concerns and give advice regarding more serious intervention should this become necessary. As they age, the couple might choose to use a combination of professional health care and community care, since their relative wealth will most likely support professional interventions over the long-term.
Which "Healthy People 2020" (web site) objectives are of greatest importance to the Arahan family?
The most important objectives for the family include maintaining healthy nutrition for the older couple, including foods…
learning about how you can promote your health best is to read up on the latest news and expert advice about it. I have often learned a great deal about the matter through the Internet, which offers the latest tips on diet and exercise. My favorite source of online information is at the MSN website, which has a home page dedicated to health. This online source provides up-to-date information on new and improved exercise techniques and dieting methods, on ways to maintain emotional health through relaxation and meditation, and on news over the latest research findings related to health.
I try to promote my health best by trying to maintain healthy eating habits and by keeping my exercise schedule as a daily routine. I often eat six small meals a day instead of the three large ones that are usually taken. I try to eat foods low in calories and…
Nola Pender theory Health promotion: background, Theoretical assertions propositions, concepts, elevant nursing practice.
Nola Pender's health promotion model
Nola Pender's health promotion model
Nola Pender's model of health promotion was intended to address what Pender saw as a deficit in existing nursing theories, namely the failure to promote wellness as well as cure sickness. The Pender model defines health as a positive and dynamic state, not merely the absence of disease. Pender identifies her rubric as a model, rather than a meta-theory, and states that it is complementary to a variety of nursing disciplines and perspectives. "The model focuses on following three areas: individual characteristics and experiences; behavior-specific cognitions and affect; behavioral outcomes" (Health promotion model, 2011, Nursing Theories). Health may mean different things for different people at different life stages. 'Health' for a young, athletic adolescent may be defined in a different manner than for someone at the end…
Health promotion model. (2011, January). Nursing Theories. Retrieved March 11, 2011 at http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/health_promotion_model.html
S. is between $4.8 and $6.1 billion, as is suggested by the analysis presented in the first paragraph of this report, only 3.3% to 4.2% of these children would need to achieve a healthy weight to achieve the break-even point for the cost of the intervention.
There is a significant limitation to this health promotion proposal. A moderate-sized study investigating the efficacy of the LEAP program revealed small, non-significant improvements in BMI at the 9-month assessment, but none at the 15-month follow-up (McCallum et al., 2007). However, family reports of enrolled children engaging in more exercise and eating healthier did reach statistical significance at both time points. The authors of this report argue that these findings are too preliminary to draw hard conclusions. Moodie and colleagues (2008) mention that a much larger LEAP study is underway. The short time-span of the intervention may also be a problem, since a 2-year…
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2012). 3101.0 Australian Demographic Statistics. Table 59. Estimated resident population by single year of age, Australia. ABS.gov.AU. Retrieved 4 May 2013 from http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/DetailsPage/3101.0Jun%202011?OpenDocument .
BLS (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics). (2012). Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition. BLS.gov. Retrieved 4 May 2013 from http://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/medical-and-health-services-managers.htm .
Manger, William, M., Manger, Lynn S., Minno, Alexander M., Killmeyer, Mike, Holzman, Robert S., Schullinger, John N. et al. (2012). Obesity prevention in young schoolchildren: Results of a pilot study. Journal of School Health, 82(10), 462-468.
McCallum, Z., Wake, M., Gerner, B., Baur, L.A., Gibbons, K., Gold, L. et al. (2007). Outcome data from the LEAP (Live, Eat and Play) trial: A randomized controlled trial of a primary care intervention for childhood overweight/mild obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 31, 630-636.
Healthy Again Health Promotion Program
Parts B & C -- Competency Statements and elevant Objectives
Nurse professionals will endeavor to work as a team in collaborative relationships whenever possible.
Nurses understand and engage in effective communication
Work with team and colleagues to ensure a safe and effective medical environment
Authenticate relationships between colleagues, patients, and stakeholders through mutual respect and honesty
Engender and actively pursue a cycle of learning and improving self and through professional means, others
Create a culture of respect, advocacy, caring, and trust (American Nurses Association, 2013).
Nurses will adhere to the ANA Nursing Code of Ethics in all work situations, and will communicate to supervisor in the event of additional resources or interpretations (American Nurses Association, 2013).
a. Understand and adhere to basic nursing ethical guidelines through advocacy, communication and deliberate leadership by example
b. Deliberately and regularly work to provide patient autonomy, beneficence, fidelity and…
Code of Ethics for Nurses. (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.nursingworld.org/
American Nurses Association. (2013). Professional Standards. Retrieved from:
Health promotion settings
e-card review: HealthFinder.gov's personal health tools
Which e-card category did you choose?
Describe the card. Does it catch your eye because of color, message, and graphics?
The first frame of the card depicts a smiling, Asian-American woman wearing a bike helmet and riding a blue, three-speed bike. The weather is nice, the sky is blue in the background, and she is poised on a bright blue three-speed bike, ready to ride across the grass. She looks tanned and fit and wears an attractive pink tank top, blue denim capri pants, and red sneakers. In addition to the bright colors and attractive setting, the woman draws the eye of the viewer. She is both an 'everywoman' figure, yet also an aspirational figure a viewer might want to emulate because of her natural beauty and fitness. She projects an image of confidence and freedom.
Let's bike. (2012). e-Cards. Retrieved:
Dental Health Program for Low-Income Children
Oral Health Promotion
A child's socioeconomic status and gender are significant predictors of susceptibility to life-long dental disease (Broadbent, Thomson, Boyens, and Poulton, 2011). Male children and children from low-income households are less likely to brush daily, floss, or visit the dentist as adults, despite suffering from more prevalent and severe dental disease (p < 0.001 for all associations). When the bulk of the 81.5 billion-plus yearly oral health care burden in the United States consists of restorative dental services provided by dentist (Baelum, Van Palenstein Helderman, Hugoson, Yee, and Fejerskov, 2007, p. 878), any program that encourages daily plaque removal in young children would therefore tend to lower oral health care costs over the long-term.
Dental disease during childhood also has an impact on the child's immediate overall health. The pain and discomfort associated with tooth decay can lead to malnutrition, low body…
Baelum, V., Van Palenstein Helderman, W., Hugoson, A., Yee, R., and Fejerskov, O. (2007). A global perspective on changes in the burden of caries and periodontitis: Implications for dentistry. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 34, 872-906.
Broadbent, Jonathan M., Thomson, W. Murray, Boyens, John, V., and Poulton, Richie. (2011). Dental plaque and oral health during the first 32 years of life. Journal of the American Dental Association, 142, 415-426.
Committee on Clinical and Scientific Affairs. (2010). Report on early childhood caries. Canadian Dental Association. Retrieved from http://www.jcda.ca/uploads/pdf/ccsa/ECC-Report-FINAL-April-2010_for-jcda-website.pdf
Gussy, Mark G., Waters, Elizabeth G., Walsh, Oria, and Kilpatrick, Nicola M. (2006). Early childhood caries: Current evidence for aetiology and prevention. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 42, 37-43.
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Preservation of the existing ecosystems
Accumulating evidence suggest that sustainable agriculture should be promoted. The growth and development of agriculture will still be the driving force of the loss of ecosystems in the 21st century. In specified areas, the growth and development of agriculture poses a danger to ecosystems, establishment, evaluation, and technological diffusion. This could see the rise of the food production sustainably per unit area with the absence of trade-offs relating to excessive water consumption or nutrients and pesticides use, would lessen pressure significantly to ecosystems. For many cases, the required technologies are in place, and they could be implemented in a wider variety, but the nation is facing financial constraints and lacking intuitional capabilities to use and gain the stated technologies. In areas where technology is predominant of the landscape, maintenance of ecosystems within the landscape is a very significant constitute of…
Hayden, J. (2009). Introduction to health behavior theory. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
O'Donnell, M.P. (2008). Health promotion in the workplace. Albany: Delmar Thomson Learning
Scutchfield, F.D., & Keck, C.W. (2009). Principles of public health practice. Clifton Park: Thomson/Delmar Learning
Stephens, C. (2008). Health promotion: A psychosocial approach. Maidenhead: Open University Press
Caregivers of Alzheimer's Patients
Community Health Promotion Project Design
As we have discovered in the first part of the study, Alzheimer's is a major health issue for the population of seniors 65 years and older. Alzheimers costs taxpayers and individuals billions of dollars for the provision of care for those who can no longer care for themselves. Alzheimer's is an expensive disease and many times it is the family who must bear much of the expense. We found that the financial strain of caring for someone who has Alzheimer's creates an incredible amount of stress on family members. However, we also found that perhaps even greater than the financial strain, Alzheimer's places in incredible load on the family as they are usually the ones who must care for their family member.
The aggregate for this study consists of family members who must care for other members of the family who…
Belle SH, Czaja SJ, & Schulz R, (2003). "Using a new taxonomy to combine the uncombinable: Integrating results across diverse interventions." Psychology and Aging. 18:396 -- 405
Gitlin LN, Belle SH, & Burgio LD, et al. (2003). "Effect of multicomponent interventions on caregiver burden and depression: The REACH multisite initiative at 6-month follow-up." Psychology and Aging. 2003;18:361 -- 374.
Wisniewski, S., Belle, S. & Marcus, S. et al. (2003). The resources for enhancing old climbers caregiver health (REACH): project design and baseline characteristics. Psychological Aging. 18 (3), 375-384.
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Modern day examples of human modification of an ecosystem
Module 01 Question 01: Preservation of the existing ecosystems
Various measures have been put in order to modify and contain the natural state of the ecosystem. Preservation is one of the approaches that have been used to foster equitable management of the ecosystem. Through preservation, it has become evident that the ecosystem has taken a different understanding from the avenue of human perception. For instance, rules and regulations that help to protect the ecosystem have changed the entire perception of the ecosystem globally. Initially before the establishment of preservation approaches, the ecosystem was getting devastated gradually. Nonetheless, modification has come with the introduction of laws and regulations that work towards protection and preservation of the available avenues in the market.
Through the rules and regulations created, the ecosystem has achieved a new state of protection in…
Callan, S., & Thomas, J.M. (2010). Environmental economics & management: Theory, policy, and applications. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Corwin, J. (2009). 100 heartbeats: The race to save earth's most endangered species. New York, NY: Rodale.
FAO/IRRI Workshop on Judicious and Efficient Use of Insecticides on Rice, International
Rice Research Institute. & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Module 05 Question 01: explain the rationale behind the federal government's approach to regulatory containments in food.
The federal government's approach in relation to the regulation of the containments in food, aims at protecting the consumers on food insecurity through elimination of food pathogens. It is the role of the government to enhance the health system and conditions of its citizens through adoption and implementation of various rules and regulations in relation to the containments in food. The food supply of the United States integrates multi-faceted production system and delivery components. Some of the critical or essential components of this system include production, processing, preparing, packaging, labelling, distribution, and consumption of the food components (Fortin, 2011).
There is a risk in relation to the concept of each stage of the food supply system in the context of the United States. This makes it ideal for…
Marco-Barba, J., Mesquita-Joanes, F., & Miracle, M. (2013). Ostracod palaeolimnological analysis reveals drastic historical changes in salinity, eutrophication and biodiversity loss in a coastal Mediterranean lake. Holocene, 23(4), 556-567.
Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y., Liancourt, P., Gross, N., & Straile, D. (2012). Indirect facilitation promotes macrophyte survival and growth in freshwater ecosystems threatened by eutrophication. Journal Of Ecology, 100(2), 530-538.
Riplett, L., Engstrom, D., & Conley, D. (2012). Changes in amorphous silica sequestration with eutrophication of riverine impoundments. Biogeochemistry, 108(1-3), 413-427.
Gareca, E.E., Vandelook, F., Fernandez, M., Hermy, M., & Honnay, O. (2012). Seed
Health Promotion Lesson Plan
The concept of health promotion is thought of as "the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health" (Dunphy et al., 2011, p 25). Serious heart conditions can be prevented, which is why it is so important to utilize community education techniques in order to help try to warn community members of the complications before they occur. This current lesson plan works to create three separate community lesson plans, based on specific age ranges. The age 18-29 focuses primarily on the use of social media and health advocacy efforts in association with the American Heart Association. For ages 30-49, there is also a focus on these two, combined with more community oriented issues, and for 50-60, there is much more of a focus on financial training along with community organized workshops.
Prevention has become a major issue…
References McLeod, Saul. (2010). Erik Erikson. Developmental Psychology. Simply Psychology. Web. http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
Nurses, who have first hand knowledge and understanding of how to live healthy and how to take proper care of themselves, are far better equipped to teach others about these concepts. Certain populations can benefit greatly from prevention, especially those who are prone to specific types of diseases or conditions.
One of the most common behaviors that leads to many chronic and often very damaging health conditions is smoking. Smoking can cause a multitude of diseases and conditions from emphysema to heart disease to lung cancer (Chapman, 2007). The list goes on and on. But smoking is 100% preventable and nurses need to understand not only how to treat these smoking-related diseases but how to more importantly discourage and prevent people from smoking in the first place. Many nurses agree that this behavior leads to many of the worst case scenarios for people with pre-existing chronic conditions. It is therefore…
Chapman, Simon. (2007). Public Health Advocacy and Tobacco Control: Making Smoking
History. Blackwell Publishing, New York, NY. Pp. 55-56.
Chung, Daniel C. (2008). "Stool DNA Testing and Colon Cancer Prevention: Another Step
Forward." Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 149, No. 7. pp. 509-510.
Health Care oles in Communication
Communication is a fundamental piece of health care education and has been shown to improve health outcomes, patient compliance, and patient satisfaction. Quality health care emphasizes knowledge and utilization of communication skills. Health care professionals often express anxiety and lack of confidence and are deficient in a creating a situations that are conducive to open and candid communication with patients (Kameg et. al., 2009).
Effective communication involves gathering information, establishing a relationship or connection with a patient, and supporting the person through words and other non-verbal forms of interactions. Effective communication involves not only the interactions between the staff and the patient but also the interactions between staff and the interactions between the staff in front of the patient. Many times the high demand for services in a health care facility cause the staff to overlook the importance of good communication skills and enables situations…
Beer, J.E. (2003). Nonverbal Communication: Communicating across cultures. Cultures at work. Retrieved May 29, 2011 from http://www.culture-at-work.com/nonverbal.html
Coiera, E. (2006, May). Communication systems in healthcarre. Clinical Biochemist Reviews. nursing.Vol. 27, Issue 2, 89-98. Retrieved May 28, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1579411/
Gamble, T.K. & Gamble, M. (2006). Communication works. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill.
Health Communication. (2010). Health communication. Healthy people 2010: Objectives for improving reproductive health. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Retrieved May 29, 2011 from http://www.hhs.gov/opa/pubs/hp2010/hp2010rh_sec2_healthcomm.pdf
Furthermore, and despite its popularity as a tourist destination because of its natural beauty, the Appalachians are not a sterile environment by any means and the people who live there have higher risks for certain types of conditions than their counterparts elsewhere. According to Bauer and Growick (2003), "Americans who live in Appalachia experience unique and different ways of life than most Americans. Appalachian culture runs from the bottom half of the State of New York through the mountains of West Virginia and Southeast Ohio to the flatlands of Alabama. This area of the country offers different perspectives and challenges to life. Because of the geographical vastness and uniqueness of the Appalachian culture, many people with disabilities who live in Appalachia are unable to access rehabilitative services and agencies" (emphasis added) (p. 18).
Likewise, many rural residents throughout Appalachia may have septic tanks and will lack access to other…
Anguiano, R.P., & Harrison, S.M. (2002). Teaching cultural diversity to college students majoring in helping professions: The use of an eco-strengths perspective. College Student Journal, 36(1), 152.
Barrett, E., Hackler, R., Highfill, K.A., Huang, P., Jiang, X., Monti, M.M., & Peipins, Lucy. (2002). A Norwalk-like virus outbreak on the Appalachian Trail. Journal of Environmental Health, 64(9), 18.
Bauer, W., & Growick, B.M. (2003). Rehabilitation counseling in Appalachian America. The Journal of Rehabilitation, 69(3), 18.
Brown, J.W., & May, B.A. (2005, April). Rural Appalachian women's formal patterns of care. Southern Online Journal of Nursing Research, (2)6, 1-21.
Are healthcare inequalities UK
Defining Health Inequality
The term healthcare disparity or healthcare differences have been defined in a number of ways. Healthcare inequality can be defined as the difference of the health levels of any tow comparable demographic groups within a certain country or a region even when proper healthcare facilities are available. The inclusive incidences include higher rates of mortality as well as morbidity within the people who belong to lower occupational classes and are poorer. These rates are higher as compared to the mortality rates in the people who belong to better occupational classes being richer and more privileged. Second important aspect that has been highlighted in the definitions of healthcare inequality includes increased rates of occurrence of mental healthcare-based issues in people from poor classes.
A number of countries have been highlighted with healthcare inequalities including Canada and UK. Since 1980, the documentation of…
Asthana, S, and Dr. Halliday, J 2006, What works in tackling health inequalities?: pathways, policies and practice through the life course, Studies in poverty, inequality, and social exclusion, The Policy Press.
Barron K. 2009, Health inequalities: written evidence; Volume 422 of HC SeriesPaper (Great Britain. Parliament. (Session 2007-08). House of Commons)) Written evidence, The Stationery Office.
Davies P. 2007, The NHS in the UK 2007/08, 9th edn, The NHS Confederation.
Dowler E. 2007, Challenging health inequalities: from Acheson to choosing health, Health and Society Series, The Policy Press.
"Studies of the relationship between managed care penetration in the health care market and expenditures for Medicare fee-for-service enrollees have demonstrated the existence of these types of spill over effects" (Bundorf et al., 2004).
Managed care organizations generate these types of spillover effects by increasing competition in the health care market, altering the arrangement of the health care delivery system, and altering physician practice patterns. Studies have found that higher levels of managed care infiltration are linked with lower rates of hospital cost inflation and lower physician fees are consistent with competitive effects. "Other studies demonstrate the impact of managed care on delivery system structure including hospital capacity, hospital admission patterns, the size and composition of the physician workforce and the adoption and use of medical equipment and technologies. More recent evidence has linked market-level managed care activity to the process, but not the outcomes of care" (Bundorf et al.,…
Altman, D.E. And L. Levin. (2005). The Sad History of Health Care Cost Containment as
Told by One Client. Health Affairs, 24(1).
Bodenheimer, T. (2005). High and rising health care costs. part 1: Seeking an explanation.
Annals of Internal Medicine, 142(10), 847-54.
Contracts with doctors often contain a clause which doesn't allow the doctors to discuss
Health care 7 with their patients financial incentives to deny treatment or about treatments not covered by the plan (Glazer, 1996). This has caused many consumers, especially those with chronic illnesses, to form organizations with the American Medical Association and physician specialty groups to promote legislation forbidding "gag rules" (Glazer, 1996). One group, Citizen Action, has 3 million members and "has been lobbying in state legislatures for laws that would require plans to disclose how they pay their doctors; give patients the right to choose specialists outside the plan; and provide appeals for patients who get turned down for expensive treatments" (Glazer, 1996).
The doctor-patient relationship is also affected if a patient must switch to a new doctor under managed care. Having a longterm relationship with a primary doctor is important because he or she is…
Bennett Clark, Jane (1996, July). What you should ask your HMO.
Kiplinger's Personal Finance Magazine. pp. 92-93.
Glazer, Sarah (1996, April 12). Managed Care. CQ Researcher, 6,
Koop, C. Everett (1996, Fall). Manage with care. Time. pp. 69.
Health Maintenance Issues
Mrs. Gray is an 86-year-old woman who has been diagnosed with Type Two Diabetes. She has lived with the disease for three years. Mrs. Gray is single and lives in the area in a naturally occurring retirement community. Mrs. Gray, though 86, appears much younger than her stated age, which can be largely attributed to her active physical nature. Mrs. Gray boasts an exceedingly active social life, meeting her friends for lunch several times a week, and she strives to keep herself in good physical condition by going to the gym an average of four times a week. Mrs. Gray is further involved in the community through significant work in her church and as a member of the Senior Friends Program, which allows volunteers to interact with shut-ins by visiting with them and bringing them dinner once a week. Mrs. Gray's last A1C was 6.1%.
Esfahani, A., Josse, A., and Panahi, S. (2008). Nutritional considerations for older adults with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Nutrition for the Elderly, 27.3-4. pp. 363-80. Retrieved from: EBSCOhost Database.
Fravel, M., McDanel, D., and Ross, M. (2011). Special considerations for treatment of type 2 diabetes in the elderly. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 68.6. pp. 500-9. Retrieved from: EBSCOhost Database.
Haffner, S., Lehto, S, and Ronnemaa, T. (2008). Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type w diabetes and in nondiabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine, 349:1. pp. 229-234. Retrieved from: EBSCOhost Database.
Halter, J. (2009). Geriatric patients. In: Therapy for Diabetes Millitus and related disorders, 3 ed. Alexandria, VA: American Diabetes Association. pp. 234-240. Retrieved from: EBSCOhost Database.
In 2004, a Ten-Year Plan to Strengthen Health Care was announced, primarily intended to improve access to medical services, decrease wait times, and update medical equipment and ensure accurate reporting and enhance public health promotion and prevention programs. Shortly thereafter, the Canadian Supreme Court affirmed the nation's health care philosophy and the immediate need to implement further improvements envisioned by the ambitious 2004 plan in striking down a Quebec law that had prohibited private medical insurance for covered services:
The evidence in this case shows that delays in the public health care system are widespread and that in some serious cases, patients die as a result of waiting lists for public health care...In sum, the prohibition on obtaining private health insurance is not constitutional where the public system fails to deliver reasonable services."
According to legal experts, the decision could "open the door to a wave of lawsuits challenging the…
Canadian Medical Association Journal.
1939 September; 41(3):
Chaoulli v. Quebec: Judgments of the Supreme Court of Canada Accessed, September 2, 2007, at http://scc.lexum.umontreal.ca/en/index.html
Kraus, C. (2005) Canada's Supreme Court Chips Away at National Health Care.
Health Care Communication
As the nation's health care resources become more and more strained, health care professionals are being asked to do more with less. They are being pressured to find cheaper ways to improve the quality of health care they deliver. Given the current circumstances, this sounds difficult and even unreasonable, but it may not be entirely impossible.
One simple way for medical professionals to improve the quality of health care they provide is by improving their health care communication skills. Health care communication is "The art and technique of informing, influencing, and motivating individual, institutional, and public audiences about important health issues. The scope of health communication includes disease prevention, health promotion, health care policy, and the business of health care as well as enhancement of the quality of life and health of individuals within the community." (U.S.D.S.H.S., 2000, p.11-20).
In health care, as in all aspects of…
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Healthy People 2010: Volume I, Focus Area 11: Health Communication (second edition) Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Zachariae, R. et. al. (2003). The relative importance of physician communication, participatory decision making, and patient understanding in diabetes self-management. British Journal of Cancer, 88(5), 658-65.
Heisler, M. et. al. (2002). The relative importance of physician communication, participatory decision making, and patient understanding in diabetes self-management. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 17(4), 243-52.
Safran, D.G. et. al. (1998). Linking primary care performance to outcomes of care. Journal of Family Practice, 47(3), 213-20.