Isaac et al. (2002) states that within the first phase is three distinct Work Packages as follows: (1) WP1: Development of a conceptual framework and model of human error in ATM; (2) WP2: Development of a methodology (a taxonomy and an associated method of use) based on WP1 for analyzing errors and their causes in ATM incidents and preparation of user guidance material. The review is stated to include the following information sources: (1) human error taxonomies; (2) general psychological models of human performance and error; (3) approaches from other industries; (4) Models of ATM controller performance; and (4) consideration of current future controller task and behavior requirements. (Isaac, et al., 2002) it is stated that the Human Error in ATM taxonomy is inclusive of the following: (1) Human action, behavior, functions and performance; (2) Human error; (3) Framework; (4) Conceptual framework; (5) model; (6) methodology; (7) error mechanism; (8) error cause; (9)contributory cause; and (10) Taxonomy.(Isaac, et al., 2002) Additionally related by Oscar et al. (2002) are four primary purposes for classifying human error in ATM in the context of incidents that have occurred during operations: (1) Incident investigation - identification and classification of what types of error have occurred when investigating specific ATM incidents; (2) Retrospective incident analysis - to classify what types of errors have occurred within present ATM system incidents; (3) Predictive error identification - to identify errors that may affect present and future systems. This is termed Human Error Identification (HEI). Many of the classification systems in this review are derived from HEI tools; (4) Human error quantification - to use existing data and identified human errors for predictive quantification, i.e. determining how likely certain errors will be. Human error quantification can be used for risk assessment purposes." (Oscar et al., 2002) Human performance and human error in ATM include the following facts: (1) ATM is associated with several 'covert' cognitive skills or activities such as pattern recognition, situation assessment, and awareness, judgment, project and prospective memory. These may be difficult in representation in an ATM model; (2) ATM differs between different functional areas and different countries, so specific ATM models may have low applicability human performance and human error in ATM; (3) ATM is associated with several 'covert' cognitive skills or activities such as pattern recognition, situation assessment and awareness, judgment, projection, and prospective memory. These can be difficult to represent in an ATM model; and (4) ATM differs between different functional areas and different countries, so specific ATM models may have low applicability.
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
As related in this study, there have been wide variations in the application of Heinrich's Pyramid theory as related to Aviation safety in both historical and traditional terms. There have however, been various modifications and expansions to this theory as also noted during the course of this study. The very solid base upon which Heinrich constructed this theoretical framework serves to support its' use in the long-term as well as it serves as the skeletal framework for many various and diverse modifications and expansion of the pyramid theory as proposed in 1932 by Heinrich.
Ananyan, Sergei, and Goodfellow, Michael (2004) New Capabilities of PolyAnalysts…
Sources Used in Document:
Ananyan, Sergei, and Goodfellow, Michael (2004) New Capabilities of PolyAnalysts Text and Data Mining Applied to the STEADES Data at the International Air Transport Association (IATA) http://www.flightsafety.org/gain/IATA_data_mining_report.pdf
Frontline Management (2008) the Knowledge Exchange. Manage Performance and Knowledge. Online available at http://marcbowles.com/courses/frontline/fmd18/fmd18a.htm
Application to International Trade
Evaluation of New Governance
Application of New Governance to International Trade for Free Market
In today's robust world, scholars as well as the think tanks and tools of democracy and beaurcracy have been using a term "governance" or good governance rather frequently. Where governance in needed in every aspect of corporate management and public administration, it is important to understand how the very concept of governance has evolved