Higher Ed Faculty Adoption Of Term Paper

Length: 16 pages Sources: 20 Subject: Teaching Type: Term Paper Paper: #30811366 Related Topics: Intel Corporation, Higher Education, Peer Pressure, Classroom Observation
Excerpt from Term Paper :

" (Basson, 1999); and systematic way of designing, carrying out, and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching in terms of specific objectives, based on research in human learning and communications, and employing a combination of human and non-human resources to bring about more effective instruction (Commission on Instructional Technology, 1970)." (Basson, 1999)

Basson shares the fact that a survey conducted by Nick Hammond et al. On "Blocks to the Effective Use of Information Technology in Higher Education" states confirmation that: "...virtually all departments use computer facilities for teaching statistics and practical classes. Few lecturers report using simulations, demonstrations, self testing materials or structuring tools (such as concept mapping) within their teaching." (1999) Other findings make the suggestion that: "...lecturers tend to call on tools they already use for their research for teaching purposes. For example, word processing packages are used to prepare course notes; data analysis packages are used to analyze class practical results; and in some cases a specific software package is used for both research and teaching." (1999) This is stated to hold implications related to departmental purchasing policies related to the "...disadvantages of teaching innovation." (Basson, 1999) Conclusions in the study of Basson (1999) report that:

Technology-enhanced learning developers (TEL) in both industry and education must collaborate with each other more extensively to redefine "learning" in digital environments. In this article, we recommend ways in which TEL may be used to bridge gaps between industry and higher education and to teach college students specific job competencies; and Computer-based learning is about education, not computers, and as most lecturers received no formal training in educational technology theory and practice, how can they adopt something that they have little or no knowledge of. Most lecturers are still following in the footsteps of their mentors...high tech to them was an overhead projector and some colored chalk." (Basson, 1999)

Basson relates that it is quite easy for most educators to relate to the statement of Maddux as follows: "Many campus computing centers need additional personnel and funds to support them. However, additional resources and positions alone will not solve the problem. A large part of the problem is attitudinal and lies with both teaching faculty and campus computing personnel, both of whom 1) Often demonstrate an appalling lack of understanding of each other's mission, problems, and limitations;

2) a tendency for each to blame the other for problems; and 3) Little or no inclination to communicate constructively in a problem-solving spirit." (1999)

Basson relates that the conclusion of many instructors is that "technology is simply to unreliable and create[s] too much stress to incorporate into their courses." (1999) Other factors mention that oftentimes the educator runs into problems with computer programs and there is no one available to assist them with the problem. The survey conducted by Hammond et al. (1992) reflects the fact that the perception of staff relating to a lack of time for modification of courses and evaluation of software as well as for development of materials for use with technology in education are major barriers to the use of technology. Hammond et al. (1992) state that it might be that when the use of technology "becomes a part of the recognition and promotion systems of the universities, lecturers would be externally motivated to put in more 'after-hour' time" in order to integrate the use of technology in their instruction. Other stated barriers to use of technology in the classroom include the expense factor as well as the security factors in use of technology. In summary Basson states the following eighteen barriers to the use of technology in higher education instruction and learning:

1. "In adequate infrastructure for access, support and training for support and sustaining technology;

2. Lack of coordinated planning for technology at departmental, institutional and system levels (Faculty inadequately trained in new pedagogies using technology)

3. Using technology is not part of the prestige, recognition, promotion systems (i.e., academic norms and incentives do not support);

4. Faculty were not taught/mentored in the use of technology for teaching;

5. Technology not a financial priority (minority view: in an era of constraints);

6. Uncertainty about intellectual property rights in an electronic environment;

7. Resistance to changing the way they teach;

8. Some faculty do not understand that technology can enhance their teaching and enable them to do what they do better;

9. Lack of high level vision in administration about the role of technology Unrealistic expectations of what technology can do, its associated costs (i.e., dollars and user support) and its ease of implementation;

10. Dismissive to early...


Financial models lacking to build and maintain technology;

12. The generational divide between older (tenured) faculty and younger students and (untenured) faculty who have used the technology;

13. Universities are comparatively closed systems (relative to private firms) in responding to external pressures;

14. Ideological resistance to technology as social system, practice, etc. And concerns about social, political impact;

15. Faculty culture of shared governance;

16. Few models of best practice; difficulty to find descriptions of best Vendor lack of familiarity of specific requirements of the market;

17. Constantly changing products and out of sync with university planning, training and support;

18. Lack of understanding by academics and vendors of each other's priorities and concerns?" (Basson, 1999)

Basson (1999) concludes that: "Implementation of educational technology goes hand in hand with change: cognitive change, educational change and organizational change. Change takes time and perhaps the slow implementation of technology is simply a symptom of a long gestation period." (Basson, 1999)

The work of Moser (2007) entitled: "Faculty Adoption of Educational Technology" states that: "Roughly 10 years into the e-learning age, educational technology has made only modest inroads into changing teaching in universities." (2007) the work of Moser reports that in an "initial survey of nine higher education institution leading educational technology development in the Boston metropolitan area clearly showed that U.S. institutions wrestle with issues similar to those at their European counterparts..." And that "most striking was the issue of faculty resistance across the institutions." (Moser, 2007) This is stated to include top-ranked research universities or large public institutions heavily engaged in continuing education." (Moser, 2007) From this, Moser narrowed the focus of research to "educational technology support strategies..." In the attempt to gain an understanding of the exact mechanism, which serve as a guide to faculty behavior "regarding educational technology." (Moser, 2007) Moser selected three universities described as "highly interesting but very different" in nature and specifically "...MIT, Tufts, and Northeastern - for in-depth case studies into this issue." (Moser, 2007) Moser states that research consisted of over 50 interviews at the three universities to include analysis of documents, observation of participants and focus group discussions. The data-analysis process, which ensued, grounded the theoretical procedures in the study. (Miles and Huberman, 1994; as cited in Moser, 2007) Moser states that the faculty educational technology adoption cycle was proposed based on the research, which assist in tacking the "complex issue of technology adoption for teaching." (2007) Depicted in the cycle is a "circuit of faculty behavior activities which are influenced by several outside factors and conditions." These are shown in the following illustration in 'bold' and 'italic' respectively.

Faculty Educational Adoption Cycle as Proposed by Moser (2007)

Source: (Moser, 2007)

At the core of the model as proposed by Moser the time spent by faculty in the integration of educational technology into instruction "lies at the core of this model." Time is a resource that is "scarce" in nature and is the center of competition for many aspects of the consideration and commitment of time by faculty. Time commitment is greatly dependent upon organizational incentive structures (extrinsic motivation and competing) and on individual variables (intrinsic motivation)." (Moser, 2007) Stated is the following:

The heuristic model proposes a positive causal relationship between time commitment and competence development. Time commitment is the prerequisite for an involvement in competence development and an engagement in course (re-)design activities. Competence development, in turn, has a positive impact on the quality of course design. The availability of support services and other resources (such as course release time) are important to competence development and the quality of course design. Following the model through its progression, the quality of the course design is a major determinant of the teaching and learning experience. The reliability of technology can affect the teaching and learning progress considerably." (Moser, 2007)

Stated as factors that inform the process of reflection are those inclusive of: (1) an institutionalized student feedback mechanism; (2) Individual experiences of the teacher; and (3) Input from peers. (Moser, 2007)

Team teaching was reported in the study to have positive implications "by way of peer pressure and competitiveness." (Moser, 2007) However, reported as well is the opposite effect and that it is "widespread as well." (Moser, 2007) When the experiences of faculty…

Sources Used in Documents:


Empowering 21st Century Teaching and Learning (2006) Programs of the Intel Education Initiative. Intel Corporation 2006. Online available at http://download.intel.com/pressroom/kits/education/initiative/OverviewBrochure.pdf

Hamza, Mohhamad Khalid; and Alhalabi, Bassem (nd) Technology and Education: Between Chaos and Order. First Monday: Peer-Reviewed Journal Online. Available at http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue4_3/hamza/index.html

Profiles of the Regional Educational Laboratories (2007) NCREL at AEL Inc. Online available at http://www.ed.gov/pubs/labs_profiles/ael.html

Marshall, James M. (2002) Learning with Technology: Evidence that Technology Can, and Does, Support Learning. San Diego State University California. Online available at http://www.medialit.org/reading_room/pdf/545_CICReportLearningwithTechnology.pdf.

Cite this Document:

"Higher Ed Faculty Adoption Of" (2007, June 27) Retrieved September 28, 2021, from

"Higher Ed Faculty Adoption Of" 27 June 2007. Web.28 September. 2021. <

"Higher Ed Faculty Adoption Of", 27 June 2007, Accessed.28 September. 2021,

Related Documents
Textbook Adoption Process
Words: 1227 Length: 4 Pages Topic: Teaching Paper #: 88647549

Adoption Process ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION AND SUMMARY The activity I completed was gaining a better understanding of how curriculum is provided for the students at my school. Doing so was an involved process in which I arranged a meeting with the assistant vice principal of my school, Mrs. Panetta, who gave me a detailed overview of how exactly relevant textbooks and workbooks are selected for student use. Additionally, I spoke with some

Pros and Cons of Standardized Testing High Stakes Tests
Words: 1732 Length: 5 Pages Topic: Teaching Paper #: 32077275

Standardized Testing: Validity, Reliability and Specific to Purpose Pros and Cons of standardized testing: High stakes tests Assessment of non-standardized students The one elemental requirement when determining any policy or standard that cannot be swept aside or forgotten, not even in part is that "individual" or "group of individuals" for which the policy or standard is being determined. Because it is spe-cifically the entire scope of characteristics in relation to that "individual or

Academic Achievement Through Block Scheduling
Words: 6471 Length: 25 Pages Topic: Teaching Paper #: 88937476

That responsibility is of the school -- to ensure that the adult citizens so needed by contemporary society are produced by the school system -- those individuals being responsible for their views and able to analyze and synergize information so they may "vote intelligently." For Dewey, the central tendency of individuals was to act appropriately to perpetuate the "good and just" society (Tozer, 2008). This of course set the stage

Tenure Changing Attitudes Toward and
Words: 4352 Length: 15 Pages Topic: Teaching Paper #: 86870265

In taking the approach that improvement in these areas can be achieved by establishing some form of post-tenure review, institutions are sending the signal that the blame for school-wide failures falls upon the teachers. A failure on the part of the institution to take this responsibility and the eroding of its confidence in its teachers promotes a deeply unhealthy context for academic freedom or creativity. This is to say that

Blackboard Inc. Marketing Plan Blackboard
Words: 4520 Length: 18 Pages Topic: Business Paper #: 83754903

Collaborators Blackboard collaborators are primarily divided into three categories: members, partners and channel partners or resellers. "Members are typically Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) who independently develop and market software solutions to extend the Blackboard applications. Partners strategically invest in and collaborate with us to deliver joint solutions to our clients. Channel Partners/Resellers are primarily focused on international sales and distribution of Blackboard software and services." Blackboard continually collaborates with universities in order

Post Tenure Ann Bib Tenure
Words: 1386 Length: 5 Pages Topic: Teaching Paper #: 22806778

Allen makes the case that this functions to improve the quality of higher education and the experience had by the student. Like Scheuerman, Allen argues that tenure is under attack for reasons other than the perceived erosion of educational quality, but makes a more direct case against administrators and public officials by arguing that tenure is actually attacked as a matter of posturing for control over the work of