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The students poured into the classroom, and the teacher began the mass lesson immediately, without any small talk. The eighth grade class consisted of twenty students of various genders and ethnicities. The topic of the day was algebraic equations, and the teacher's authoritative attitude conveyed her firm grasp of the subject matter. Her serious tone and attitude created a sense of urgency about her goals, which were obviously to provide the students with a solid foundation in this fundamental branch of mathematics. Moreover, these were honors students, so her pace was adequate for the academic level of her students.
After describing the basic principles of that day's lessons, the teacher posed some questions for the students to work on at their desks in silence. Afterwards, the teacher went over the answers and ascertained whether all the students comprehended the lesson. To do this, she frankly asked if anyone…
I observed a high school English teacher as the teacher led the students through a study of Shakespeare's Hamlet. While the students have to complete a certain number of English classes to graduate, they can choose most of the English classes they take. This was not an advanced placement class, but the students in it had chosen it and so presumably had an interest in Shakespeare. There were 18 students in the class.
The teacher used a variety of activities to encourage her students to think about what Shakespeare really was trying to communicate and to foster a deeper understanding of the play.
She fostered intellectual development -- increased understanding of the play with the activities; social development as students produced projects in teams of three students; personal development as they were encouraged to find creative new ways to present old information. Students knew from near the beginning…
Mrs. Menocal, 1st Grade, omerset Academy, Blended Classroom
Professional Background -- BA in Elementary Education, MA in English. 15-year veteran, taught English at the Middle chool level, and both 3rd and 1st grade at the Elementary level. Additional curriculum certification in literacy.
pecific Training -- 30+ hours in literacy and development reading; classes in EL and teaching immigrant children to read. These classes have been very helpful in teaching in school systems with diverse populations.
Consultative philosophy -- Regularly consult with school counselor and peers on development issues for children; particularly children who are outside the bell curve.
Development issues -- First graders still exhibit a great deal of "preschool" behavior and thus need help in both socialization and cognitive growth areas. Most of the class is fairly equal in their physical and mental development, with the exception of a few who are quite gifted and have obviously had a…
Summation -- Mrs. Menocal was quite pleased with the interview and depth of questions. She was particularly excited about sharing her views on the environmentally rich classroom, which tends to incorporate the constructivist approach to learning within her day-to-day planning (see below).
Development Theory in the Classroom- Much of the professional world has a theoretical basis. This is not to rigidly ensure that each person act/react in a similar manner, especially in the classroom, but to establish a basis for commonality within a particular career orientation. One of the most enduring theoretical basis for contemporary classroom education is, ironically, one that finds it roots in Piaget, Dewey, and most recently Vygotsky and Bronfenbrenner. In different ways, all of these educators used a constructivist learning theory, and Mrs. Menocal is a firm believer in its viability for all ages of learner.. Constructivism, of course, is a theory of knowledge arguing that humans generate knowledge and meaning by way of experience. In science, for instance, this implies epistemology and experimentation, not simply lecture and instructor-generated knowledge (Kim, 2005). In general, social constructivism views each student as having unique needs and backgrounds -- and is quite complex and multidimensional. Social constructivism not only allows for this uniqueness, but actual encourages, utilizes, and even wards it as part of the learning process (Dougiamas, 1998). It encourages the student to arrive at their own version of the truth, of course influenced by their own worldview as well as the nature of instruction. The responsibility of the actual learning, then, resides with the student, and emphasizes the importance of the student remaining actively involved in the process. The motivation for learning is based, in many ways, on Vygotsky's "Zone of proximal development" -- a theory that posits that learners are challenged in proximity to their current level of development, yet slightly above.
Constructivism was abundant within Mrs. Menocal's classroom; from the use of exploratory questions and allowing students to "discover" answers on their own, to the pushing of the envelope several times when moving children out of their comfort zone and into a new zone of learning. I believe that, in the modern classroom, it is necessary to combine constructivism with a more realistic ecology for the learner. This is a synthesis of models, beginning with existing framework and gradually evolving forward. This is known as a conceptual change model which is a way to aggressively move forward with a concept that is plausible and reaches a learning conclusion that is satisfying and robust. One might literally
Math Classroom Observation
This eighth grade algebra class proved to be generally engaging, largely due to the efforts of the teacher. She does not rely solely on the text but rather uses it as a guide to preparing her curriculum and for devising equations for the students to solve in class. Otherwise, the teacher's explanation of the day's material comes across as being completely professional and based on a solid understanding of the mathematical principles at work. Her command of the subject matter is also evident in the way she confidently invites and promptly responds to all questions posed by students.
It is evident the teacher has a long-term agenda in mathematics; each topic flows into the next in a logical manner; she omits that which she feels is unnecessary and spends more time on issues that plague the majority of students. Whenever possible, she challenges her students with more…
She explained that the natural processes of geological erosion could be effectively duplicated and modeled accurately enough on a small scale to learn about geological erosion in the real world on the large scale. She explained that following the directions for examining the effects of different variables (i.e. material composition, slope angle of natural deposits, and the amount of water fall, etc.) would enable students to draw conclusions and answer quiz questions about geological erosion.
A teachable moment arose repeatedly when three different work groups seemed to be having difficulty differentiating between the effects of multiple variables. The teacher took that opportunity to explain to the entire class how important it is to test all potential variables one at a time. During that instruction, she explained why altering multiple variables simultaneously undermined the value of any empirical experiment. Afterwards, the working groups returned to their projects and isolated…
instrumental case study approach in order to provide a description, analysis and interpretation of the phenomenon that exists at the intersection of technology and special needs students. The method will consist of evaluation research, which will be conducted to evaluate the effect of technology on special needs students. Evaluation esearch is a form of study that employs social research methodology in order to establish an evaluation of a social program (Powell, 2006). Evaluation research for example is used when a researcher is trying to examine and judge the merits of (evaluate) a specific social program. The researcher will use standard social research methods as a methodology for evaluating the merits of the program. For this study qualitative and quantitative data will be gathered from the students to establish the relationship between special needs students and technology in the classroom. Both students and teachers will take surveys that will utilize convenience…
Clason, D. L., Dormody, T. J. (1994). Analyzing data measured by individual Likert-
type items. Journal of Agricultural Education, 35(4): 31-35.
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among
Five Approaches. CA: Sage.
This observation is of an eighth grade mathematics class, in which algebra was being taught. The objectives of the math lesson included to “appreciate the usefulness, power and beauty of mathematics,” and to “recognize that mathematics permeates the world around us,” which are core objectives of the middle grade math curriculum (“The Middle Years Programme – MYP,” 2008). This specific lesson on the day of observation was linear equations, with an introduction to word problems at the end of the lesson. The ages of the students were around thirteen years old; the teacher was in her early 20s and was African American. The classroom was small, only containing twelve students of various ethnic backgrounds. Also, the classroom was specifically arranged and designed as a math class because the posters on the wall, the props, and the computers were all set up for math lessons. This is a middle school…
An, S., Kulm, G. & Wu, Z. (2004). The pedagogical content knowledge of middle school, mathematics teachers in China and the US. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education 7(2): 145-172.
“The Middle Years Programme – MYP,” (2008). OIS. http://yayoi.senri.ed.jp/ois/curriculum/maths_aims_objs.htm
Van De Walle, J.A. (2014). Elementary and middle school mathematics teaching development. Fourth Edition. http://floridastateseminary.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Math-Quest.pdf
Webb, N.M. & Farivar, S. (1994). Promoting Helping Behavior in Cooperative Small Groups in Middle School Mathematics. American Educational Research Journal 31(2): 369-395.
Classroom Observation and Commentary
How the Teacher Promotes a Positive Classroom Environment for Reading Instruction
The teacher promoted a positive classroom environment for reader instruction first by greeting the class warmly and announcing the activity that the class was going to do in a warm and enthusiastic tone. The teacher then used cue cards with large print words in different colors to go over the various vocabulary terms that the class was going to read in their reading material for the day. The teacher sounded out the first few words and then invited the class to sound them out with her. Thus the teaching approach was varied and oriented towards appealing to diverse learning styles (Souto-Manning & Martell, 2016). Then she asked if anyone could spell the word. If a student raised a hand but had difficulty spelling or reading the word, the teacher encouraged the student by asking helpful…
It is easy to assume that a comprehensive decision making theory gives a reliable basis for an observation scheme for a classroom. However, it is apparent that even though the practical and theoretical ventures overlap in many respects the core of the theoretical tenets are fundamentally variant. They are broader in some respects and narrow in others. The deterrents of real time implementation are significant and thus the scheme of analysis is fundamentally different from the theory frames that led to (Schoenfeld, 2013.
At the onset, I believed that teaching was about spending 8 hours teaching and having a great time with children. Indeed, teaching seemed the easiest career choice for me. However, having interacted with many a student from across the age spectrum and educational levels, there is a side of the world that can only be viewed from the inside of a class. I changed my mind…
It provides a marker for conducting and easily recording observations of complex learning. This is in a paperless format, highly efficient and engaging strategy." (Wren, 2011) (Ivers, 2003)
This is illustrating how technology is critical to reaching out to students and offering them with further explanations about what is occurring. When this happens, they will be able to more effectively relate to key ideas and have a grasp of the way they can be utilized in the future. It is this point, when everyone will have a more hands on feel for these ideas and can easily remember them. (Wren, 2011) (Ivers, 2003)
Moreover, Johnson (1994) found that having individuals work with each other in small groups is more effective than requiring them to sit and listen to someone presenting the material. Evidence of this can be seen with Johnson saying, "The ability of all students to learn to work…
Haberman, M. (1995). Star Teachers for Children and Youth in Urban Poverty. The Phi Delta Kappan, 76 (10),
pp. 777 -- 781.
Howard, G. (2007). As Diversity Grows So Must We. Responding to Changing Demographics, 6 (62),
pp. 16 -- 22.
formed on properly executed observations does make out efficient teachers as well as practices itself. Teachers' accomplishes on the classroom surveillance mechanism of appraisal system dependably envisage the attainment increases undertaken by their students. The outcome upholds the notion that teacher assessment systems require not be founded on test scores only for the purpose of providing constructive in sequence as per which teachers are for the most part effectual in elevating student success.
Teachers Evaluation System (TES) has been seen as an exceptional instance of sky-scraping quality assessment program founded on classroom observations. At a bare minimum, it is a structure to which the quarter has dedicated substantial resources and this prove that teaching excellence is valued and recognized by the university.
Focusing on the TES it is without doubt that the presence of appropriate resource as well as technical support is felt this is because the TES which is…
Education - Classroom Management
Relationship etween the Use of ehavior Contracts and Student's Ability to Stay on Task
An Introduction to ehavioral Contracting
In dealing with children, there are cases when a teacher encounters a child who does not behave in a normal way as other children do. For instance, a child may show constant inattentiveness to learning, or may demonstrate irresponsiveness to discipline. A child with such disruptive behaviors oftentimes requires special attention and monitoring as part of a process of modifying an unpleasant behavior into an appropriate one. One strategy used to deal behavioral difficulties of a child is ehavioral Contracting. From Family Education Network (online), the following is a definition of behavioral contracting.
A behavioral contract is a written contract that specifies the child's behavioral obligations in meeting the terms of the contract and the teacher's (or parent's) obligations once the child has met his or her…
Watson, Christopher. Behavior Modification, A Proactive Intervention for the Classroom.
2003. University of Minnesota. 28 November 2003. http://ici2.umn.edu/preschoolbehavior/tip_sheets/behmod.htm
Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood & Adolescence. 28 November 2003. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/g2602/0000/2602000079/p1/article.jhtml
The teacher explained that the use of a commercial science-teaching program that emphasized hands-on participation and active inquiry in its design had helped her achieve high levels of genuine interest among her students. The materials for this module consisted of individual sets for each group that were easily assembled into experimental designs utilizing different types of soil, inclined planes, and water dispensed through variable means to closely simulate natural erosion processes (Huber & Moore, 2001).
According to the teacher, the use of the materials dramatically increased student interest and also subject matter retention of the same Earth Science concepts that are typically the subject of passive learning via textbook reading assignments and lectures by teachers (Huber & Moore, 2001). The teacher credited the hands-on involvement as well as the design of the lessons to emphasize critical thinking and inquiry-based analyses with the ability to sustain the high level of student…
Gardner H. (1999). Intelligence Reframed Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century.
New York: Basic Books.
Huber RA and Moore CJ. "A model for extending hands-on science to be inquiry based" School Science and Mathematics, Vol. 101, No. 1, (2001): 32.
School Observation: Springfield Gardens Middle School
The focus of this school observation is PS 59, Springfield Gardens Middle School in New York City. The observation was conducted in three separate settings: a math class, the cafeteria, and the school's main office. The goal of the observation was to gain insight on the relationships between different stakeholders in the school community, including teachers, students, staff, administration, and parents, and how these relationships influence the connectedness of the school environment. The assumption is that school connectedness as summarized by Blum (2004), can be measured by the presence or absence of factors such as positive student-faculty rapport, high academic expectations, and publically displayed efforts to strengthen school culture and safety. The observations of the school, thus, considered school connectedness as evidenced by student-teacher rapport, exhibition of student work, teaching methods, and classroom comportment, and interaction between staff members. In addition, student body and…
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. (2004). School "Connectedness: Improving Student's Lives." Baltimore, Maryland. Blum, R.
New York City Department of Education. (2010) "I.S. 059 Springfield Gardens: Progress Report, 2009-2010." NYC Department of Education, New York, New York. Retrieved from http://schools.nyc.gov/OA/SchoolReports/2009-10/Progress_Report_Overview_2010_EMS_Q059.pdf . 24, Feb. 2011.
New York City Department of Education. (2010) "I.S. 059 Springfield Gardens: Learning Environment Survey Report: 2009-2010." NYC Department of Education, New York, New York. Retrieved from http://schools.nyc.gov/OA/SchoolReports/2009-10/Survey_2010_Q059.pdf . 24,Feb. 2011.
testing data for the WJ-J-IV Tests of oral language and the test of achievement for Freddie Fictitious. Identify the four Broad Clusters included on these two test batteries, then give the Standard Score for each and using the WJ-IV classification chart what Range (not Proficiency) would you place Freddie for each of these four Broad Clusters?
The four broad clusters on these two test batteries include broad reading, broad mathematics, broad written language, and broad oral language. There is a band of 68% on Freddie Fictitious' scores in these categories. In broad reading he got an 82, in the range of 79-85, which is a low WJ IV classification range. In broad math he got a 113, in the range of 110-116, which I would classify as the high average range. In broad written language he got an 81 SS with a range of 78-84, which puts him in the…
Classroom-based reading assessment is the measurement of children's progress in learning reading by using both formal and informal measurement tools.
Classroom assessment collects useful information about what students do and do not know about reading. Teachers can use four different types of assessments to accomplish this.
Leveled books can be used to figure out where exactly a student is in terms of reading level.
Rough observation and measurement can be used to figure out where exactly students are in terms of reading level.
Tests can be administered to find out where students' strengths and weaknesses are.
Collecting samples of a student's work can be instructive in figuring out where a student is in terms of reading level
Determining Student's Reading Level
Teachers must figure out where students are in terms of reading level so that they can progress in their learning…
Artifact: "Fieldwork Observation Report"
INTASC Standard: COMMUNICATION SKILLS: The teacher uses knowledge of effective verbal, non-verbal and media communication techniques to foster active inquiry, collaboration, and supportive interaction in the classroom.
In this artifact, the writer considered and analyzed what he observed during about 20 hours in a high school classroom. He noted both strengths and weaknesses in the teaching he saw. He noted that many students were actively engaged in the discussions. He reported that the teacher drew relevant examples from the novel being studied, 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, and today, and extended that lesson into an assignment for the students. He observed students who were able to summarize the lessons well and enthusiastic desire to respond in many students.
However, he also noted that students for whom English was not their first language seemed less engaged and markedly less likely to participate, and he did not observe…
High school student leader English Language Arts (ELA) observations report
• Incorporates major content components and aids pupils in applying higher order thinking skills within learning.
• Displays the capability of relating current content to prior experiences, future learning, practical application and other disciplines.
• Displays correct knowledge regarding the topic taught.
• Displays abilities that are pertinent to the lesson.
• Centers teaching on objectives which echo superior expectations and a grasp of the discipline.
• Undertakes realistic time-planning in the areas of pacing, transition and subject mastery.
• Undertakes efficient differentiated instruction planning.
• Ensures pupils' involvement and dynamic learning.
• Builds on pupils' current skills and knowledge.
• Makes use of instructional technology for improving pupils' learning.
• Communicates explicitly and confirms student understanding.
• Applies various valid evaluation tools and approaches relevant to the pupil population and content.
• Employs evaluation tools for summative as…
Term: Winter, 2014
Age of Child: 6 years old
Date of Observation: February 3, 2014
Time of Observation: 9:00 to 10:00
Place of Observation: Child Care Center
Other People Present in the Observation Setting: 1 teacher, 1 assistants, 15 other children
Development: Appears mostly normal; has some problems with fine motor skills and challenging cognitive skills.
Permission: Permission was granted by the Director of the Child Care Center, the child's teacher and his parents
John was observed unobtrusively from some distance. The observer sat at a desk in the classroom while the teacher and assistant worked with children. The observer did not interact with the child and in fact remained out of the way of the children and teachers for the duration of the observation. The observation included classroom activities such as children writing their names, coloring, and building puzzles. The children then had snacks after which…
McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from: http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
McLeod, S. (2007). Lev Vygotsy. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from:
Another important aspect of observational learning is retention. For effective classroom management to take place it is important the students understand and retain the few classroom management rules that will be set out in the beginning of the year.
aise hand to speak
Treat others with respect
If you don't know then please ask
The retention factor with regard to classroom management will be reinforced each time the students witness another student having to suit out for five minutes of recess because they failed to respond appropriately to the clapping signal for attention. In addition we will have a weekly short discussion about classroom rules and why they are important and how the students can help themselves and each other to remember what they are.
The production step in the path to observational learning with regard to effective classroom management will be easily found in the response of the class…
Horner, Sherri L (2001) the EFFECTS of OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING on PRESCHOOLERS' BOOK-RELATED BEHAVIORS and ALPHABET KNOWLEDGE.(Statistical Data Included) Child Study Journal
Houseal, Ana (2003) Self-efficacy, standards, and benchmarks as factors in teaching elementary school science. Journal of Elementary Science Education
Newman, Jean (1999) in the Trenches: Increasing Competency of Teachers-in Training by Having Them Conduct Individualized Interventions.
Journal of Instructional Psychology
Developmental Observation of Five-Year-old
Statement of esearch/Observation: To observe a five-year-old female child in her natural setting to determine age appropriate developmental stages.
Description of Child Being Observed: The subject is a five-year-old female: Maribel.
My friend has a five-year-old niece. The subject's mother was contacted and agreed to allow the observations to take place in her home and on the playground. The project was discussed and plans were made to accommodate all involved parties.
The introductory visit was conducted at my friend's house, also the child's grandmother's home. Maribel often visits her grandmother and is very comfortable within this home setting.
Upon this visit, Maribel was introduced to me as her aunt's visitor. She said, "hi" to me, and asked me if I was visiting her aunt. I replied yes, and asked Maribel if she would like to sit with me and wait…
Alliance for Childhood. "Importance of play." 2 May, 2003 http://www.allianceforchildhood.net/projects/play/index.htm
Bergen, D. Pretend Play and Young Children's Development. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood, 2001. ERIC,ED458045.
Fisch, S.M., & Truglio, R.T. (2001). "G" is for growing: Thirty years of research on children and Sesame Street. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kagan, J. "Child." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. 25 Mar. 2004. http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar110700 .
There were some interesting results in the answers obtained. First, all six participants were between the ages of 15 and 18 and 100% of them had started studying the English language in grade 5 at home in Iraq. Another observation is that 80% of the Iraqi students reported that they were a full grade level below in Australia; the remaining 20% were two grade levels behind his or her current educational pace in Iraq. This interesting fact demonstrates that the Iraqi school system is behind the Australian school system and the Iraqi learners will need further 2nd language training.
The fourth question delves into the educational background of the Iraqi students parents. A Muslim belief dictates many of the findings because Iraqi females often are not schooled and in some cases are illiterate. Sixty percent of the males have college level education, 40% of the males have a military or…
History of Constructivism
As long as there were people asking each other questions, we have had constructivist classrooms. Constructivism, the study of learning, is about how we all make sense of our world, and that really hasn't changed."
Jacqueline Grennan rooks (1999)
The concept of constructivism is as old as Socrates, but 20th Century pioneers of the movement include Jean Piaget, John Dewey and Lev Vygotsky. Jean Piaget and John Dewey were early adaptors of "Progressive Education" ideals that led to the formal concept of constructivism. For Piaget, these ideas were grounded in the notion that people learned in logical increments, through structured introduction and that children absorbed information in different ways than did adults. John Dewey thought that learning should be associated with real life experience achieved through inquiry. Vygotsky introduced a social aspect by asserting that children exceed their average learning capability when interacting with others.
Dettrick, G.W. Constructivist Teaching Strategies. School of Education
Monash University - Gippsland Campus. Churchill Australia 3842
1896 EW5: 96-109 The reflex arc concept in psychology
control group as well as potential other study groups (grade level and ability level
DCS2 -- Field Notes/Observational ecords -- Observation of the above classes engaged in either a various lessons; take detailed notes on behaviors observed and current strategies being use to refocus or mitigate that behavior.
DCS3 -- Audiotaped Interviews (Children) -- Interview students about ways they believe behavior or management intervention can be effective. Students innately understand that certain behaviors are acceptable and certain ones unacceptable, within the classroom. Use this to get their view on how they believe a teacher can be effective in classroom management and what that means to them.
DCS4 -- Interviews with experts -- Similarly, interview experts in the field of behavioral psychology, long-term teachers, or specialists in classroom management to discuss appropriate levels of classroom management and intervention techniques.
DCS5 -- Behavioral Scales -- Once literature review and interviews are complete,…
Churchward, B. (2009). 11 Techniques for Better Classroom Discipline. Discipline by
Design. Cited in:
Craig, D.V. (2009). Action Research Essentials. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
The Social Studies instruction that I observed was in a high school setting with students of diverse ethnicities and backgrounds. The demographic of the class consisted of 12 students, 5 female, 7 male; 3 African-American, 1 Asian-American, 1 Hispanic-American, and 1 foreign exchange student from Germany, as well as 6 Caucasian Americans. The overall demographic of the school is about 75% Caucasian American, 15% African-American, 5% Hispanic-American, and 5% other. There is about a 50-50 mix of males and females in the student body. The teachers are mostly female, with only about 30% of the faculty being male. Less than 5% of the faculty is African-American. There is 1 Hispanic teacher. The school’s faculty is thus not very reflective of the study body in terms of ethnic background.
The Social Studies instruction I observed helped to prepare students for participation in a democratic society by focusing on the recent Occupy…
Fieldwork Paper and Fieldwork Form
The purpose of the fieldwork is to observe the two certified special education teachers and make connections to course content within real world classroom settings. One of the schools where the observation was conducted is P.S. / I.S. 266 whose address is 74-10 Commonwealth Blvd, Jamaica, NY 11426 (P.S. / I.S. 266, 2018). The school, which falls under New York City Public Schools district, is a pre-kindergarten to eighth grade learning institution that was established in September 2003 and has a student population of nearly 700 students. The second school is CLASP, which is located at 80 Grace Avenue, Great Neck NY, 11021 (CLASP Children’s Center, n.d.). This pre-kindergarten setting seeks to provide quality childcare for working parents and has existed for more than 35 years. This paper provides a summary of observations made in each of these schools as part of this fieldwork.
NI observed a fourth grade classroom during a science lesson. Bob is an intelligent ten-year-old child, but he has a difficult time paying attention to his teacher. He likes to get a lot of attention and when he gets bored he turns his focus to other destructive matters, such as throwing pencils up into the ceiling. Throwing pencils at the ceiling has gotten him in trouble many times. The teacher told me that once he was kicked out of the classroom for it. From the general disruption of the class, I can see why. Bob is the "class clown." He likes to get the other children involved in the disruption of the class along with him. In the 45 minute class time, the teacher did not get much done due the need to punish Bob. This included sending him to the principal's office and then a good amount of time…
Problem behaviors in the classroom: What they mean and how to help functional behavioral assessment. Child Study Center, (2002), 7(2), 1-6. Retrieved from www.aboutourkids.org/files/articles/nov_dec_2.pdf
Reducing behavior problems in the elementary school classroom. (2011). Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/practiceguide.aspx?sid=4 .
Richert, K. (2012). How to approach behavior problems in class. Retrieved from http://teaching.monster.com/benefits/articles/1956-how-to-approach-behavior-problems -.
Elementary School ESL Teacher
Befitting the United States of America's unique status as a cultural melting pot, the nation's educational system has learned to adapt its traditional method of English language instruction to suit students who primarily speak another language at home. The concept of English as Second Language (ESL) learners has emerged during the last few decades to recognize the need for teachers to customize their lesson plans, becoming more inclusive in terms of accessibility to ESL students. In light of the fact that ESL students are far more likely to absorb English during their earliest years, many school districts have elected to integrate ESL instruction within the 1st and 2nd grade levels, in the hope that this proverbial head start will enable the majority of ESL students to effectively utilize English in the educational setting. Recently, I was fortunate enough to have an opportunity to observe a 1st…
Disrupting by Imagining: ethinking Early Childhood esearch
Early Childhood esearch
This research highlights four teachers who work in early childhood classrooms who have chosen to implement the use of video-observations of their teaching in conjunction with the reflective process. Each teacher profile will include discussions and interviews about their teaching and change implementation. The ideas for change will be based upon their own knowledge, skills, and dispositions along with evidence from the recorded and observed videotapes. After viewing their own instruction, practitioners began the process of implementing change for individual students as well as for their class overall. Teachers shared this experience with others in their school and provided information regarding their results based on the following three areas: 1) Analysis: individuals and/or groups in the process of reflection (grade level teams); 2) Strategies: offers other teachers and/or programs ways to introduce concepts to a group of teachers and/or school;…
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: Freedom.
Brophy, J.E. (2004). Using video in teacher education. San Diego, CA: Elsivier.
Copa, A., Lucinski L., Olsen, E, & Wollenburg, K. (1999). Promoting professional and organizational development: A reflective practice model. Zero to Three, 20(1), 3-9.
Cross, N. (2011). Coaching: Seven reasons to go to the tape. ASCD Express, 7(1).
Chapter 1: Introduction
The epigraph above is reflective of the views of many special educational needs teachers. Indeed, innovations in technology in recent decades have created a wide array of new opportunities for helping special needs student achieve their full academic potential. These trends are especially noteworthy today because tens of millions of young American learners are struggling with their academic pursuits due to their special educational needs. In this context, the term “special educational needs” can be defined as “children who have learning problems or disabilities that make it harder for them to learn than most children of the same age” (Special education needs, 2018, para. 2). The purpose of this grant proposal was to identify ways that special educational needs students can benefit from the introduction of technology in their classrooms based on the problem statement described below.
Statement of the Problem
According to the most recent estimates…
The appendixes offer examples of learning tools, from syllabus to handouts and closes with a recommended reading list.
Though the second work in this review is longer by almost 100 pages it is also much simpler in its construct and clearer in intention as a manner to demonstrate the needs of the instructor to change the manner in which he or she constructs the classroom to facilitate learner-centered models that build a higher degree of student learning confidence and therefore success. hile the previous book has a more seminar style work, supported by research and application this second work has a higher degree of personal reading for teachers feel to it. The two together could offer a fantastic culmination of available resources for teachers to access to help build a case for and demonstrate tactics for moving the teacher centered plan to one that better meets the needs of learners.…
McCombs, Barbara L. And Miller, Linda Learner Centered Classroom Practices and Assessments New York: Corwin Press, 2006.
Weimer, Maryellen. Learner-Centered Teaching: Five Key Changes to Teaching. New York: Jossey-Bass, 2002.
Technology in History Classes]
Since the beginning of education in the U.S., the classroom setting has remained the same: Students have sat quietly in their seats with just a pencil, textbook and lined paper to practice their "readin', riting and 'rithmetic." However, the advent of new technologies is heralding a change. In a growing number of schools, technological innovations are beginning to significantly change the way that information is conveyed and students learn. Depending on the creativity of the teacher, the advent of computers, CD-ROMs, videodiscs, multimedia, and cable networks is expanding the breadth of the curriculum -- from mathematics to the social sciences. For example, teachers have found multiple ways to restructure technology into high school history that have made an often very dry topic come to life.
In 1983 Howard Gardner, a Harvard University professor, introduced his theory of "multiple intelligences" (MI). His book Intelligence Reframed showed that…
Loewen, J. (1995) Lies My Teacher Told Me. New York: New Press.
Norton, P. (1999) Teaching with Technology. New York: Hartcourt Brace.
Warren, W. (1999) "Using the World Wide Web for primary source research in high school history classes." Journal of the Association for History and Computing.Vol. 2, No. 2.
Personal Observations: Class Size vs. Quality Instruction
I am not able to neatly separate my preparation and reading in the area of educational quality from my personal experience. The two sources of knowledge dovetail and flow back and forth in a highly influential manner. I certainly agree that class size is a factor in student success, and a variable that can enable or hinder the ease with which a teacher provides quality educational opportunities for her students. My teacher preparation coursework and my reading on education policy lead me to believe that them most important variables -- next to the influences of home and community -- are those under the aegis of teachers.
Teacher qualifications are a critical variable for student success. Naturally, the amount of resources available to a school, district, region, or state impact the level of quality that is provided to students through educational systems. One has…
Participant observation can, for purposes of simplicity, "be placed on a continuum with 'passive' participant observation at one end of the continuum, and 'active' participant observation at the other" (Burgess, 2003, p.69). These two forms of observer participation give rise to four strategies; complete participant, complete observer, participant-as-observer, and observer-as-participant, which have been better-explained through the scenarios below (Burgess, 2003).
Observations of professional conduct in the classroom by the student author of a course evaluation guide
The complete participant strategy works best in this case; the observer ought to act like a full member of the group and not reveal his research intentions because any suspicions by members of the observed group could lead them to display bias in an attempt to make the evaluation go a certain way.
Observation of retail shoppers by a researcher who is interested in determining customer purchase time by type of goods purchased
Biggemann, S. (2010). Modeling the Structure of Business to Business Relationships. In Woodside, A.G. (Ed.), Organization Culture, Business to Business Relationships, and Interfirm Networks. (pp. 27-178). Bingley: Emerald Publishing Company.
Burgess, R. (2003). Some Role Problems in Field Research. In Burgess, R.G. (Ed.), Field Research: A Sourcebook and Field Manual (pp. 68-74). New York: Routledge.
What types of behavior did you notice? In hindsight -- by focusing on what you did -- what types of behaviors might you have failed to notice?
The noticeable trait observed during the course of a formal interaction was that all students and teachers are engaged in teaching and learning. The young ELLs were both attentive as well as inquisitive in the classroom setting where the assistant teacher had the role of providing each student with a personal attention. Simultaneously, the head instructor worked hand-in-hand with others who experienced different challenges with understanding some concepts.
Why do you think certain aspects of the setting stood out for you?
All through my observation, several aspects stood out impressively. Some of the aspects that got me enthralled; understood how young leaders could be able to work in harmony with one another and by so doing become responsible for their learning…
Bogdan, R. C., & Biklen, S. K. (2007). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theories and methods (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Pearson Educational.
Montoya, D. (2016, January 24). How to Avoid Researcher Bias While Doing a Research Paper. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/how_7776012_avoid-bias-doing-research-paper.html
TESOL: Fieldwork Experience
The student observed for the Student Oral Language Observation Matrix (SOLOM) was a native Spanish-speaking 16-year-old female who was a high school sophomore. The student's SOLOM score for the observation was a 20/25 with limited English proficiency. Based on what was learned about the student during the SOLOM initial assessment and previous fieldwork experiences, this paper identifies an appropriate instructional strategy for use with this student and reports the results of that strategy.
The instruction strategy selected for this exercise was "building trust with families" as advocated by Pompa (n.d.) of the AdLit organization. Just as it is vitally important for clinicians to forge a therapeutic relationship with their clients in order to formulate efficacious treatment interventions, it is likewise vitally important for ELL teachers to reach out to students' families in order to encourage their more active involvement in the education of their children. Indeed, the…
Pompa, M. (n.d.). Building trust with families. AdLit. Retrieved from http://www.adlit.org / media/mediatopics/ells/.
Silverman, F. (2009, July). Hitting the books-together: Through a family literacy program, Hispanic parents and their young children are learning to be partners in educational success. District Administration, 40(7), 24-26.
Vera, E. M. & Israel, M. S (2012, Fall). Exploring the educational involvement of parents of English learners. School Community Journal, 22(2), 183-189.
This possibility has had a profound impact on the needs that I think the community -- especially these school children -- possesses. Being a tutor implies a certain type of behavior and activity; tutors instruct their students in academic areas and help them solve specific issues and/or problems one at a time. I think that what this particular segment of the community needs is more accurately described as a mentor. In addition to extra assistance with academic instruction and learning, the children I observed during my time as their tutor really need a regular influence in their life to help them build confidence and self-esteem along with helping them improve their skills. Becoming dejected about their perceived shortcomings will only make their problems worse, and the more discouraged they become about their reading the less likely they will be to progress even with the help of a tutor. Someone who…
Baxter, P., Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4): 544-559.
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among
Five Approaches. CA: SAGE.
Merriam, S. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Examples for discussion and analysis. CA: Jossey-Bass.
The purpose of the study guide is to help you outline the readings for the unit and to give you a place to note the key points of each section. Each study guide outlines the chapter/reading for you and gives you a space to fill in key points under each heading. You should write a brief paragraph (4-6 sentences) under each sub-heading for the paper (see the "write summary here" area).
When you complete the study guide, submit it through the unit's study guide Dropbox. Remember to write in complete sentences and use your own words. Plagiarism is unacceptable and will result in a zero grade and be reported to the Provost's Plagiarism Database. Each study guide is worth 10 points.
Chapter 5 Emergent Literacy Strategies
Print-Rich Classroom Environments
Designing a Print-Rich Classroom Environment
The Classroom Library Center
The Writing Center
Literacy-Enriched Play Centers
Environmental and Functional Print…
For a student with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), a teacher’s plan for best practices should include behavioral and cognitive approaches that target the learner’s IEP goals and help to ensure a positive experience in the classroom. Students with ADHD are identified as learning disabled because of “deficits in the acquisition of specific academic skills” in their overall ability to learn in traditional ways (Clarfield & Stoner, 2005, p. 246). To help these students overcome the challenges associated with their learning disorder, Pfiffner, Barkley and DuPaul (2006) point out that teachers should consider alternative approaches to instruction—namely: “school-based interventions should include both proactive and reactive strategies to maximize behavior change” (p. 547). Thus, the plan for best practices should be focused on employing proactive and reactive strategies to facilitate the student’s acquisition of knowledge and maintain discipline and effective management of the classroom (Pfiffner et al., 2006). This paper will…
The preschool period is generally considered to be three to five years of age (4). I observed a five-year-old female playing at a playground. The tasks witnessed were running, playing on a slide, ascending stairs, and climbing on a jungle gym (a circular interlocked metal object with a ladder). Play was performed in the presence of her mother and older brother. The preschooler is a very social individual who is making friends and exploring the world (4).
This child had a tendency to mimic the actions of her older, seven-year-old brother. He made a point of showing his sister when he walked up the slide rather than sliding down it. Repition is a coping behavior and helps children learn (2). She was so amused by her brother that she started to copy the action and, when mastered, called to her mother to watch her perform this amazing feat. The child…
NIn spite of touch being very significant as a communication means, very little is known on why and when touch takes place and what can be deduced when it takes place in opposite-gender or same-gender interactions. Studies focusing on this topic concerning gender and touch have had a focus on touch occurrences that are observed, those that are reported, the beliefs people hold on touch meanings, the perceptions of observers on the interactions taking place and the empirical assessments made on the responses registered for those acts of touch. elevant methods and questions are few and the literature is also small given the vastness of touch variety. But the relevant literature is actually bigger than the amount that researchers in the field seem to be aware of. They always allude to the same studies over and over again (Stier & Hall, 2004). A study that was semi-structured did an investigation…
Ostrov, J., Woods, K., Jansen, E., Casas, J., & Crick, N. (2004). An observational study of delivered and received aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment in preschool: "This White Crayon Doesn't Work . . ." Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19(1), 355-371.
Stier, D., & Hall, J. (2004). Gender Differences in Touch: An Empirical and Theoretical Review. Journal of Fenoiulity and Social Psychology, 47(2), 440-459.
Middle School child -- "Joanne" case study in the quick maturing quality of today's youth of a ten-year-old girl (Observation done a middle school during student's lunch period)
Joanne" (pseudonym) is a ten-year-old young woman of Greek-American extraction. Her father is a Greek-American, naturalized during his adolescence in the city of Chicago. Her mother is a Greek immigrant. Joanne has been a resident of the area for most of her own life and education, however she frequently travels to Greece during the summers. At home, she speaks both Greek and English. Her mother is only fluent in Greek, and her father expresses difficulty in communication in both languages, according to his own report, depending on the length of time he has spent in either area. He frequently travels on business back and forth to Greece, and has done so all of his life, having minimal contact with his daughter and…
Textbook on Child Development.
Hennessy, K.D., Rabideau, G.J., Cicchetti, D., & Cummings, E.M. (1994).
"Responses of Physically abused and nonabused children to different forms of interadult anger." Child Development, 65, 815-828.
Several approaches will be helpful in creating this environment:
1. Developing useful study guides useful for ELLs. This will focus their ideas and attention on major ideas and gives a place of focus.
2. Assign reading partners or groups. Pairing ELLs with fluent readers will be very helpful. Teamwork can have a very strong effect on learning.
3. Encouragement: One strategy is the "Say Something" activity. Students take turns reading aloud, and following the reading, each student 'says something,' such as asking question, making a comment, making a connection to something already read, or responding personally to the text. The exercise also engages students as readers and get them thinking about the text
Observation and assessment are also important components of this approach and must be successfully managed by the teacher in order to maximize learning and comprehension. Assessment occurs throughout a lesson and is informal, authentic multidimensional, and…
Echevarria, J. & Graves, a. (2003). Sheltered instruction: Teaching English language learners with diverse abilities. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Echevarria, J. & Short, D. (2003). The effects of sheltered instruction on the achievement of limited English proficient students. Retrieved from http://www.cal.org/crede/si.htm
teacher, understanding the importance of supporting and encouraging constructive children's play, both indoors and outdoors was key. Through hands on experience, I got the chance to get involve with children's play with first graders. What caught my attention the most, was the role indoor played in the children's cognitive development. For example, when I took a closer look at children's play, I was able to see that it did more than just stimulate physical, social-emotional, and creative growth. I also discovered that Play is the primary way by which children are able to discover the world, investigate its properties, and construct an accepting in regards to how the world functions. One example was when I witnessed a small group of children that were playing in the block part, constructing with plastic unit blocks.
They start by endeavoring to put various shapes and sizes of unit blocks on top of each…
Australia Government Department of Education. (2009). The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia. Council of Australian Governments.
Carr, M. (2011). Assessment in early childhood settings: learning stories. London: Chapman.
Grieshaber, S. (2008). Interrupting stereotypes: Teaching and the education of young children. Early Education and Development, 23(9), 505-518.
Hertzman, C. (2013). Making early child development a Priority: Lessons from Vancouver. Ottawa, Canada: Centre for Policy Alternatives.
Cormier in six weeks' time to note changes in Ms. Cormier's approach to discipline and any positive results with students. At that time, they will conference about Ms. Cormier's progress and further plans for improvement.
Section V: Summary
Ms. Cormier was nervous about being observed. At the end of the lesson, she seemed near tears and confessed that she believed the lesson had not gone well at all. The supervisor assured Ms. Cormier that the lesson idea was a good one. It was suggested that, in the future, Ms. Cormier provide students with clearer direction so they would not use questions as a delaying tactic when they were charged to sit down and begin the assignment. It was suggested that Ms. Cormier include a list of "brainstormed" words on the board that students could use. It was also suggested that she give students a writing prompt rather than an open-ended…
" Ms. Parker invited those having trouble to return to the carpet area for additional instruction. She asked these students to get clipboards for their worksheets and to bring their manipulatives as well. There was some time wasted in this transition, but the students were generally eager to comply. Ms. Parker guided the students through each of the problems on the worksheet. She used her manipulatives on the board, either coins or cubes, and encouraged the students to do the same. One boy complained that Ms. Parker was "going too fast" but another student moved next to him and provided some assistance. By the time the math hour was over, most students had finished their worksheets. Ms. Parker did not require those that had not finished to stay in for recess. She collected the unfinished papers and promised the students that they would work on them together the next day…
Special Education Classrooom
Observations of Special Education Classroom
The paper is a description of an observation conducted at a center that provides special education services to children and teens. The observation duration was three hours in a secondary education classroom. I was invited to participate as little or as much as I wanted during the observation. The students were at grade levels 9 -- 11.
Observations of Special Education Classroom
For the purposes of this paper, I gained permission to observe a secondary school-aged classroom at the Association for Metro Area Autistic Children. Children as young as two years old to students aged twenty-one attend the center. There are also adult services provided, at the center and at the private residence. The school is in session from 8am -- 2:30pm, Monday through Friday. I asked to attend on a day and during a timeblock where the students would…
Forness, S.R., & Esveldt, K.C. (1975) Classroom Observation of Children with Learning and Behavior Problems. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 8(6), 382 -- 385.
Lam, S.F. (2001) Educators opinions on classroom observation as a practice of staff development and appraisal. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(2), 161 -- 173.
Martin, J.E., Van Dycke, J.L., Greene, B.A., Gardner, J.E., Christensen, W.R., Woods, L.L., & Lovett, D.L. (2006) Direct Observation of Teacher-Directed IEP Meetings: Establishing the Need for Student IEP Meeting Instruction. Exceptional Children, 72(2), 187 -- 200.
As I began to realize that I was expecting less than they were capable of I realized that some of my preconceived notions about the teaching profession were coloring my viewpoint.
One example was the day a preschool student from the regular education class came to me and handed me a book that she wanted to read to me. I was surprised but let her open the book and begin reading. It reminded me not to assume the level of ability of any student as each student is an individual and develops at individual rates.
In observing the classrooms I found that problems can be dealt with by remaining flexible and keeping an open mind (Safer, 2003).
An example of this philosophy occurred when an autistic preschool student was included in the inclusion setting. "Tommy" did not respond to verbal cues nor was he a verbal child. The teacher made…
GRIESHABAER, SUSAN and CANNELLA, GAILE S. (EDS.) (2001). EMBRACING IDENTITIES in EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: DIVERSITY and POSSIBILITIES. MIDWOOD; LB1139.23.E58.
SAFER, STEFFEN (2003). PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS to PRACTICALLY EVERY PROBLEM: THE EARLY CHILDHOOD TEACHER'S MANUAL. REDLEAF PRESS.
WOMG, HARRY K., WONGN, ROSEMARY T. (2004). FIRST DAYS of SCHOOL: HOW to BE an EFFECTIVE TEACHER. HARRY K. WONG PUBLICATIONS.
PELLETIER, CAROL MARRA (2003). STRATEGIES for SUCCESSFUL STUDENT TEACHING. REDLEAF PRESS.
puff of white chalky smoke assaulted my lungs, I erupted in simultaneous laughter and explosive coughing. I guiltily glanced at my mom, who was seated behind her desk grading papers. Her familiar red pen in hand, she simply shook her head at me and barely suppressed her smile. I was only eight; what did she expect? "Just erase the board," she said before returning to her work. My mother always came home happy from work, if not a little tired and frazzled. A lifelong elementary school teacher, my mother's inspiration introduced me to the joys of teaching. Since the days when I would help my mom in her classroom after school by decorating or cleaning up, I have been both uplifted and let down by dozens of public school educators. Some teachers obviously love what they do. Like my mom, they bring with them not a sullen look of exasperation…
Keene & Zimmerman's Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension in a Reader's Workshop (1997): Summary and Impressions of Three Chapters from the Text
Having carefully read Chapters 5; 7; 9, 10 of Ellin Oliver Keene and Susan Zimmerman's Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension in a Reader's Workshop (1997), I have found each of these chapters uniquely inspiring, thought-provoking, and refreshing, not only in terms of ideas discussed by the authors about the teaching of reading, but about reading (and other life processes, activities, and events) itself. Most importantly, from a professional perspective, these three chapters from Mosaic of Thought have provided me with additional insights and new understandings about reading processes and behaviors of young students, described by Keene & Zimmerman. Especially interesting to me was the authors' discussions of what seem the inherent or automatic reading processes of those students who might be considered either "stronger" or "weaker" readers within…
Activity #1: Discuss the pros and cons of testing from two perspectives: (1) as a test-taker and (2) as a test-giver
From the point-of-view of the test-taker, the 'cons' of taking a test seem obvious. Besides the nerves and the fear of being put under pressure, from the test-taker's point-of-view being tested requires subjecting something quite unique, namely their individual human mind, to an objective test that cannot take into consideration adverse circumstances, from a lack of engagement with the material, poor teaching, or an eccentric learning style. Testing can thus discourage creativity and a sense of fun in learning for the test taker. Test can also encourage students to learn how to take a particular teacher's tests, rather than to truly learn and actively engage with the material on an individual basis like a research paper.
This is also the downside of testing from the teacher's perspective as…
ABC Teach. (2004). "Charlotte's Web." Retrieved on July 13, 2004 http://www.abcteach.com/directory/theme_units/literature/charlottes_web/
Bloom's Taxonomy. (2004) Retrieved on July 13, 2004 http://www.fgcu.edu/onlinedesign/designDevd.html
College Board. (2004) Retrieved on July 13, 2004 at collegeboard.com
Fair Test. (2004) Retrieved on July 13, 2004 at http://www.fairtest.org/facts/nratests.html
Adolescent Literacy Plan of Action
Successful academic learning and student performance are founded on literacy (Meltzer & Ziemba, 2006). Listening, reading, observational, writing, presentation, speaking and critical thinking skills are used by literate students to learn, communicate what they have learned and even transfer the knowledge gained to other scenarios (Meltzer & Ziemba, 2006). A literacy leadership team and the school principal must lead continual improvement as a goal for students to develop literacy. When an entire school community collectively holds expertise in literacy, it becomes the most beneficial to students (Irvin, Meltzer & Dukes, 2007). In addition to expertise, schools must do what's necessary to enhance their ability to minimize the gap existing between practice and knowledge. All school aspects, like assessments, curriculum, resource allocation, policies and structures, professional development of teachers, instruction and culture of the school, are impacted by the existence of systemic literacy development efforts (Irvin,…
ACT (2006b). Reading for college and reading for work: Same or different? (Report). Iowa City, IA: Author.
Cooney, S. (1999). Leading the way: State actions to improve student achievement in the middle grades. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board.
Elmore, R. F. (2002). Bridging the gap between standards and achievement: The imperative for professional development in education. Washington, DC: Albert Shanker Institute.
Graves, Michael, and Lauren Liang. (2008). "Four facets of reading comprehension instruction in the middle grades," Middle school journal (March 2008).
Each level influences and is influenced by those around it." (Costa, Kahaneo, Lipton, et al., 2001, p. 2).
Once the teacher understands how their performance and their teaching ability relate to the outcomes of the school as a whole, they will be able to understand the need for peer observation and coaching. They desire better outcomes for the school, but they are not accustomed to the openness of the peer coaching model, as we will see.
Barriers to Success
Through the course of this literature review, several key barriers to the success of peer coaching programs were discovered, Many of the problems related to logistical problems that could be easily solved through time management or creative scheduling. However, some of barriers to success related to the attitudes of the teachers themselves. This barriers will prove much more difficult to resolve.
One of the key barriers to professional development programs is…
Bird, T. & Little, J. (1983). An Interim Report of the Application of Research on Faculty Relations to the Implementation of Two School Improvement Experiments. Center for Action Research. ERIC ID 238141: 2-25.
Browne, L. (2006). Proposing a proximal principle between peer coaching and staff development as a driver for transformation. International Journal of Evidence-Based Coaching and Mentoring. 4 (1): 31-44.
Bruce, C. & Ross, J. (2008). A Model for Increasing Reform Implementation and Teacher Efficacy: Teacher Peer Coaching in Grades 3 and 6 Mathematics. Canadian Journal of Education. 31 (2): 346-370.
Costa, a., Kalaneo, D, Lipton, H., Lipton, L., & Yorktown, D. (2001). Holonomy: Paradox and Promise. Cognitive Coaching. Retrieved July 31, 2008 at http://www.cognitivecoaching.com/pdf/article4.pdf.
Only the direct supervisor may access the performance appraisal with request from District officials. Any other personnel requesting review of information must acquire permission from appropriate District representatives.
In the event of a negative performance review the evaluatee will have the ability to appeal the performance review. In the event the appeal is denied and the evaluation demonstrates that the teacher has deficiencies in one or more areas it will be necessary to recommend measures to resolve the negative performance issues.
If the matter is related to performance abilities or skills, appropriate training and mentoring may be recommended; with a follow up mid year evaluation recommended six months from the date of completion of the initial review.
If the performance evaluation is unsatisfactory due to issues of attendance or other personal matters, the evaluatee will be observed for the next three months and given the opportunity to resolve…
Client Report: Early Literacy Template
Kayla is a first grade student who has passed the kindergarten literacy standards. Although she passed the kindergarten literacy standards, she has not passed the first grade reading standards due to her difficulty with reading. Recent assessments revealed that she continues to perform below average in reading skills, particularly with decoding, fluency and comprehension.
List of Assessments (to be included with Client Report: Final Submission)
Parent Permission Form with your full name and first name of parent typed in
Teacher Referral Form with all information typed on this template
Observation Checklist: Early Literacy Behavior with all information typed on this template
1. Early Literacy riting Sample with form completed in template and a jpg file of actual writing sample included.
Early Literacy Assessments -- Complete all parts of the Test Summary Sheet (from John's Basic Reading Inventory: Early Literacy)
Word recognition -- ___ -- ___ -- ___X___ -- ___ --
Comprehension/retelling -- ___ -- ___X___ -- ___ -- ___ --
From Jerry L. Johns, Basic Reading Inventory (11th ed.). Copyright © 2012 by Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company (1- *** , ext. 4). May be reproduced for non-commercial educational purposes. Website: www.kendallhunt.com
lessons observed varied depending on the school. In high school, the aims were to learn about the history of art, whereas in younger grades such as elementary and early middle school years, the aim was explorative creativity and self-expression.
Common Core Standards addressed: The National Core Art Standards (2015) were addressed including "generate and conceptualize artistic ideas and work," "organize and develop artistic ideas and work," and "refine and complete artistic work."
The instructional strategies used included dialogue, coaching in the use of art supplies and materials in the younger grades, and engaging in discussions about art among the high school students.
The methods of assignments used included creative expression in elementary art classes, as well as written and oral presentations.
Teachers engaged students and fostered critical thinking via asking questions and allowing students to respond.
An educational theory that was put into practice is Gardner's (2011) theory of multiple…
Friere, P. (2005). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Online: https://libcom.org/files/FreirePedagogyoftheOppressed.pdf
Hall, C.S., Lindzey, G. & Campbell, J.B. (1998). Theories of Personality. 4th Edition. Hamilton.
Gardner, H. (2011). Frames of Mind. New York: Basic.
Goldstein, D. (2014). The Teacher Wars. New York: Doubleday.
Linguicism and Its Implications for Assessing English Language Learners (ELL) For Suspected Disabilities
(a) Define The Term Linguicism And Explain It In Your Own Words,
Throughout the 1980s, a period of language conservatism resurfaced, with federal officials giving up their proactive position and advocating more decision making be moved to local control. The 1980s in addition saw the increase of the official English or English-only movement, which sparked the contemporary debate around the language and which shaped new tensions for educators teaching linguistically assorted students (Banks, 2006). During the 1990s, the sociopolitical environment became openly antagonistic toward the linguistic rights of non-English speakers with the passage of California Proposition 227 (Doppen & Tesar, 2008). The California proposition made sure that all children be placed in English-language classrooms, despite their English-language ability. Non-English-speaking, immigrant children were permitted to participate in ESL classes for 1 year (180 school days). The proposition's objective…
Banks, J. A. (2006). The historical reconstruction of knowledge about race: Implications for transformative teaching. Educational Researcher, 24(2), 15-25.
Banks, J., Cookson, P., Gay, G., Hawley, W., Irvine, J., Nieto, Schofield, J., & Stephan, W. (2001). Diversity within Unity: Essential Principles for Teaching and Learning in a Multicultural Society. The Phi Delta Kappan, 83(3), 196-198, 200-203.
Calderon, M. E., & Wasden, R. (2012). Preparing secondary school teachers to teach reading, language and content: A look at professional development programs. In J. Coppola & E. Primas (Eds.), One classroom, many learners: Best literacy practices for today's multilingual classroom (pp. 251-270). Washington, DC: International Reading Association.
Colombi, M. C. & Schleppegrell, M. J. (2002). Theory and practice in the development of advanced literacy. In M. C. Columbi and M. J. Schleppegrell (Eds.), Developing advanced literacy in first and second languages, (pp. 1-19). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
TESOL: Materials and Course Design
A situation analysis, giving all details availale efore the course egins:
New comers of the TESOL school scheme will e assessed for their English language proficiency y the teachers assigned y TESOL (Teaching of English to speakers of other languages). Programming system will e run under this teacher - memer of TESOL (Dorr, 2006).
This TOSEL teacher is assigned to assist and teach student in estalishing sound understanding of English language, coping with the required skills and academic strategies to assist the process of gaining firm proficiency in English language as necessitated y the course design and classroom environment (Dorr, 2006).
Teacher assigned y TESOL is also a memer of programming system as a support memer, the team of which is designed to develop a close relation with students and collaoration with other related groups including programming team, parents, other teachers, administrative staff and counselors…
bibliography of ESL resources: Suggestions for selecting materials & ircs top choices. Illinois Resource Center.
Hamayan, E., Marler, B., Sanchez-Lopez, C. And Damico, J. (2007). Special Education Considerations for English Language Learners: Delivering a Continuum of Services. Caslon Publishing.
Kieffer, M.J. (2008). Catching up or falling behind? Initial English proficiency, concentrated poverty, and the reading growth of language minority learners in the United States. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 851-868.
Linse, C. (2008). Language Issue or Learning Disability? Essential Teacher, 5/4, 28-30.
Roessingh, H. (2006). Early language and literacy development among young ELL: Preliminary insights from a longitudinal study and the dual language book project. [Power Point Presentation Slides] Retrieved online November 20, 2011 at https://webdisk.ucalgary.ca/~hroessin/public_html/Early%20language%20and%20literacy%20development%20among%20young%20ELL.%20old%20word.ppt
Fidelity Between Science Teaches' Beliefs and Instuctional Pactice
Muelle, J.C. And Zeidle, D.L. (1998). A case study of teache beliefs in contempoay science education goals and classoom pactices. [Pape pesented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association fo Reseach in Science Teaching at the 71st confeence in San Diego, Califonia, on Apil 19-22, 1998].
The eseach uses a case study methodology and, as such, a sampling fame is not paticulaly elevant. That said, the selection of subjects fo the case study did follow an empiical path. Fist, the eseaches wee inteested in leaning about the peceptions of science teaches who wee open to educational efom issues. This led them to the Coalition of Essential Schools and the membe school Souhegan High School, an institution that descibes itself as a leaning community focused on adapting thei instuctional pactice to the needs of thei students. Second, the science teaches at the…
references to earlier work and seminal research. One particular strength the study -- as discussed in the conclusions section -- is that teachers sometimes hold conflicted views about instructional and educational approaches even when they are strong proponents of educational reform in their field.
I. Relation of Data -- Results -- Conclusion
The grounded theory methodology was well executed and the fact that an additional research question emerged from the study shows how the qualitative research approach facilitated important interactions among the data sources, the participants, and the researchers. The researches have done a thorough job of relating the data -- for instance, by providing quotes from the participants' responses -- to the theories that emerged during the analysis of the data.