Human Resource Management is a practice of managing human skills, capacities and talents, to ensure their effective usage in the attainment of organizational goals, objectives and overall competitiveness (Youssef, 2012). Every Human Resource manager performs various functions of recruiting, hiring, selecting and training competent employees. In addition, the manager offers competitive compensation and benefits packages, which attract, motivate and retain qualified employees. However, it is the function of the Personnel manager to devise ways, which will increase the employee effectiveness in performing the jobs. These ways include training, offering education and developing the capacities of the employees. As a result, there is an improvement of the employee contribution towards the attainment of organizational effectiveness and efficiency.
Effective management of employees' productivity is a crucial element in attaining organizational success (Youssef, 2012). High levels of productivity enable the organization to offer high compensation and benefits packages, which do not affect its competitive levels. Effective personnel management practices reduce employee turnover, increase performance and contribute positively towards organizational financial performance. In addition, effective Human Resource Management practices enhance employee motivation and morale. This aids in attracting a competent workforce that steers the organizations toward the achievement of its goals and objectives. Therefore, the primary function of Human Resource Management is to increase employee effectiveness and thus contribute towards organizational competitive advantage in the market.
EEO and Affirmative Action
Equal Employment Opportunity is an employment practice of a Human Resource Manager, which ensure non-discrimination in offering employment opportunities in the organization (Kreitner, 2009). Discrimination occurs in the lines of race, age, gender, sex, nationality and physical and mental ability. Therefore, it is a guiding principle of the Equal Employment Opportunity that every person ought to have equal access to employment opportunity. On the other hand, Affirmative Action is an aspect of the Federal Government, which ensures equal employment opportunities (Kreitner, 2009). The main purpose of the Affirmative Action is to ensure fairness and fight discrimination in employment. It facilitates these by encouraging outreach efforts to attract minorities and women to apply for job vacancies in organizations. The Affirmative Action also ensures that Human Resource managers implement the Equal Employment Opportunity laws, which forbid discrimination. Human Resource Managers depict discrimination while carrying out personnel functions of hiring, recruitment, selection, training and development, promotion, compensation and termination.
Therefore, in order for Human Resource Managers to fulfill Equal Employment Opportunity and the Affirmative Action (EEOAA), it is a requirement that managers take the following actions. Firstly, the managers should carry out a bias-free selection process. Achievement of this is possible through forming selection committees that carry out the selection process. In addition, the managers should carry out a proper evaluation of the candidates to ensure that the knowledge plus skills and are in line with the job. Above that, the manager should maintain proper documents, for example, Interview Data Forms that record the details of the candidate in relation to the job. Secondly, the Personnel manager should promote accountability for Equal Employment Opportunity and Affirmative Action (EEOAA) by all other managers and supervisors. Facilitation of this is through giving clear indications of managers and supervisors' responsibilities in the job descriptions. Thirdly, the Personnel manager should devise strategies of evaluating the performance of supervisors and employees, in implementing the EEOAA responsibilities (Kreitner, 2007).
Fourthly, the manager should offer training and education to supervisors and employees, on carrying out the responsibilities of Equal Employment Opportunity and Affirmative Action (EEOAA). Fifthly, the manager should maintain the good work environment, which discourage harassment and making of ethnic jokes. Sixth, the Personnel manger should encourage and invest in equal staff development. All employees should have equal access to development opportunities. Finally, the manager should develop and inform supervisors and employees on non-discrimination policy. In addition, there should be development of guidelines for resolving complaints relating to discrimination in the organization. Therefore, it is essential for the Human Resource Manager to implement Equal Employment Opportunity and Affirmative Action (EEOAA), as required by the Federal Government, in order to ensure that there is equity in accessing job opportunities.
HR Planning, Recruitment and Selection
In order for the organization to attain its goals and objectives, it is a requirement that there is continuity in performance of operations in the organization. However, the organization needs human resource that carries out the organizational operations, which steer it towards meeting the goals and objectives. Therefore, it is essential for the organization to carry out Human Resource Planning. This is the process of forecasting the future human resource requirements of the organization, and designing strategies to meet these requirements (Sims, 2007). Note that, the organization should employ the right number of employees who perform the activities and operations of the organization effectively. These employees should have knowledge, skills and abilities essential for good performance of their roles. In order for the Human Resource Manager to be able to acquire the right workforce, it is a principle to carry out job analysis and job design. The job analysis gives the job description and specification while giving a clear outline of the employee responsibilities in a job. Consequently, job design outlines the various tasks in a job, and the steps that an employee should follow in performing the tasks.
After the identification of the labor requirements of the organization, the Human Resource Manager recruits competent workers in order to meet the human resource requirements. Recruitment is the process of attracting, screening and selecting qualified employees to fill vacancies in an organization. Only competent, consistent and committed employees get opportunities to fill positions in the organization. They steer the organization towards meeting its goals, objectives and competitive advantage. Recruitment is either in-house or outsourced to recruitment agencies, which recruit employees on behalf of the organization. The recruitment process starts with the organization advertising the job vacancy. The Personnel manager advertises both inside and outside the organization.
Once people get information about the available job vacancy in the organization, they apply for selection to work for the organization. However, in order for the Personnel manager to choose the employees with the required knowledge, skills and abilities, the manager carries out a screening process. This process uses resumes, application forms, interviews and tests to get the candidates who meet the job requirements according to the job description. Finally, the personnel manager selects the most qualified candidates to fill the vacancy. The candidate ought to be competent, consistent and committed towards the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. In addition, the candidate should possess the required knowledge, skills and abilities as set out in the job description. This ensures non-discrimination in the employment process. Successful recruitment and selection ensures that the organization inducts employees who steer the organization towards meeting its goals and objectives. As a result, the organization attains success, enabling it to gain a competitive edge in the industry (Youssef, 2012).
Qualified employees need personal and career development in order to cope with the changes in the work environment. The most common changes in the organizational environment include; globalization, technological advancement, increasing employee diversity and changing in the political environment. Therefore, it is essential for the Human Resource Manager to equip workers with the new skills and knowledge, which enable them (employees) to improve on their (employees) performance and attain the set goals and objectives in the organization. It also enhances group performance since the achievement of goals and objectives requires group effort. Human Resource Management refers to this process as Human Resource Development.
Human Resource Development comprises on boarding, training, education and development (Youssef, 2012). Firstly, on boarding is a process of orientating new employees in the organization. Orientation enables the new employees to understand the organizational culture and the organizational environment. In addition, the new employees understand what their job entails. This aids the new employees to adapt quickly to the new organization, which helps them perform their jobs effectively. Secondly, the personnel manager offers training to the employees in order to equip them with new skills and knowledge. Training considers the current job requirements. Therefore, to equip employees with new skills and knowledge aid them (employees) in meeting the requirements. Training is either on-job or off-the-job training. Thirdly, the Personnel manager offers education to the employees. Education aims at equipping employees with knowledge, which aid the employees to meet the future responsibilities of the job. Education is a continuing process that the organization should adopt by fostering a learning culture among the employees. Finally, the Personnel manager develops the employees. Development aids the employees to achieve self-actualization through personal and career development. It focuses on both the current and future job requirements. Through Human Resource Development, the organization creates a human resource pool with diverse talents and knowledge. Possession of these talents and knowledge aid the employees in improving their (employees) performance resulting in a successful organization with a competitive advantage.
Compensation and Benefits
Once the employees have unique talents, knowledge, skills and abilities, it is essential for the Human Resource manager to devise competitive compensation and…