human resource managers face in recruitment and selection. It also identifies some useful strategies on how to deal with such situations. Human resource managers play an important role in the organization of identifying successful candidates for recruitment. In the most fundamental sense the decision of whom to or not to select lies in the entire hands of the human resource management. The process of selection and recruitment, also emphasize the need for high qualification, evenhandedness and moral behavior on the part of those engaged in this activity. Recruitment and selection is exemplified by associated potential problems and it is obligatory to put in consideration some factors like screening measures and ethical personalities of the applicants. Organizations must be totally devoted to the employment process, especially in the present day's dynamic employment market that over emphasis reward at the expense of quality in production. The challenges faced by many human resource managers in recruitment and selection of employees are numerous. This paper highlights and addresses some of these issues.
It is important to realize that recruitment and selection makes up a focal point of all activities underlying human resource management within an organization. Mostly it is the duty of the human resource managers or chosen specialists within the work place. In some cases recruitment and selection decisions are undertaken by non-specialists or by the line managers. The human resource managers perform more of purporting advisory task to those people who oversee or alternatively work with the new employees. Teamwork, co-operation and consultation between the line managers and human resource managers, is key in the successful implementation of the process. Definitely, a qualified human resource manager should be a significant repository of updated knowledge and proficiency depending on the set of circumstances in recruitment and selection. According to Marchington & Wilkinson (2008), recruitment is an important factor in human resource. Organizational policies mainly rely on the outcome of the recruitment process. The sole function of the recruitment process is to identify, acquire, motivate and retain qualified talent within the workplace. The dynamism and complexity of jobs often place human resource managers in peculiar situations during the recruitment process.
"Recruitment is the process of generating a pool of capable people to apply for employment to an organization. Selection is the process by which managers and others use specific instruments to choose from a pool of applicants a person or persons more likely to succeed in the job(s), given management goals and legal requirements" (Bratton & Gold, 2007, p. 239).
Selection is also an important task in human resource development. It would be sensible to mention that selection decisions should be linked to a wide range of strategies that support the process. Many organizations rely wholly on the results of interviews to make selection decisions although they fail to realize that this might not be the best option.
Challenges in Recruitment and Selection
One of the major difficulties that the managers face during recruitment process is choosing specialized and specific talents. Such specific expertise can be difficult to recruit when needed leading to reduction in modernization and innovation within the firm. It would be important that the recruitment of such individuals be published across major newspapers a daunting task for some managers (Wilton, 2010). The recruitment process for these occupations requires the issuance of public notices. The announcement of vacant jobs sometimes involves stringent rules that prove difficult
According to Rees and French (2010), attraction of potential and qualified applicants is a source of dilemma for the human resource team during the recruitment process. The major objective of the recruitment process is to give the firm strong qualified candidates. The recruitment should ensure that the number of qualified candidates is enough offering a variety to choose from. This proves to be a major challenge for most managers who are not aware of the required number of applicant they should receive for a particular position.
Getting the required number of candidates for vacant jobs by an organization may prove to be a major challenge for the recruiting managers. Engaging recruitment agencies and major advertisement campaigns to fill vacant positions can generate great numbers of unsuitable applications making the sieving of required candidates difficult. The method used in getting the required number of candidates depends on the availability of targeted applicants.
The other setback in the most recruitment processes is the hiring of unqualified and incompetent people for the job. The recruitment of wrong individuals within the organization can lead to several problems. Challenges arising from the recruitment of incompetent applicants for a particular job may result in rising organization costs, increasing labor turnover that result in low workplace morale. This lowers staff confidence leading to development of negative organizational citizenship behavior. Similarly, inexperienced recruits can also develop negative organizational citizenship behavior. This could also be detrimental to the organization as increases the possibility of high staff turnover, which is a great challenge for human resource managers (Burns & Sinfield, 2008).
Overemphasis on career-based-system recruitment method can prove to be challenge to human resource department. This method places emphasis on educational qualification at the expense of other required job qualifications. The application of this method also bases decisions on staff ratios that are inadequately linked to human resource requirements. This recruitment method leads to undertaking of formalized work examinations which have no direct links to many other aspects of the position. This proves to be quite a challenge to managers as it involves engaging only workers with the proven academic credentials but no work experience.
On the other hand, the most common problem associated with selection is that they are rarely done in a timely manner. In such circumstances, there are possibilities of biasness on the part of the interviewer. Time constraints during the selection process are a challenge to human resource managers and organizational selection team. The process always exposed them to greater difficulties in selecting appropriate applicant owing to the diversity of both the position to be filled and the academic qualifications. It is a challenge selecting the right employee for the job (French & Rumbles, 2010).
Cultural favoritism is also a common aspect in selection of applicants. The selection of an individual based on their actual or professed ethnic group, culture, or beliefs is also responsible for much of the expected and unexpected social inequity that occur during selection process.
The other difficulty experienced during the selection process is the mood created by the interviewing team or the human resource managers. Experts believe that "unwelcoming or difficult organizational selection team can not only be uncomfortable to applicants, but also expose them to psychologically problems" (Inman, O'Sullivan, Murton, & Needham, 2010). A harsh interviewer can sometimes create a selection environment that may negatively affect applicants' power of expression and morale. The attitude of selection team may make the applicant stagnantly feel like the job is not matching them.
Though human resource managers face enormous drawbacks in the recruitment processes, they can nevertheless incorporate some measures to alleviate the impact of such challenges.
As stated by Collings, Dundon, & Marchington (2012), the first possible way to eliminate most recruitment issues is by using of technology of the recruiting agencies. Developing online job databases and posting vacancies may be one way of attracting required candidates for a particular position. This technique does simplify the recruitment process providing efficient staffing solution. The usage of online assessments enables the review of potential candidates profile without receiving unnecessary and irrelevant applications for a particular position. In addition, this also serves as job advertisements therefore reducing organizational costs. The recruitment process is thus easier to undertake as vacancies and recruitments are carried out online reducing the need to interview many irrelevant applicants. This process enables the mangers recruit qualified and well experienced personnel for the vacant position reducing the chances of hiring incompetent individuals.
The use of position-based system rather than career-based system is recommended because it stresses on both qualified competition for vacant jobs and professional experience. This system encourages recruitment that is directly linked to the work requirements and encourages the accountability of managers in the recruitment process. This method further reduces the recruitment process and enables the organization to attract the most qualified applicants for the position. This leads to the recruitment of the most suitable candidates for the position reducing turnovers and incompetency. Nonetheless, the system allows for express entry into the job for qualified personnel and is a good selection criterion.
The institution of internal mobility in the workplace is a sure way of incorporating an appropriate recruitment method. This is done by giving first priority to internal workplace talent and qualified personnel for vacancies within the organization. Internal job advertisements support the human resource strategies and leads to improved workplace efficiency. This internal recruitment process improves modernization, workplace attitude, competency of employees and ultimately impact on organizational citizen behavior. Internal mobility also provides a competitive edge over other recruitment methods making the process easier and less tasking