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C. Only fragments of these works, which include two letters and four speeches, survive (Sallust).
In the Preface to the Second Impression, John C. Rolfe (May 15, 1928) purports:
The part of the Introduction dealing with the manuscripts has been re-written in the light of the new classification of Axel . Ahlberg (Prolegomena in Sallustium, Gteborg, 1911), which was followed by him in his Teubner text (Leipzig, 1919) and, except in some minor details, by B. Ornstein in the Bude Salluste (Paris, 1924); and the critical notes have been made to conform to that classification. Some changes have been made also in the section on the "pseudo-Sallustian" works, to which a good deal of attention has been devoted during the past decade. Finally, some errors have been corrected and a few additions made to the bibliography. (Thayer)
The story of Catiline's revolt, Thayer reports, proves interesting to students of Roman…… [Read More]
These gang-related activities had a negative effect on the very industries on which Macau depended for much of its economic activity, and tourism dropped by almost 10% in 1998 (Kurtlantzick 1). A Macanese resident summed up the situation thusly: "I still won't walk around at night . . . And every sound makes me think of a gunshot" (quoted in Kurtlanzick at 1). In an interview with Macao's present and last Portuguese governor, Rocha Vieira, Borton also emphasizes the deleterious impact that gambling had on Macau. In this regard, Governor Vieira noted that, "For too long, Macao has been promoted through casinos, gambling and nightlife, which are associated with negative things such as loan sharks, prostitutes and triads, so we are trying to diversify" (quoted in Borton at 15). At the time, the governor, though, also stressed that gambling was not the only source of organized crime prior to the…… [Read More]
Scott paints a vivid picture of the social history of the area; lack of lumber for support, lack of trained people to help with the safety issues and a lack of understanding their new regime. Scott also describes what we know now as the Soviet double standard; the propaganda of healthy workers building a socialist paradise coupled with the reality of millions dying of cold and hunger. However, Scott is valuable in showing us that through tenacity and a rather callous disregard of human life, Stalin's push did indeed take a behind the times 19th Century regime and place them fully in the sights Europe by the early 1930s.
Conclusion -- the Historical Detective -- Why History Matters- What is history and why is it important? History is the continuum of events occurring in succession leading from the past to the present and even into the future (Wordsearch 2010). History…… [Read More]
Historiography of the Cold War
Why and how the Cold War ended became the question of the day after the erlin Wall came down in 1989. To people whose lives had long been circumscribed, if not terrified, by Cold War-related events, the remarkable disintegration of the Soviet Union, the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, and the reunification of Germany signified the end of one era and the beginning of another. Any explanations for the demise of the Cold War depended, of course, upon answers to another fundamental question: Why and how did the Cold War begin?
The fact that for fifty years histories of the Cold War were written from within that war, it has been argued, made perspective hard to achieve. In the post-Cold-War era, it has been possible for the first time to 'step outside' the object of study itself and view the half-century of confrontation between…… [Read More]
Blassingame presents his information in a more unbiased manner. Perhaps he was worried of being accused of bias because he was black, and so, he worked hard to eliminate it from his work. Whatever the reason, his book seems the most balanced and effective of all these works, partly because he does not moralize, he simply presents the facts, as he knows them.
Later he writes that the whites often felt they were giving the slaves everything they needed, and they should show more gratitude. He quotes, "The quantity, quality, and variety of food, clothing, housing, and medical care the slave received rarely satisfied him. The fact that another man determined how much and what kind of food, clothing, and shelter he needed to survive posed a serious problem for him."
This would seem to prove to be a serious problem for just about anyone, because the slaves had no…… [Read More]
The Exclusion Act; Redefining Citizenship
Historians have studied the Chinese Exclusion Act extensively and have recorded many aspects of the politics behind the events. However, they often focus their attentions on the motives of the excluders. They pay little attention to those that were excluded and the impact that it had on their lives. One important question has escaped the scrutiny of historians. hy, if they knew of the hardships and discrimination that they would face in America, did all of those Chinese immigrants continue to flock to America in droves?
hat motivated them to leave their home and families to arrive at Angel Island and have to buy a new identity, all at great personal risk, to stay in America? hat was the big attraction? Sure, there were jobs here and they could send money home to support their distant families, but the life in America was…… [Read More]
The History is incomplete as far as the war is concerned because it ends abruptly with the narrative of the events of 411 C.
Thucydides discusses his historical method and related issues in the early section, known as the "Archaeology" section. The fact that he had a journalistic tendency is indicated by the fact that he started to write about the war as soon as it started claiming that he expected it would turn out to be a great war and so one that would deserve to be recorded. He made the predictions he made beacsue he saw both sides as at their peak in every sort of preparation for war, and he also saw the rest of the Greek world taking one side or the other in the battle. Thucydides realizes that it is important to know why these events came to pass and so to look to the…… [Read More]
Ferdinand Magellan and Circumnavigation: Historical and Meta- Analysis of Magellan Historiography by Martin Torodas
The Age of Discovery that emerged in the 15th-16th centuries in Europe, led by Spain and Portugal, was marked and characterized by the prevalence of sea navigations to discover new lands or 'primitive' societies. These lands and societies were also potential colonies, wherein their territories could be expanded and resources exploited for the economic benefit of European countries. Ferdinand Magellan, Portuguese-born Spanish explorer and navigator, played a significant role during this age, mainly because of contributions in establishing Spanish colonies in the islands of the Pacific. However, historiography on Magellan remains scarce despite his contributions and numerous journeys around the world. Torodas confronts this issue by discussing and analyzing related works of literature pertaining to not only the accomplishments and activities of Magellan as navigator and explorer, but also as the first individual to…… [Read More]
The Historiography of Marxist Thought
The study of Karl Marx and his philosophies has fascinated political, social and economic historians for most of the past century. Hundreds, if not thousands, of scholars have dedicated their professional life to understanding Marx and Marxism. Over the years, there have been periods of continuity and periods of discontinuity, peaks and valleys of interest and hundreds of viewpoints as to the meaning and importance of Marxist thought at the any given time. While it may not seem like modern conditions provide a fertile environment for the continued study of Marxist thought, the study of Marx is considered as important today as any time in its illustrious historiography.
Any Marxist historiography must begin with Eric Hobsbawm, who is considered the "the premier Marxist historian working today" (Matthews 88). Hobsbawm's work on Marx amounts to an impressive inter-disciplinary, inter-generational synthesis which combines history and…… [Read More]
Social Constructionism and Historiography of Science
In the historiography of science, the debate between intenalists and externalists has been one of the major fault lines over the past century. While many historians are not specialists in physics, chemistry and biology, by training and experience they also consider the political, economic and cultural influences on any institution and organization in a given period, and science his not been exempt from historicism. Internlaists found that scientific progress was generally driven forward by geniuses like Isaac Newton, Louis Pasteur, Charles Darwin, Antoine Lavoisier and Albert Einstein, and that their discoveries about nature were objectively true regardless of external social and political considerations. For externalists and social constructionists, however, all of these scientists were products of a certain historical and cultural milieu, which influenced their work in many ways. For example, according to oris Hessen and Robert Merton, Newton and the 17th Century English…… [Read More]
Old Testament books, Deuteronomy, Samuel and Kings, establishing a monarchy for Israel and Judah proved somewhat problematic. This was due both to the divinity of God and the inevitable humanity that would be part of a human king. Throughout the historical books of the Old Testament God repeatedly states that he is a jealous God, tolerating no others. Kingship then might be seen as an attempt to usurp the power of God, or indeed to detract from worshiping God as the nation's ultimate leader. Furthermore a monarchy is a pagan idea that has penetrated Israel from the foreign nations they have been in contact with through battle. This of course connects further negativity with the idea of a king for God's people. The demand of a king is thus in effect the rejection of God as ruler over Israel and Judah. An issue closely related to this is the problem…… [Read More]
Santa Anna Dictatorship
In his self-described revisionist biography Santa Anna of Mexico (2007), Will Fowler has courageously taken up the defense of the Mexico caudillo, fully aware that he is all but universally reviled in the historiography of the United States and Mexico. From the beginning, he made his intention clear to vindicate the reputation of a dictator whose "vilification has been so thorough and effective that the process of deconstructing the numerous lies that have been told and retold" is almost impossible.[footnoteRef:1] Timothy J. Henderson asserted that he had a great talent for exploiting and manipulating political divisions but none for governing a country. In U.S. history and popular culture, he has always been portrayed as a corrupt megalomaniac, the 'Napoleon of the West', responsible for the massacres at the Alamo and Goliad. As John Chasteen and James Wood put it, even his autobiography was an "extraordinary work of…… [Read More]
Although he did not always agree with Bragg, Davis consistently sought his expertise and opinion on a variety of matters. By untiringly assuming many of the duties and much of the criticism that had burdened and perplexed Davis, Bragg eased some of the president's vexations. In the process he maintained old enmities and created many new ones. (Hallock, 1991, pp. 186-7).
That Davis felt that Bragg should continue in his command (at a time when Davis and the Confederacy were not yet desperate) despite is personal dislike of Bragg must lead one to the conclusion that Bragg was valuable in ways that McPherson does not see. Bragg seems to have been an excellent organizer, a man whose considerable skills to plan somehow failed to translate to military life. Bragg was perhaps more than anything else a man placed in a situation for which he did not have any semblance of…… [Read More]
Polybius: Historian and Politician
The histories written by Polybius are considered to be essential from historiographic perspective as it gives detailed and comprehensive picture and understanding of the Hellenistic world. His work on the rise and fall of the Roman Empire are considered to be one of the most important and significant works in the field of classical history.[footnoteRef:1] The aim of this research is to investigate and study the historical settings in which Polybius had penned down his most famous work, the Histories in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources. The analysis would be beneficial in understanding the political and social constraints responsible for influencing his work and furthermore, the opinion of his contemporaries and the reception got from critics when Polybius work was completed. [1: ulloch, A.W., Gruen, E.S., Long, A.A. And Stewart, A. (eds.) (1993) Images and Ideologies: Self-Definition in the Hellenistic World,…… [Read More]
politics, at least according to most college course catalogues, are separate disciplines. 'omen's Studies' also forms its own separate category, apart from these two disciplines. Yet in her work Gender and the Politics of History, Joan allach Scott makes it clear that for as long as women's studies has existed as a discipline, feminist historians have suggested that all three elements are intertwined in a proper analysis of history. Feminist historians have suggested that ways that gender has been viewed as a construct throughout history impacts the way history is viewed. The politics of how gender archetypes have been enshrined, both in law, in legislation, and in the political consciousness have all have an impact on the way that history is viewed retrospectively, and the way women live their lives today.
Scott writes her work both in response to these feminist historians, and as a part of the tradition of…… [Read More]
Retrieval & Storage
It has become a commonplace in public discussion over the past decade or two to assert that we are presently living through an informational revolution as great and momentous as that which took place in the wake of Gutenberg's movable type and the introduction of printed books to Europe. hether this proves to be accurate or merely a rarefied and academic strain of vacuous Silicon Valley hype has yet to be demonstrated, but it is undeniable that technological changes have altered the way in which information can be stored and retrieved. hat has not changed is the tendentious nature whereby information in general is stored and retrieved. I wish to focus on three ways in which this tendentiousness has been expressed in the past -- which I will summarize as forgery, ideology, and historiography -- in which the storage and retrieval of information has conditioned the use…… [Read More]
History is full of lessons, inspirational figures, and events that remain resonant in the nation today. For these things to have the most impact, and most value, demands that they be put into some sort of context.
Each subgroup of American takes more from the history of the land when they are able to apply the history presented to them to their own personal culture and experiences. Many elements of history retain their value across racial, gender and other cultural lines but some elements have special meaning to their respective groups. Even if a broad history has synthesized these elements, for maximum value to an individual group, that group's history should also be broken out, so that members of that group can see how their history contributes to the nation's history as a whole.
Another reason we need to incorporate the individual histories of specific identity groups is so that…… [Read More]
More recently two schools of military history have developed that attempt to consider its object from a more eclectic, objective perspective, dubbed the "New Military History" and "War and Society" history. New Military History "refers to a partial turning away from the great captains, and from weapons, tactics, and operations as the main concerns of the historical study of war," and instead focusing on "the interaction of war with society, economics, politics, and culture."
New Military History is a relatively broad category, and its perspective can be evinced both on the level of a particular methodology and ideology.
Along with the "War and Society" school of thought, New Military History seeks to uncover the multifarious factors driving and influencing military conflict, with a particular view towards the interaction between these factors and the actual practice of war. That is to say, these schools of thought do no entirely abandon any…… [Read More]
The purpose of this historiography is to use secondary sources that will make for a greater understanding of my topic and how it relates to American body culture. In the last six decades obese people have faced discrimination in American society because of their physical appearance. Typically, society has categorized obese people as unhealthy individuals; their appearance causes discomfort; they are viewed pessimistically by employers and their career opportunities as a result have been limited. While more than 27% of the American population is obese, the federal government does nothing to prevent employment discrimination against obese or overweight people. The focus of this paper will be to analyze the issue of cultural discrimination against obese and overweight individuals and provide recommendations for changes with regard to the treatment of obese people in society so that they might be more accepted socially and enabled to fit more seamlessly into mainstream American…… [Read More]
In many ways, Russia is still recovering from it, trying to deal with the fact that only a few decades ago, it inflicted on itself one of the worst holocausts in human memory" (Hochschild, 1993). Therefore, the purges were used on the one hand to discourage the people and the elites in particular from establishing a dissident opposition or a negative pole of power that could have countered the Soviet regime.
Also, another possible justification of the way in which the Soviet regime acted in that period was the complete elimination of the possible negative influences from the old regimes or more precisely of the opposing forces in Russia. More precisely, "the decade of the 1930s saw the renewal of the Soviet leading stratum. During the period the.regime progressively unburdened itself of its legacy of class prejudice and rose to its full totalitarian posture" (Unger, 1969, 2). The regime of…… [Read More]
" However, as strange as these ideas may be to a modern reader or historian, that is all the more reason to demand the rigorous perspective demanded by Cohen. If objectivity is impossible, then looking at historical events from as many interpretations as possible provides a potential solution.
Cohen's embrace of folklore, and of piecing together a patchwork quilt of perspectives is useful in unpacking the influence of people outside of the ruling class, and exposing hidden influences upon Chinese history in terms of the impact of the religion of ordinary people, particularly women, denied an education or access to the centers of power. However, even for a historian outside of the field of East sian studies, Cohen's ideas are useful in terms of how to approach history, particularly historical events that have become especially fraught with meaning in modern culture, beyond their immediate impact. Cohen is most sure-footed when…… [Read More]
Bonnie G. Smith begins book announcing: "This book inserts term 'gender' account historiography West
In many ways, one can read Bonnie G. Smith's book The Gender of History, as merely stating the obvious. That she does so in an abu7ndance of detail and varying perspectives while stratifying some of the fundamental concepts that make up historiography makes her conclusion none the less obvious. One can simply deconstruct the term history and see that there are inherent gender implications -- professional and scholastic history is, for the most part, the account of some man or men (typically Caucasian) rendering an 'official' accounting of events past. As such, that accounting is going to be written from the perspective of this universal male symbol of authority and address those things that he wants addressed, while favoring those things he believes posterity will need to regard as important. The author's assertion (1998), then that…… [Read More]
When jazz is viewed in this manner, the historical narrative becomes organic rather than linear and compartmentalized. Devaux's article is valuable for the musical scholar not because it contains factual information about the history of jazz, information that as the author points out is plentiful, even ubiquitous. What Devaux hopes is not to illustrate new facets of the lives of jazz musicians but rather to present the entire portrait of jazz from unique and varying perspectives. Moreover, the author suggests that there may be no singular correct way to draft a historical narrative about jazz: jazz can be a springboard for discourse in a variety of subjects, from race relations to American history to musical theory.
Most importantly, jazz should not be oversimplified; historians risk losing sight of the complexity of the music, political, and social phenomena to which jazz has given rise. Jazz should be viewed in conjunction with,…… [Read More]
discloses to the reader something of what happened during the era under discussion. But it also reveals at least as much about the era in which the history was written. What is considered significant enough to mention, what events are seen as causative rather than incidental, who are the true villains - all of these things may change from one generation's historical account to that of the next, and not because new facts have come to light.
The authors under consideration here ask us to reconsider the nature of history in general as well as to reexamine the particular places and times that they are writing about. They seek to use substitute key theoretical concepts for the traditional chronological structure of history, asking us to consider not what came after what but who had power over whom, and how these social relationships are the causative elements of (each) history.
Central…… [Read More]
This style came later during the latter part of his ten years as member of the Wiener Sezesion. The objective of this association was to separate themselves from contemporary art and to provide Vienna with quality foreign art pieces. Klimt's pieces, at first, failed to win renown and only became accepted with his so-called 'Golden period' called so due to the generous use of gold leaf in his paintings.
Klimt's encounter with Byzantine art and his being influenced by it, primarily, initiated from Alfred oller, a painter colleague who had a great influence on his life, and who had encouraged Klimt to visit avenna and study the famous mosaics there. oller himself had studied them when painting friezes and mural for the Breitenfelder-Kirche. Accordingly, Klimt visited avenna the following spring and, taking ollers advice, studied the mosaics. His companion, Max Lenz commented on the huge impact that the mosaics had…… [Read More]
In Bellum Iugurthinum he claimed that the state will gain more advantage from his otium than from the negotium of contemporary politicians
SALLUST'S HISTOICAL WOKS
Sallust wrote several historical works, but the two monographs that remain intact are the Bellum Catilinae and the Bellum Jugurthinum. There are also four speeches and two letters as well as approximately 500 parts of his Historiae that was published in five books. It is believed by historians that "Sallust's merits as an artist have obscured, or made his readers willing to forget, his faults. As a historical authority he is at best second rank…Yet Sallust's value to us is considerable, mainly because his writings contain an interpretation of oman history during the late epublic often differing from that in our other sources and opposed to optimate tradition."
Even his speeches are valuable historically, adds Laistner,
for they are full of ethos and convey Sallust's…… [Read More]
Bartoleme De Las Casas
An Analysis of the Activism of Bartoleme De Las Casas
Often characterized by modern historians as the "Defender and the apostle to the Indians," Bartolome de Las Casas is known for exposing and condemning as well as exaggerating and misrepresenting the violent practices of Spanish colonizers of the New orld against Native Americans. Marked by emotional polemic and often embellished statistics, Las Casas' voluminous works brought him both support and opposition in his own time. hile being harshly criticized as a threat to Spanish rule in America, De Las Casas was also continually financially supported by the Crown and offered high offices by the Church (Benzoni 48). Though more than four hundred years have passed since his death, the works of this controversial Dominican friar continue to elicit strong reactions from both detractors and defenders -- from both those who condemn him and those who praise…… [Read More]
Old South: Middle Florida's Plantation Frontier before the Civil War" by Edward E. aptist. 1. What is the big historical question; Summarize the main points of the questions or theories the author is trying to address in his/her work. 2. Where does the work fit in the existing historiography. 3. What evidence does the author use to make the case? 4. riefly summarize the author's findings. 5. How well does he/she make the case? Is the result believable? Why or why not? 6. What (if anything) is wrong with the work? Are there major gaps or inconsistencies?
Creating an Old South: Middle Florida's Plantation
Frontier before the Civil War"
In "Creating an Old South: Middle Florida's Plantation Frontier before the Civil War," Edward E. aptist presents a historical account of the era of migration to Middle Florida during the early 1800's and its creation of the plantation boom. aptist attempts…… [Read More]
Kennedy's Wars: Berlin, Cuba, Laos, & Vietnam" by Lawrence Freedman, the author looks specifically at John F. Kennedy's role in foreign politics. This book covers in depth the major global emergencies during the Kennedy Presidency, including Berlin, Cuba, and Vietnam.
It is clear Freedman's thesis for writing the book is a convincing attempt to answer the "what if?" question surrounding Kennedy's Presidency, including the possibility of reestablishing cordial relations with Castro and whether he would have pursued the same route as President Johnson did into Vietnam. The author notes, "Questions of what might have been still dominate considerations of Kennedy's presidency, and they are addressed in this book" (Freedman xii). Since Kennedy was assassinated in 1963 before he had the chance to prove and continue his foreign policy, these are valid questions about an administration left hanging. Throughout the book Freedman continually returns to this thesis as he examines each…… [Read More]
Gerd Theissen and Annette Merz bridge a gap between trade book and scholarly discourse with their 642-page tome The Historical Jesus: A Comprehensive Guide. This joint effort by Theissen and Merz explores the subject matter of the historical Jesus in light of primary sources, especially relying on the Gospels, both canonical and apocryphal. The book is divided into four main sections, in addition to a meaty Introduction, a "Retrospect" called "A Short Life of Jesus," and two helpful indexes, one of Biblical… [Read More]
" The author continues, "Anger, love, and jealousy may trouble them, but these passions rarely make them commit the extravagances so common among Europeans," (Biart p. 48). Here the author demonstrates a serious bias in the work: repeatedly glorifying the Aztecs. The Aztecs sometimes seems to be about the author's impressions of Aztec culture more so than about the culture itself. Sometimes the book seems like an account of encounter between the civilized Europeans and the primitive indigenous people of Mexico. The author compares Aztec society with European society at several times in the book.
Throughout the Aztecs Biart broadcasts a deep admiration for the culture. The author's palpable admiration of the Aztecs usually works in the book's favor by providing a post-colonial examination of a pre-Columbian society. Except for the stereotypes and generalizations that occasionally creep into the historiography, Biart uses his personal respect to bolster the book. For…… [Read More]
Rise of the Narrative
Are we returning to a narrative in history? Yes. But now it is a narrative impacted by the numbers of the technology of the information age, which is a different type of impact tha the guardians of the past saw coming.
There is little question but that narrative has again begun to find a place in documenting and shaping the substance of history. Few people believe that numbers, be they those of the math of the hard sciences or those of the democracy of the softer sciences, can provide all the answers. As Lucien Febvre is reported to have complained to some of his students, "We have no history of Love. We have no history of Death. We have no history of Pity nor of Cruelty. We have no history of Joy." These were not of the topics of scientific inquiry in the traditional sense when…… [Read More]
Juan Seguin Texas
It is not an untold secret that every American knows about the unforgettable "emember the Alamo," a war cry that the Texans used during the Texas evolution. The repetitive screaming of this war cry makes Americans remember the horrible deaths of the Anglo defenders at the hands of the brutal soldiers of Santa Anna. It was due to the sacrifices of those daunting defenders that the people in Texas were guaranteed an independent state that was free of the tyrannical Mexican rule. In the same connection, it is not possible to not mention the name Juan Seguin whenever Texas evolution is under discussion. Juan was among the many valiant Mexicans who fought fearlessly for the sake of people in America. He was a brave man whose participation for the sake of American settlers is equivalent to that of William Travis, Davy Crockett etc. Thus, it is impossible…… [Read More]
American history is an exercise in country branding and national identity construction. Through a careful editorializing and curating of historical documents, events, and places, historians contribute to the shaping of American identity, ideology, and culture. Revisiting the process of history making shows how historians and history educators can encourage critical thought, shifting away from the use of historiography as propaganda toward a discursive process. Historians can define and interpret evidence in different ways based on their own historical and cultural context, and the influences of prevailing social norms.
American history has long been a myth-making process, rather than a discursive exercise. Westad (2007), Dudziak (2004) and Manela all points out how the United States has cultivated and crafted an identity based on the tenets of liberty, justice, and freedom. Yet in practice, the nation has been an exercise in exploitation, imperialism, and racism. "From its inception the United States was…… [Read More]
Viewing the broad forces involved in such militaristic affairs rather than focusing overly much on the details, Polybius is one of the first historians to have given us historiographical methodologies and tools. At the same time, Polybius did offer detailed chronicles that contribute to an understanding of chronology and geography.
On several interrelated levels, the work of Polybius forms a crucial part of the classical historiography. The areas that I focus on in this research include politics and government; military; and the process of history. I will begin with background information relevant to the research, including Polybius's own personal history including his service with the Achaean Confederacy. An overview of oman imperialism and the geographic expansion of the empire into Northern Africa will also be discussed, as Polybius lived on the threshold of these changes and wrote about them as an eye witness. Polybius's network will also be discussed, as…… [Read More]
Jewish history was promoted by the scribes or the Levites in early Jewish history and later on the popular educator and teachers promoted learning of the scriptures within the Jewish people so that history would be preserved however, at the time Christianity emerged this factor influenced the ancient writings in terms of how this history was related.
Some of Jewish history is so ancient that it has only been related by word of mouth however, there are writings which support history as it is told of the Jewish people. Furthermore, Christianity's emergence affected the form in which some of these ancient writings were reproduced and even the forms of recorded history characterized as genuine and credible Jewish history.
In the initiative of attempting to understand Jewish history, it is necessary to understand the varying influences upon the recorded history of the Jewish people and it is most particularly to…… [Read More]
However, these authors did emphasize their next major point that the problems of disease and general ill-health resulted in discussion of both medical and social opinions on how to solve these problems. Dowler's account of Bostonian health debate explains that the beginning of unified public health organizations began because there were so many conflicting opinions on how to solve emerging medical crisis of the city. hey are success and persuasive in their argumentation because they cite primary sources on the many conflicting opinions from differing sectors of society. Not only did doctors have an opinion on how to cure diseases, but politicians also interjected their opinions on the social issues that need to be resolved in order to prevent disease and promote public health (pg. 68). he strength the authors' rhetoric in these discussions is that they do not "tell" but "show" us the confusion of public health officials during…… [Read More]
Histories of the Pacific
The real Pacific is not a static place as the Pacifics of the mind tend to be; and nor are the peoples who have acted upon it and within it the simple ciphers of exploiter and victim, powerless and powerful that some depictions would suggest. Nor can straightforward interpretations of linear progress towards "civilization" suffice, with their emphasis on great events as stepping-stones in the march towards modernity -- what one historian of Hawaii has called "narratives that chronicle Hawaiian history after Western great men reached Hawai'i's shores, foregrounding events and actors that, to Western observers, marked the evolution of Hawaii from primitiveness to progressing civilization" (uck, 13). The key to avoiding such caricatures is in understanding the significance of the act of representation: "Native and stranger each possessed the other in their interpretations of the other" (Dening, 281). The events and encounters that have played…… [Read More]
The three centuries that comprise the Ming Dynasty are not easy to describe in the course of twenty pages of text. However, the author of this chapter does a stellar job of conveying the essence of the Ming Dynasty via an engaging yet scholarly writing style. The chapter is well-organized, its ideas presented in clear, logical, and chronological format. However, the presentation of the material is not dry but rather includes rich commentary and even opinion that is solidly based on source evidence. For example, the author reflects on the personality and character of some of the Ming emperors and eunuch dictators, using strong adjectives that reflect the views of their contemporaries. In addition to providing rich and colorful commentary, the author also outlines the succession of Ming Emperors with convenient, logical subheadings within the chapter. Thus, the author presents a wealth of material by weaving the personal…… [Read More]
Creation Myth Analysis
Case Study of the History of iblical Creation Narratives
What Is Myth?
What Is History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 Myth?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 oth Myth and History?
An Analysis of the iblical Creation Narrative of Genesis 1:1-25 and Egypt's Possible Influence on the Historical Record
God created the world in just six days, and rested on the seventh, but scholars have not rested at all over the millennia in their investigation of its account in the historical record, particularly Genesis 1:1-25. Given its importance to humankind, it is little wonder that so much attention has been devoted to how the universe was created and what place humanity has in this immense cosmos. Indeed, the creation of the universe and the origin of mankind are the subject of numerous myths around the world, with many sharing some distinct commonalities. According to S.G.F.…… [Read More]
" His taking pleasue in Tune's discontent is quite amusing. Also humoous is a misfied gun in the enty of 23 Octobe, 1660.
The last few yeas of diay enties include efeences to histoical events including the skimishes with the Dutch, the London plague, and the London fie. Theefoe, the Samuel Pepys diay has become a vital piece of histoiogaphy, offeing fisthand accounts of events that did affect people in thei daily lives. Reades will find these accounts compelling, as Samuel Pepys wites about them with specific details. What makes Samuel Pepys' account seem moden and contempoay hee is that he wites about seious histoical events in plain language. Pepys is not attempting to be a jounalist any moe than a moden blogge is. Yet just as a moden blogge does ty to achieve honesty in self-expession, Pepys also undestands the notion of ceating a valuable diay enty. Whethe o…… [Read More]
In 46 B.C., once again Sallust was given an opportunity to shine or fail, as he was made a practor and sailed to Circina where he proved himself by stealing the enemies' stores. In return, Caesar rewarded Sallust with the title of proconsular governor of all of the province of Numidia and Africa. Others with a much stronger background were expecting this position, but it may have just been that Sallust showed a greater skill at organization. Sallust, however, takes advantage of this situation and when returning to ome was cited for extortion. [footnoteef:16] Caesar quickly acquitted Sallust, but that was the end of his political career. It appears that Caesar may have made a deal with Sallust that if he quietly disappears, he would not be tried. [16: Ibid.]
At this point in Sallust's life, he says he made the decision to give up his political career. Or,…… [Read More]
The politics were simple. The Government and the settlers had all the power, ultimately the Natives did not, and so, the settlers and the government subjugated the Natives and forced them into treaties that only served the European settlers. Another writer notes, "In 1983 ichard White argued in the oots of Dependency that Euro-Indian relations in various parts of North America had in common the 'attempt... By whites to bring Indian resources, land, and labor into the market.'"
Of course, they brought them into that "market" on their own terms most often, rather than that of the Natives.
Joseph Brant - Mohawk leader - British Army officer - Studied at "Moor's Indian Charity School - Translator for Department of Indian Affairs - esponsible for restoring lands to the Mohawk people.
Wampum belt - Fashioned from seashells - Used as money or for trade - Given during times of peace making…… [Read More]
Images of war, homelessness, and poverty also convey poignant messages that can be construed differently by different people. The photographer presents the image but the viewer deciphers it. When photographs like those from Walker Evans are used as journalistic content, they can become imbued with meaning and political ideology. Other images are less equivocal. For example, a shot of a homeless man sleeping on a bench in Beverly Hills would immediately connote income disparity in the United States.
Another issue Nickel raises in "American Photographs Revisited" is the confluence of art and science in the medium of photography. Evans and other professional photographers and photojournalists craft their images, painstakingly addressing variables like lighting and atmospheric conditions with tweaks to their camera techniques. New technology including digital photography and editing software has expanded the range of possibilities for photographers. The art of photography is extended to book layout in works like…… [Read More]
Take for example, Foucault's 'Omnus at singulatim', in which the thinker shows his reader how the Christian practice of 'pastoral power' paves the way for certain modern practices that in actuality govern almost all the aspects of a living population anywhere in the world. Foucault also stressed on his belief that religion, in a positive way, possessed the capacity to contest against the nascent forms of control instituted during the modern period of man, like for example, Protestant eformation, which tried its best to resist the onslaught of emerging forms, and therefore, became representative of a set of emerging disciplinary discourses and practices. As far as Foucault was concerned, religion presented difficulties for autonomous self fashioning, but at the same time, religion was not a dangerous precursor to modern forms of governments.
To conclude, it must be said that Michael Foucault's theories are as relevant today as they were…… [Read More]
Mention must be made as well with respect to the authors continued reference to the fall of dot.com discount brokerage firms. However, their relevance to the Schwab vs. Lynch scenario is poorly refined or applied.
he data collected and presented by the authors, although extremely interesting, is based on secondary sources rather than primary, or at least not a blend of primary and secondary sources. In fact on page 196 and 197 the authors ignore the cardinal rule of best fit research practice by discussing a particular situation wherein the authors paraphrased certain statements made by the co-CEO of Charles Schwab without any cited reference whatsoever. Further, they even quoted the co-CEO without proper citation.
Particular attention must be given at this time to the authors' use of reference material. When one reviews the reference page it is interesting, and surprising, to note that not one citation mentions the words…… [Read More]
However, in the end, they were unable to stop the war despite their best efforts. The war happened anyway, in spite of the best intentions and actions to prevent it. T he actions of the various governments were reactions to events that they had tried their best to prevent. They did not make a full-blown effort to convince their people of the need for war, until the war had already begun. Had the war been intentional on the part of Germany or any other entity, there would have been plans in place to gain the support of the people long before August 1, 1914.
Only Germany had such a plan in place. However, this does not mean that they started the war intentionally. It might mean that they saw it coming and wanted to be prepared. In the end, only the players know what their motives were on any particular…… [Read More]
As Tapper (1995) points out, the three major approaches of Western social theory are each "flawed by their commitment to positivism, objectivity, and scientific detachment," (p. 186). Some may wonder how it could be possible to study religion with scientific detachment, since scientific detachment is partly defined by the absence of religious sentiment. If a historian is too detached, he or she cannot come to terms with the language best used to understand any given tradition: for example the "body" of Muhammad and the Prophet's tribe. Denying relevance of mystical experiences, subversive or minority views, or even non-linear representations of history would be doing a disservice to the history of religion. A scholar doesn't necessarily have to spend time in a monastery to understand Zen but it wouldn't hurt. Encounters with terms and ideologies add the missing semantic value that can make a history of religion whole and truly meaningful.…… [Read More]
Specifically, Mazlish's point-of-view of historiography as a kind of evolutionary state self and socially awareness is inextricably tied to one's place in history- past, present, and future. Indeed, in Mazlish's (1966) conclusion, he points out that "[h]istory was of the same nature as physics," in that it was "based on experience and was a matter of the highest probability, rather than certainty" (p. 430). Thus, readers have the pleasure of an acutely intelligent discussion on the relationship between academic fields and the content with which comprises those fields.
The weaknesses of Mazlish's book are contained in the lack of further explanation of the previously noted strengths. Mazlish captivated me with his initial assessments of history in the introduction, and then stopped making the kind of connections that I was looking forward to with excitement. While the thorough discussion of the philosophers' take on history was interesting, and indeed critical, to…… [Read More]
controversial than a person could ever imagine. Historical interpretations must be questioned so that faulty historical thinking can be identified. One of the most complicated aspects in historical interpretations is that they are precisely that -- interpretations. This means that people cannot help but look back at history through the lens of today's history; this affects interpretation and today's interpretation will be different than yesterday or tomorrow's interpretation because it will be a completely different time. Historians have a very difficult job because they must be able to take in information and interpret it in responsible ways. Historians need the humility to listen and trust others and the courage to interpret (Cathcart 1995, p. 16)
In studying the past, historians use primary and secondary sources as well as oral history. A primary source is considered to be something that is created by a person who witnessed an event. Examples of…… [Read More]
ismarck's Impact On Foreign Policy In Germany And On The alance Of Power In Europe
Otto von ismarck (1815-98) is unquestionably one of the dominant figures of modern German, and European, history. Much of his fame as a statesman has always rested on his handling of foreign policy and diplomacy. His consistent policy was to position Germany as a unified and dominant power in continental Europe, consolidating her territorially and diplomatically to the point where she was, to use his own term, "satiated."
ismarck pursued an aggressive policy, involving Germany in three localized wars, seeking to isolate France and build alliances with Austria, and maintaining a suspicious distance from Great ritain, but did not seek war or territorial expansion when he believed such activity would threaten German stability. His achievement was to leave Germany stable, peaceful, and at the heart of the European states system; to integrate a dynamic and…… [Read More]
For years, historians had been writing that the American evolution was the virtuous reaction to England's curtailment of rights. Then, in 1967, Harvard history professor Bernard Bailyn added his additional theory of ideology. In his book, The Ideological Origins of the American evolution, Bailyn agreed that the settlers were principled. Yet that was not the main cause of the discontent. Instead, he said, the settlers had inherited the suspicion of dangers that lurked with power of one entity over another. ather than seeing England's actions as solely unintended slipups, the colonists were paranoid enough to read them as part of a political plot. Obsession, not principles, led to the revolution.
Four decades later, no one is surprised that Bailyn comes up with a different twist to history. "For the last five decades Bernard Bailyn has been the preeminent colonial American historian'1. According to Professor ichard Beeman of the…… [Read More]
As an anthropologist, as she observed hoodoo practices of Southern blacks and became such a hoodoo priestess herself, she embraced subjectivity. (79) historian and woman ahead of her time, Hurston thrived not only, out of necessity on the physical margins of academia, but also on the professional margins of 'writing history.' But her techniques not only "became spaces of perspective" and "turned black folk" into legitimate subjects. Her perspective also made for a better writing of American history in general because it included the voices of marginalized figures. (118) Zora Neale Hurston took advantage of her "heightened penchant" for interdisciplinary study "to forge some of the first substantive academic research on African-Americans" but highlighted the need for interdisciplinary and openly subjective historical study in general, particularly of those peoples deemed to be marginal to mainstream 'written' American society and history. (138)
Hurston studied Black culture partly to recover her own…… [Read More]
" (This statement appears to fly in the face of his detailed emphasis on trying to be terribly thorough at other times throughout the book; and his seeming editorial neurosis creates doubts in the minds of the reader as to precisely how consistent and valid his values are vis-a-vis what he believes to be true.)
Those biblical students probably read his book and had a sense that he was in a classroom, behind a podium, lecturing to them, when, on pages 18-20, he discusses pre-history (Stone Age) and Neolithic Jericho. His bias towards places and people who are in some way connected to Scripture comes across numerous times in obviously favored passages.
To wit: one can almost hear his voice as he describes the relative distance in time to make his point about the advent of the Israel we know today. "Difficult as it is for us to realize, it…… [Read More]
Oshinsky, "orse Than Slavery"
David Oshinsky's history of "convict labor" in the Reconstruction-era American South bears the title orse Than Slavery. The title itself raises questions about the role played by moralistic discourse in historiography, and what purpose it serves. Oshinsky certainly paints a grim picture of the systematic use of African-American prisoners at Parchman Farm -- the focus of his study -- and throughout the South after the Civil ar. I would like to examine the system that Oshinsky describes, while incidentally paying attention to the rhetoric he employs in doing so. But ultimately I wish to call attention to, and question, the validity of Oshinsky's title. The title is provocative, and therefore can only be termed responsible historiography if indeed his purpose is to provoke further questions. Chief among these must be the question of what it actually means to declare that what he describes in the book…… [Read More]
Christianity started as a literary faith, one firmly rooted in Scripture. Scriptural adherence grew out of the Jewish appreciation for sacred text. Therefore, it is no wonder that Christianity evolved as a literary and literate faith. The evolution of Christianity from the fall of the Temple in 70 CE to the 21st century is one punctuated and formed by writing and historical documents. Christian historiography reveals both the development of Christian religious thought including cosmology, theology, and metaphysics. Ethics and philosophy are also covered in the Christian canon. However, Christian historiography also goes beyond sacred wisdom. Christian texts have laid out methods by which Christianity -- and the Catholic Church in particular -- can and should function in the world as a political institution. Both spiritual and the political debates have led to conflicts in Christian identity development. Conflicting views of theological matters such as the nature of Christ's…… [Read More]
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…… [Read More]
Typology in Christianity
The author of this report is reviewing typology in Christianity with a strong focus on a few particular dimensions. Typology, for the purposes of Christianity, is the translation and transition between the Old Testament and New Testament. Indeed, the different faiths that center on the traditional Christian God usually (but not always) rely on the ible, or at least part of it, with some sects focusing mainly or solely on the Old Testament while other sects or groups do the same thing with the New Testament. Obviously, since both Testaments are part of the same Holy ible, it is important to look into how they are connected and how that connection, and the church itself, has evolved over the years. A focus on how typology was done, different groups that engaged in it like the Alexandrin school and the overall history from the time of the Apostles,…… [Read More]
Just this past week, the Environmental Protection Agency released a report on the effects and reality of global warming. In the investigative commission that yielded the findings, an admission was submitted that there is no way to fully determine how much of the planet's climatic change has been due to natural variation in weather and temperature patterns. However, the report did assert the certainty that global warming is in large part due to human behavior and environmental practices. Particularly, global warming is partially the result of extensive burning of fossil fuels such as oil, thus placing a great deal of blame on an international practice upon which economies and political systems have operated for a great many years. And it has been in the last two decades that these proclivities have begun to catch up with environmental conditions and, subsequently, various ecosystems and the broader social structures that are dependent…… [Read More]
Steeped in controversy and tainted by his legacy as Hitler's personal architect and close friend, Albert Speer is a difficult historical figure to portray and to pinpoint. Gitta Sereny explores the life and the mind of this complex man with brilliant insight, historical awareness, and sensitivity, as she examines the surprising moral conflicts that Speer faced later in his life, especially after the Nuremberg trials. As the only member of Hitler's inner circle to be spared from the death penalty, Speer had ample time before his death in 1981 to reflect on his role in Nazi atrocities. Although Speer ostensibly never killed a soul, nor did he outwardly perform any act of violence or hatred, he nevertheless supported and loved the man who ordered the brutal deaths of millions of Jews as well as Catholics, gypsies, and homosexuals. Fascinated by this period in history because of her first-hand experiences during…… [Read More]