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2. The issue concerning the drafting of the constitution and of the distribution of power inside the United States was based on the discussions over the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists. Each of their points is summarized in the Federalist Papers, the reaction of the Federalists to the arguments of their opponents. In this sense, the Federalist Paper no 47 discusses precisely the matter of the distribution of power; while the Anti-Federalists consider the distribution of power proposed by their adversaries to be a sign of authoritarian rule, the Federalists pointed out that the structure as they have proposed it did not invite tyranny, on the contrary (the Avalon Project, 2008). This comes to show the distinction between the opinions of the two sides and puts under discussion a possible history of the U.S. In the conditions in which the points of the anti-federalists would have all been considered in the…
Chin, Jonathan & Stern, Alan. (1997). "Federalists and Anti-Federalists." Jonathan Chin & Alan Stern Present website. Accessed 6 February 2008, at http://library.thinkquest.org/11572/index.html
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
Locke vs. Hobbes. (N.d). Accessed 6 February 2008, at http://jim.com/hobbes.htm
The Avalon Project. (2008). The Federalist Papers no 47. Accessed 6 February 2008, at http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/federal/fed47.htm
Theorists of Public Administration
Influencers of Public Administration
From the theories of public administration birthed in the past five to six decades, the field has taken the best principles and conceptual frameworks yet avoided a theoretical hegemony. There is richness to the literature and theoretical foundation of public administration that is a good fit to a field which is at once both interdisciplinary and applied. The interdisciplinary foundations of public administration are evident in the mix of disciplines represented in this discussion of four theorists who have informed the field and inspired scholars, students, bureaucrats, and citizens, alike.
Weber was a German sociologist and political economist who had substantive influence on social theory. Weber was not a positivist -- he believed that sociology could not be studied empirically. Instead, he argued that social research must ethnographic in nature based on interpretations of the meaning people associate with their…
theorists on the subject of entrepreneurial characteristics and includes reflection on how my experience and personality reflect these particular characteristics.
elf-Efficacy Theory ( Bandura, 1986), otherwise called ocial Cognitive Theory (CT) believes that the two key determinants of behavior are perceived self-efficacy and outcome expectancies. In other words, the extent to which the person feels able to actualize / implement behavior, and the optimism with which he perceives the consequences (both negative and positive) of performing the behavior will motivate him to perform and likely he will succeed. The two together play a key role in imbuing confidence in the person, giving him courage -- which is what an entrepreneur needs -- and enabling him to take risks.
I am not much or a risk-taker myself, but the army was a great place to develop self-efficacy. Through reiteration of certain tasks, and the realization that I could do the tasks…
Johnson D. et al. (2003). Describing the entrepreneur Small Enterprise Assoc. Of Australia and New Zealand
Penrose, E. (2006) The theory of the growth of the firm, OUP, Oxford.
Rauch & Freese, M. (2007) Towards a psychology of Entrepreneurship
Weiten, W. (2007). Psychology: Themes and variations. USA: Thomson-Wadsworth.
Importance of HB Model and TA Model
The medical science takes into account medical history and reports to treat a person. Social and psychological theories on the other hand explain how social and psychological factors can affect behavior. In discussing depression among minority, the models can help find how the depression is caused, how it can be treated and what behaviors favor or hinder the treatment. Depression is such a disease that it can affect the body, behavior and life of an individual. About 19 million Americans are falling into depression and that makes them vulnerable to mental illness. The theories can help identify which set of beliefs and behaviors will support the treatment.
Depression is caused by a variety of factors. It can arise from cognitive problems like negative thinking or biological and genetic factors, gender orientation, the responsibility status of family, drugs and medications, prolonged diseases etc.…
Public Health Agencies, (2009), Retrieved from:
The Health Belief Model, (n.d.), Retrieved from:
Sociological Understandings of the Human Condition -- Comparing and Contrasting C.. Mills and Emil Durkheim
The social theorist C.. Mills fundamentally applied a dialectical view of the human condition to all specific phenomena of human social life. In other words, Mills saw human cultural, much like the theorist Max eber, as a rational struggle for understanding and survival. Like eber, Mills saw human history as an evolution of ideas, where the ideas of, for instance, Protestantism, enabled certain countries and cultures to form a more secure basis to establish capitalism over the course of the 20th century, in contrast. The division of labor and establishing control are cornerstones of rationalist social philosophy. Mills concurred with eber that human beings could not be understood outside of the social and economic structures through which they interacted. Society as well as psychology and the family must be understood in its proper larger historical…
Henslin, James M. Down to Earth Sociology. Twelfth Edition.
The Keynesian economic theorists follow an economic model that considers three factors in macroeconomic growth. These are income distribution, savings, and investment functions. These factors are derived from the theory's determination of equilibrium in the economy as determined by the relationship between employment, prices, and gross-domestic-product (Padalkina 18). The theory suggests that the economy does not have full employment, autonomous demand-component affect rate of growth, and investment decisions are not dependent on savings. Therefore, the theory suggests that for the economy to experience growth there must be enough demand to push the economy to full employment (Padalkina 18). In addition, the economy experiences growth when there are increases in demand, increasing returns, externalities, and productivity growth.
The Keynesian economics have advocated that discretionary government measures and interventions are necessary in promoting economic growth, increase standard of living, and employment stability. The theorists believe in the use of government intervention,…
Baumol, William J. And Stuart Alan B. "Macroeconomics: Principles & Policy." 12th ed. Mason, OH: South-Western, Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.
Free, Rhona C. "21st Century Economics: A Reference Handbook, Volume 1." Thousand Oaks, California; SAGE Publications, Inc., 2010. Print.
Padalkina, Dina. "The Macroeconomics of De-Growth- Can a De-Growth Strategy be Stable?" Norderstedt, Germany; GRIN Verlag, 2012. Print.
Shannon, John. "Keynesian Economics, the Cancer in America." Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2012. Print.
Theories and Theorists
Theorists in the field of criminal justice:
Howard Becker and obert Agnew
The field of sociology has been extremely influential in shaping our concept of criminal justice in the 20th century. ather than focusing on biological or moral theories of why people commit crimes, criminology has begun to place more emphasis on how social pressures may shape the decision of an individual to engage in criminal behavior or to eschew it. Two of the most popular theories exemplifying this phenomenon are that of social labeling theory and strain theory.
Howard Becker's social labeling theory first rose to prominence during the 1960s. Becker suggested that criminals were not essentially different from other persons in the sense that they were more 'wicked' or pathological. ather, society labels certain persons (because of race, sexuality, poverty, or other behaviors) as different. ather arbitrarily, certain persons are deemed members of potentially…
Cesare Beccaria. (2013). FSU. Retrieved:
Conflict theory. (2013). FSU. Retrieved:
runer and Piaget
The purpose of this work is to examine the theorists Jerome runer and Jean Piaget in the context in which they wrote and to identify their major influences which helped shape the major themes within their work. Further this work will juxtapose the theories of runer and Piaget, identify the points of agreement and disagreement and finally to through an example to demonstrate how each of the theoretical approaches would converge and diverge in relation to instruction and learning.
Jean Piaget was a Swiss biologist who is known for his model of development and learning in children. The theory of Piaget is that the development of a child is one that states that the cognitive structure is built upon or concepts for comprehension increases in development of the child. There are four stages of development identified in Piaget's theory which describe the processes of…
Bruner, J. (1996) The Culture of Education, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Bruner, Jr. (1966) Toward a Theory of Instruction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Piaget (nd) Funderstanding Piaget [Online] available at: http://www.funderstanding .com/piaget.cfm
Speaker, R. (nd) Reflections on Bruner [Online] available at http://ed.uno.edu/F aculty/RSpeaker/Spistemologies/Bruner.html
In infancy, there are a host of misunderstandings about what factors are influencing development. To fully comprehend those areas that are most relevant, there will be a study of the process and which theories apply. After carefully examining each one, Maslow's ideas help to explain the way that this occurs and its long-term impact on psychological development.
Over the years, there have been a number of different theories introduced which are: designed to explain infancy and the way a child develops psychologically. To fully understand what is happening requires studying the different theories of Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget and Abraham Maslow. Then, focusing on the ideas of Maslow and how they are influencing the way a child sees the world around them. This is the point that we can use these views to understand human psychological development.
From the time that an infant is born they can differentiate…
Ages and Stages. (2012). University of Illinois. Retrieved from: http://urbanext.illinois.edu/babysitting/age-infant.html
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. (2012). Business Balls. Retrieved from: http://www.businessballs.com/maslow.htm
Meal Time Memo for Child Care. (2012). University of Mississippi. Retrieved from: http://www.nfsmi.org/documentlibraryfiles/PDF/20080612090349.pdf
Principles of Learning and Teaching. (2010). Arizona State. Retrieved from: http://www2.astate.edu/dotAsset/192246.pdf
It cannot apply exactly to any individual."(Durkheim 1982, pg. 82) This is illustrating how social science is a way of objectively analyzing society. It is different from other disciplines by showing how it is seeking to look at different collective facts. This is in order to understand why everyone will behave and react in a particular fashion. (Gane 2010) (Applerouth 2008)
Furthermore, it must respect all scientific principles and be as objective in possible when analyzing various facts. A good example of this can be seen with Durkheim saying, "The principal effort of the sociologist must therefore be directed towards objectively discovering the different properties of that environment." (Durkheim 1982, pg. 136) This is illustrating how social scientists must be neutral in their analysis of various social factors. The way that this exemplifies a theoretical approach is to demonstrate how society can be analyzed and studied. When this happens, a…
Applerouth, S, 2008, Classical and Contemporary Sociological Theory, Pine Forge Press, Los Angeles.
Durkheim, E, 1982, Rules of Sociological Method, Simon and Schuster, New York.
Eldes, L, 2009, Sociological Theory in the Classical Era, Pine Forge Press, Los Angeles.
Gane, M, 2010, On Durkheim's Rules of Sociological Method, Taylor and Francis, New York.
His main contribution to conflict criminology was his emphasis on the behavior of authorities. He maintained a pessimistic approach, which regarded capitalism as merely trying to remain flexible in the face of conflict. In Weber's opinion, people would prefer to give rather than receive orders. Their main interest was prestige. Conflict was inherent in competition for scarce resources (Elwell).
Among Weber's major works were "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism," published in 1904, and "Sociology of the State," published in 1956 (Elwell 2003). In these works, he expressed the belief that rational action within a system of rational-legal authority was at the heart of modern society. His primary objective was to explore and explain the shift from traditional to rational action. He examined the religions and economic systems of civilizations. His study brought him to the realization that action could be rationalized only by abandoning the traditional ways…
Elwell, F.W. (2005). The classical tradition: Malthus, Marx, Weber and Durkheim. Roger State University, Colorado Paradigm Publishers
Jones, R. (2003). Introduction to sociological theories. Polity.co.uk, American International Distribution. Retrieved March 13, 2007 at http://www.polity.co.uk/jones/pdf/chap1.pdf
Knapp, P. (2007). Theory greats. Villanova.edu, Villanova University
Lambert, L. (1998). Social Theory. Sociology: UTSA Style, University of Texas San Antonio
Personality Theories in Psychology
To the layperson, the term personality is a generic descriptor for an individual's traits. However, personality has a more specific meaning to psychologists. According to Dan McAdams, "Personality psychology is the scientific study of the whole person" (McAdams, 2006, p.12, para.1). While different psychologists and their theories have become well-known enough to be referenced in casual conversation, there is still some confusion among laypeople about personality theory and whether all personality theories are basically the same. That confusion is understandable, because there are different approaches to the study of personality, buy they all purport to give functioning descriptions of the individual. "Personality psychologists develop and validate ways of measuring individual differences, necessitating a quantitative and focused inquiry into single dimensions of human variation together into illuminating personological portraits of the individual case" (McAdams, 2006, p.12, para.1). Therefore, while personality theories should be comprehensive enough to describe…
Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V.S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior, Vol. 4. New York, Academic Press. pp.71-81. Retrieved February 5, 2012 from Emory University website: http://www.emory.edu/EDUCATION/mfp/BanEncy.html
Digman, J.M. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology, 41, 417-440.
Erikson, E. (1994). Identity and the life cycle. New York, W.W. Norton & Company.
Freud, S. (Trans. Strachey, 1989). Introductory lectures on psychoanalysis. London, Liveright,
A higher limit of ZPD apparently refers to the level of experience that a child accumulates as a result of being in the presence of a professor that is capable to put across educational information. Similar to Piaget, Vygotsky highlighted that there is a very strong connection between an individual's mind and the environment that the respective person is present in throughout his or her life.
If Keith were to consider Piaget or Vygotsky's theories he would have focused on having Jasmine's parents accept her in their home and continue to treat her. Also, this kind of approach could have influenced Keith to advise the girl's parents to put her in a rehabilitation institute where she would be provided with the care necessary for her to recover.
Considering that there is no logical explanation for Jasmine's behavior (especially in the beginning), Keith would have tried to provide assistance in helping…
Charlesworth, R. (2010). Understanding Child Development. Cengage Learning
Study of the Child: Theories of Development I, Herzog, Milan & Herzog, Shanta (Learning Seed, 1997)
Locke and Rousseau's social contract theories and compares both in the light of their arguments on human nature having an influence on political right. It has 2 sources.
The development of political systems and laws directly depends on the beliefs of the people who endeavor to create a suitable system. The inclusion of beliefs in natural law and natural rights is something that people might choose to carry out or avoid. The belief in these rights and their application to social justice has come down to contemporary man through individuals such as John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau. Though the origin of their ideas vary considerably, they both end up creating a system for political structuring that is practical and aims at aiding all members of society. It is thanks to their beliefs in natural rights and natural law that the contemporary world has succeeded to a certain extent in…
Rousseau, Jean Jacques. The Social Contract or Principles of Political Rights. 1762.
Locke, John. Second Treatise on Government. 1690.
Nursing and Critical Theory
Nursing theorists have come to recognize that nursing is an institution that is inseparable from the social context in which it is embedded. Furthermore, since researcher and practitioner are immersed in this social context, the prejudices that inform their practices are influenced by their sociocultural backgrounds. In order to combat prejudices that represent social forms of domination and inequality, critical theory has been adopted by theorists and researchers, who follow the theoretical insights of the Frankfurt School and the form of criticism it has leveled upon more traditional epistemologies -- namely, positivism.
The critical theory, or the Frankfurt School, is a project that was initiated by Max Horkheimer in the 1930s. According to Horkheimer, critical theory was a method for protecting people from false consciousness, which could prevent them from identifying their true interests. Therefore, critical theory, from its inception, has been interested in liberating man…
Kim, H.S., & Holter, I.M. (1995). Critical Theory for Science of Nursing Practice. In A. Omery, C.E. Kasper & G.G. Page (Eds.), In Search of Nursing Science. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication Inc.
Weaver, K. (2006). Understanding paradigms used for nursing research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 53(4), 459 -- 469.
According to Beccaria, any form or degree of punishment that exceeded the comparative seriousness of the crime or the functional purpose of effectively deterring that crime was excessive, purposeless, and cruel. Based on that philosophy, Beccaria proposed that penal consequences should be designed to be sufficiently harsh to cause individuals contemplating criminal behavior to re-evaluate that choice on a rational basis and to avoid (rational) choices to perpetrate crime as a direct result of their awareness of the risks of specific kinds of punishment that corresponded to those crimes (Lynch, 1999).
The Contributions of Lombroso to Criminal Justice
Unlike Durkheim and Beccaria, Lombroso rejected the societal and functional dynamics of criminality as primary contributors to deviance and crime in society. Lombroso specifically argued that crime was substantially the result of innate difference in individuals that predisposed certain people to deviance and criminality beyond their conscious control, and certainly, beyond the…
Akers, R.L. And Sellers, C.S. (2004). Criminological Theories: Introduction,
Evaluation, and Application. California: Roxbury Publishing Company.
Lynch, M.J. (1999). "Beating a Dead Horse: Is There Any Basic Empirical Evidence for the Deterrence Effect of Imprisonment?" Criminal Law & Social Change, Vol.
The economy is society's base structure. This does not mean, however, that everything that occurs in history stems from the economy. Finally, the "materialism" of "historical materialism" is rooted in the idea that the capitalist mode of production is largely contingent on the behavior of participants in the market economy.
To sum up, historical materialism is based on a series of principles. The first of these is how humans interact with nature in order to produce what they need to subsist on. Then there is the division of labor, which creates social classes; this division is always based on ownership, wherein some people live off of other people's work. The entire system of class is based on the mode of production. Finally, historical materialism recognizes that society moves through different historical stages, wherein a new emerging class will eventually replace the dominant class.
In his work the Protestant Ethic and…
Marx, Karl. Preface, a Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, 1859. Retrieved 13 March 2008 at http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1859/critique-pol-economy/preface.htm .
See, for example, Habermas, Jurgen. Legitimation Crisis. Thomas McCarthy, trans. Boston: Beacon Press, 1975.
Marx, Karl. "Critique of the Gotha Program." Retrieved 14 March 2008 at http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1875/gotha/ch04.htm .
He drifts in and out of jobs and relationships and this behavior confuses the issue for him even more. He cannot find a stable self-definition or final cause on which to focus his efforts and self-definition. This leads to him questioning who he really is.
To understand what a person's self-concept or identity one needs to understand the context within a person lives. In addition, in modern Western societies the conceptualization of one's identity is more fluid than many other cultures. It may be this fluidity that is not allowing Aron to grasp specific meaning in his life narrative. Without very traditional and defined standards Aron may be looking for some anchor to grasp in developing a sense of identity as in foreclosure. Self-identity becomes defined by the context of the person, the society to which they belong, social groups, cultural factors, and legal statues of a society. Aron may…
In the field of Nursing there are those individuals who had a major impact upon the way care is provided. One such person is Dorthea Orem. She developed a critical care theory that redefined the industry. To fully understand these ideas requires studying Orem's Self-Care Theory / Theoretical Framework and analyzing the different components of this approach. Together, these elements will offer specific insights about how these principals can be utilized in a modern health care environment.
Development of Orem's Self-Care Theory and Theoretical Framework
The development of Orem's Self-Care Theory was based upon experiences that Dorthea Orem would have in the real world. What happened was her positions in government gave her the ability to see the potential impact of nursing and the challenges of many individuals in the field. This took place between 1949 and 1980. During this time is when Orem was serving on the Indiana…
Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory. (2011). Nursing Theory. Retrieved from: http://nursing-theory.org/theories-and-models/orem-self-care-deficit-theory.php
Hartweg, D. (1991). Self-Care Deficit Theory. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
ealist, Liberal, Critical Theorist
ousseau: ealist, Liberal, Critical Theorist?
What is ousseau's real Philosophical identity?
There are several questions and ideas to be addressed and analyzed in this paper. One: Is Jean-Jacques ousseau a realist -- can it be said from the assigned essay, without equivocation that his views follow those of classic realism? (ealism: the doctrine that puts forth the idea that universals only exist outside one's mind; the insistence that all things in the empirical world should be explained in terms of the "real world" and not in terms of abstractions or perceptions.)
Based on this essay, is ousseau a liberal in the tradition sense -- not today's "liberal" in the popular juxtaposition of "liberal" and "conservative" -- and do his views follow that thread throughout his extensive narrative? (Liberalism: a moral philosophy that emphasizes religious toleration, personal freedom, governments being led by consent of the governed, economic…
Froese, Katrin. "Beyond Liberalism: the moral community of Rousseau's social
Contract." Canadian Journal of Political Science 34 (2001): 579-581.
Hall, Cheryl. "Reason, passion, and politics in Rousseau." Polity 34 (2001): 69-89.
Merriman-Webster. "Realism" and "Liberalism." 30 Nov. 2004. http://www.m-w.com
"The work of civilization has become increasingly the business of men, it confronts them with ever more difficult tasks and compels them to carry out instinctual sublimations of which women are little capable" (Rosenfels 21).
When considering leaders and their followers, Freud believed that some people were meant to be controlled as a result of their laziness and of their instinctual abandonment. These individuals influence each-other in adopting an indifferent attitude with regard to their own fate. They are saved by people who are capable to set an example through their strength of will and who take on managerial positions in order to control the masses (Rosenfels 21).
One of the reasons for which Freud expressed dissatisfaction with his experience in the U.S. was the fact that he did not appreciate the attitude that American husbands had in regard to their wives. He believed that one had to control his…
Rosenfels, P. (1980). Freud and the scientific method. Ninth Street Center.
Paul Rosenfels discuses Freud's determination to consider that inequality governed the human society. In addition to expressing his opinion regarding the "men are superior to women" concept that was common at the time, he also related to a series of other relationships that he considered imbalanced. Freud practically considered that there was no relationship that did not involve an inequality rapport, as he typically focused on people's problems and tried to emphasize them in order for individuals to understand the reason for their inferiority while in a relationship. Rosenfels also speaks about how Freud used personal experience in producing theories regarding social inequalities.
Boeree, George. "Sigmund Freud." Retrieved October 16, 2011, from the Shippensburg University Website: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/freud.html
Boeree describes some of the basic characteristics of Freud's personality theory and focuses on the importance of the unconscious in comparison to the conscious and the preconscious. The doctor also relates to how Freud came to consider that human behavior is determined by factors that are not immediately accessible. Boeree also relates to each trait of the personality theory in particular and explains the way that it functions in regard to people's activities. This source recounts Freud's determination to discuss a subject that people living contemporary to him generally considered to be unimportant, especially given that most individuals were inclined to favor easy explanations when trying to come up with a solution for some mental illnesses.
John Stuart Mill and the idea of equality
Society typically views the triad nexus of politicians, bureaucracies and the financial elite suspiciously, believing they breach the common man’s rights, and, consequently, strives to ensure they behave as it desires. Mills argues, “the government, whether completely responsible to the people or not, will often attempt to control the expression of opinion, except when in doing so it makes itself the organ of the general intolerance of the public (pg. 376).”
The above societal attitude is understandable as this triad nexus has violated people’s will and freedom. As a result, democracies were created in which the common man is allowed to take part in national decision-making. However, in a democratic system the community will govern governmental decisions, giving rise to a self-governing nation. However, Mills warns and asserts that in democratic systems, public opinion (i.e., the majority’s opinion) quells the minority’s views…
The third reason that I chose Marx is the apparently cyclical nature of change and restriction. The last century has seen some tremendous social changes. The 1960s Civil ights Movement and the Sexual evolution changed the face of modern America. However, there seems to have been a pendulum swing back to more restrictive behavior. It is now considered more appropriate to be openly sexist and racist than it was in the 1980s. In fact, propaganda has promoted the idea of the white, middle-class, Christian male as being the target of discrimination, even though this group still maintains almost all of the status-related privilege that it had prior to either of those movements, still getting more opportunities and greater benefits, as a group, than racial minorities, women, or religious minorities. One example of this is a chain e-mail I received that said something along the lines of "Dear God, why is…
Kreis, S. (2008). Karl Marx, 1818-1883. Retrieved March 2, 2012 from the History Guide
Vissing, Y. (2011). An introduction to sociology: Ashford University discovery series. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Wolff, J. (2010). Karl Marx. Retrieved March 2, 2012 from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy website: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/marx/
arxist or Neo-arxist Research
Critique of Theory
According to ax Weber the state is a special entity that possesses a monopoly on the legitimate use of violence. Weber believes politics is a required activity of government used in order to influence and control the relative distribution of force and power in the country.
Weber wrote of three main types of authority and political leadership domination that is present in society. These three types are charismatic, traditional and legal domination.
Weber also developed a theory of stratification where he explained and used such ideas as class, status, and party. According to his theory class is determined by an individual's economic situation. The notion of status is similar to prestige and honor. And the main purpose of parties is to gain domination in certain spheres of life. Like Weber, arx saw society as the struggle for class…
Marxism identifies only 2 types of production, Two types of production can be used, human and material. These two aspects have interrelation and they depend on each other. However, Mao tried to prove that such an interrelation is not essential. In his opinion both types of production should be included in the economic plan. He also took care and observed the process of population growth. Initially, China's post-1949 leaders were ideologically disposed to view a large population as an asset. Mao said an army of people is invincible. During Mao's rule, from 1949 to 1976, China's population increased from around 550 to over 900 million people. Mao believed that family planning should be integrated as a part of the overall plan for the development of the national economy, and that people should learn how to manage material production and how to manage themselves.
Corporate ocial Responsibility: Bowen and Carroll
Howard R. Bowen was the founder of the concept of corporate social responsibility. In his book "ocial Responsibility of the Businessman," Bowen argued that business was a major force that touched the lives of numerous individuals. ince business was inextricably and continuously involved in processes of judgment and decision-making, many of their proposals and assertions touched the lives of vast numbers of citizens. These included not only employees of the firm but also their families, acquaintances, and so forth. The larger the firm, therefore, the more corporate responsibility, accordingly the industry had in regards to the decisions that it formulated. As Bowen asked: "What responsibilities to society may businessmen reasonably be expected to assume?" (p. xi). And he responded:
"It refers to the obligations of businessmen to pursue those policies, to make those decisions, or to follow those lines of action which are desirable…
Sniderman, S. (2011). "Bill & Melinda gates Foundation outlines 7 social good initiatives for 2011" yourolivebranch.org http://news.yourolivebranch.org/2011/02/07/bill-melinda-gates-foundation-outlines-7-social-good-initiatives-for-2011/
Whoriskey, P. (Oct. 6, 2011) Record thin on Steve Job's philanthropy. Washington Post.
She developed "Cooperative Discipline' a new K-12 in-service training program...offers exactly what many schools are looking for." (Kyle 1991) the problem, as I see it, of Cooperative Discipline is that the students will always try for the least amount of 'punishment' for any perceived wrong committed. The teacher would have to be especially tough in order to counteract the attempt at leniency which would put the teacher and student back into an adversarial position. My classroom will have a set of rules that will be followed. Any flaunting of the rules will result in consequences that have been shared with the classroom since the initial class.
Curwin, R.L., (2002) Finding Jewels in the Rubble, Educational Leadership, Vol. 59 Issue
Glasser, . (2002) Unhappy Teenagers, New York: Harper Collins Publishing
James, G. (2006) Skinner's Utopia, ilson Quarterly, Vol. 30 Issue
Kounin., J., (1983)
Classrooms: Individuals or Behavior Settings? Monographs…
Curwin, R.L., (2002) Finding Jewels in the Rubble, Educational Leadership, Vol. 59 Issue
Glasser, W. (2002) Unhappy Teenagers, New York: Harper Collins Publishing
James, G. (2006) Skinner's Utopia, Wilson Quarterly, Vol. 30 Issue
Kounin., J., (1983)
Nursing Theorist: Sr. oy Adaptation Model
The oy Adaptation model for Nursing had its beginning when Sister Callista oy happened to get admitted in the Masters Program of pediatric nursing in the University of California, Los Angeles, in the year 1964. At that time, Sr. Callista was familiar with the idea of 'adaptation' in nursing, and it must be mentioned that Sr. Callista's adviser at that time was Dorothy E. Johnson, who believed firmly in the need to define nursing as a means of focusing the development of knowledge, for the practice of nursing. When Sr. Callista oy started working with children in the pediatric ward of the hospital, she was quite impressed with the basic resiliency of the small children who had been admitted into the wards for treatment. This was why when the first seminar in pediatric nursing was called for; Sr. Callista oy proposed that the basic…
"Callista Roy's Adaptation Model" Retrieved From
http://www.geocities.com/ninquiry2002/callistaroy Accessed 28 October, 2005
'Case Study" Retrieved From
http://www.geocities.com/ninquiry2002/casestudy.html Accessed 28 October, 2005
Her wellness did not allow participation in the second that took place in 1977; however Isabel Myers took pleasure in the other 2 extensively, though sometimes she would be dismayed at the different ways that the analysts treated her information. She understood that the intuitive 'kind' or personality indexes will need to alter the MBTI [instrument] as that is in their nature but she hoped that prior to the time when they altered it, they will initially attempt to comprehend exactly what had been done as the foundation of the theory because her reasons for choosing a certain structure were logical and justified. In 1975, publication of the Indicator was presumed by CPP, Inc. For the first time, the MBTI [instrument] was readily available as an instrument prepared for use in assisting individuals (Kirby and Myers, 2000).
In the last months of her life, when she invested much time sleeping…
Bowdon, T.B. (2010). 50 Psychology Classics. Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
Drucker, C.T. (2007). Once Upon a Type: Mythological Dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. ProQuest Publications.
Kirby, L.K. And Myers, K.D. (2000). Introduction to Type. Cpp Publications.
Myers, I.B. (1962). The Myers-Briggs type indicator. Consulting Psychologists Press.
Kurt Lewin. The influence of his theories on the field of psychology and obstacles faced by social psychologists are also dealt with. Lastly, a personal evaluation of how Lewin's theories may be applicable to daily life is included. The paper discusses and reviews all theories founded and furthered by Lewin in his career as psychologist and researcher. It allows scope for assessment and criticism, followed by response.
Theorist Kurt Lewin (1890 -- 1947) can be counted among the most prominent psychologists of his time. His works laid the groundwork for organizational development and are even now regarded as pivotal to the field. It has been aptly stated that almost no questions can be raised with regards to Kurt Lewin being the intellectual founder of modern applied behavioral science theories, as well as planned change and action research. Lewin's groundbreaking planned-change research works on different styles of leadership. Many of his…
Ash, M.G. (1992). Cultural contexts and scientific change in psychology: Kurt Lewin in Iowa. American Psychologist, 47(2), 198-207. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.47.2.198
Written by Ash, this article follows Kurt Lewin's partial biography after his move to America from Germany in 1933. While working for Iowa Child Welfare Research Station, Lewin had to encounter several challenges. Lewin attempted to reproduce his scientific group, like the one he had established in Germany. Unable to accomplish this, Lewin's tactic changed, and he adapted himself to the new world. He transferred his life stories to his cultural- change adaptation theories, formulated successful research systems and transformed the bases of psychology in the U.S.
Burnes, B., & Cooke, B. (2013). Kurt Lewin's Field Theory: A Review and Re-evaluation. International journal of management reviews, 15(4), 408-425.
This work describes field theory, with sufficient examples. A pedestal to evaluate all arguments regarding it is granted to the author. This theory is reviewed, along with other facts. Finally, re-evaluation is carried out in the end.
The company was able to turn a profit of $2.7 billion in fiscal 2009, its first annual profit since 2005. The company has been profitable for the past five quarters (MSN Moneycentral, 2010). On that basis, Mulally appears to be meeting the company's goals. However, given its financial situation -- the company still has negative equity -- the transformation process cannot be considered complete. Thus, Mulally should retain his transformational style until Ford has completed its turnaround.
The move to a transactional style should wait until the company is more consistently profitable, has built a base of equity, seen its share price improve further, and has pared down its product line further. The company has received a boost from Mulally's leadership, but still needs help from a recovering economy to complete the transformation.
Barsky, A. (2008). Understanding the ethical cost of organizational goal-setting: A review and theory development.…
Barsky, A. (2008). Understanding the ethical cost of organizational goal-setting: A review and theory development. Journal of Business Ethics. Vol. 81 (1) 63-81.
Bass, B. & Riggio, R. (2006). Transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Burke, W. & Litwin, G. (1992). A causal model of organizational performance and change. From Organizational change: A comprehensive reader. San Francisco: Wiley, 2008.
Gandz, J. (2005). The leadership role. Ivey Business School. Retrieved July 30, 2010 from http://www.iveybusinessjournal.com/view_article.asp?intArticle_ID=532
Knowing the character of the principality the prince had acquired, and tailoring his use of repression and forms of coercion, and the degree, was essential -- a lesson that has proved, one might argue, quite difficult for the United States in its involvement in the Middle East, and its involvement with other territories with long and rich histories that are very different from the history of the relatively young United States.
Machiavelli's own work is inevitably affected by when he wrote, during an age characterized small, divided leadership centers, in one of the most fractious and back-biting of all of the Italian cities. However, although being ruled by his ideal prince may hardly be attractive to a resident of a modern democracy, many of his observations of people during times of war and peace are still useful. His guide can prove helpful as well to a citizen trying to interpret…
Machiavelli, Niccolo. (1513). The Prince. Full text available from the Constitution
Society. Maintained by Jon Roland. Created 10 Jul 1997. Updated 20 Sept 2005. Retrieved 27 Feb 2008 at http://www.constitution.org/mac/prince24.htm
John Rawls' theory…. In his book A Theory of Justice John Rawls offers readers a "Kantian Interpretation" of his "original position," according to an essay in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SAP). First, a review of Rawls' "original position" will set up the explanation of his Kantian link. Rawls posits (in his "original position") that in understanding his philosophy readers should imagine themselves as "…free and equal" and as willing to agree to "commit themselves to the principles of social and political justice" (SAP, p. 1). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy asserts that the "main distinguishing feature" of Rawls' "original position" is "the veil of ignorance" (SEP, p. 1). hat that means is that in order to be certain there is a total "impartiality of judgment, the parties are deprived of all knowledge of their personal characteristics and social and historical circumstances" (SEP. p. 1).
In the original position (the…
Brooks, Thom, and Freyenhagen, Fabian. (2005). The Legacy of John Rawls. New York:
Continuum International Publishing Group.
Piccard, Richard. (2003). A Theory of Justice, by John Rawls. Ohio University. Retrieved February 20, 2012, from http://www.ohio.edu/people/piccard/entropy/rawls.html .
Rorty, Richard. (2007). Pragmatism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February
What unique challenges if any do OD practitioners face when dealing with a public sector intervention rather than a private sector one? Explain thoroughly.
Certain concepts of organizational development are common to all organizations, such as the idea that people function differently in groups and the need to motivate individuals to perform their essential organizational functions with transformational as well as purely transactional rewards. But not all organizations are created alike. It is important for organizational development (OD) practitioners to keep this in mind when assisting organizations in the public versus private sector. Public sector entities are not constructed to make a profit but, as their name suggests, exist to serve the needs of the public. They have different accountability structures and often have very different organizational cultures.
In fact, according to Stupak & Moore (1987), one of the first challenges of any organizational development practitioner dealing with a public…
Freedom in the Classroom
The first chapter asks why theory, especially Critical Theory, matters in today's classrooms. The very first chapter essentially sets the stage for the kind of "freedom" that is aimed at achieving in the classroom: freedom from "historical norms" such as marriage being between a man and a woman (Hinchey, 2010, p. 1). Granted, this is just an example of the way ideas become entrenched in society, and Hinchey proceeds to apply this observation to the ways in which schools become bogged down by accepted norms -- such as the use of standardized text books, the division of work into subjects, and the amount of time spent in a class room as opposed to outside of it. The purpose of this chapter is to draw attention to the cultural habits that keep us from questioning conventional attitudes about the way things are done -- especially when it…
Hinchey, P. (2010). Finding Freedom in the Classroom. NY: Peter Lang Publishing.
theorists regarding political stability, the ideas and opinions of Aristotle, Plato, and Thucydides will be mentioned by thoroughly analyzing the viewpoints of these theorists in their books such as: Aristotle's "The Politics" And "Nicomachean Ethics," Plato's "The Republic," and Thucydides "The
Peloponnesian War." The analysis and observations of the viewpoints of these theorists will be included in the paper. The question on which the analysis will be based is as under:
What is the key to political stability, according to Aristotle? Why? Compare Plato or Thucydides' answers to this question.
Political stability is one of the most difficult problem on which many attempts have been made by the government to gain a stable political system so that the people living in the country can have an independent and free life. History and researches show that despite of many attempts the leaders have failed to maintain stable and under controlled political…
Traveling worldwide, ogers participated in negotiating sessions involving disputes between Protestants and Catholics, religious, racial, and ethnic differences in South Africa, racial disputes in the United States, and consumers and health care professionals in several jurisdictions. He was widely recognized as being successful at resolving serious differences in most of these difference scenarios.
Carl ogers was born and raised in the United States but Carl Jung was born and raised in Switzerland. While ogers was an extroverted, personable individual, Carl Jung was a highly introverted individual who preferred a solitary life. By his own admission, Jung was happiest when he was left alone with his thoughts (Wehr, 2001).
Jung academic background was founded in the field of medicine. While attending medical school, Jung developed an interest in spirituality and it was this interest that eventually led to his becoming interested in psychiatry as a specialty. As part of his graduation…
Jung, C.G. (1968). Man and His Symbols. New York: Dell.
Kirschenbaum, H. (2008). Life and Work of Carl Rogers. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Rogers, C. (1979). The Foundations of the Person-Centered Approach. La Jolla, CA: Centrre for Studies of the Person.
Wehr, G. (2001). Jung: A Biography. Boston: Shambhala.
influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. Firstly, the paper provides the historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas. Secondly, the paper provides a summary of their original theory. Thirdly, the paper provides a discussion of how the model has been critiqued and altered as new research has emerged. Lastly, the paper delves into the theory's current usage/popularity within criminology.
The historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas
There is huge contribution of influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. As a matter of fact, He is considered one of the most significant sociologists of modern times. Moreover, he has also made large number of contributions to the criminology field. Undoubtedly, Merton influenced various fields of science, humanities, law, political theories, economics and anthropology (Cole, 2004, p.37). Merton's introduced numerous concepts like anomie, deviant behavior, self-fulfilling prophecy, strain, middle range theory and…
American Sociological Review (2012). Retrieved January 29, 2014 from http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/histcomp/index-merton.html
Bernanke, Ben, S. (1995) 'The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach', Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 27 February.
Bivens, T. (2004). Robert K. Merton Draft. Florida State University Publications
Calhoun, C. (2003). Remembering Robert K. Merton. Papers in Honor of Robert K. Merton. 175-220. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
ut if they can manage to terminate the temporary relationship, they will become more emotionally balanced and mature persons (Young).
Why Choose the Peplau Model
oth its interpersonal theory and nursing process have a concrete sequence of use and focus on the therapeutic relationship (Current Nursing, 2012). oth utilize appropriate problem-solving techniques, which aim in common at filling the client's needs. oth use observation and communication as well as recording as basic tools, which are already used in nursing care. The four phases inter-relate and inter-weave the varying components of each phase. The Theory or model is applicable to endeavors, which follow the concepts of client, health, environment and nursing. It proceeds in a logical and systematic manner in viewing and processing nursing situations. Its generalizability rests in its simplicity in the logical progression of the partnership. It has produced testable hypotheses. It can be used in psychiatric patients. It…
Current Nursing (2012). Theory of interpersonal relation. Current: Current Nursing.
Retrieved on March 30, 2012 from http://www.currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/interpersonal_theory.html
Landry, a, (2009). Hildegard Peplau: interpersonal relations theorist. Suite 101:
Suite 101.net. Retrieved on March 30, 2012 from http://www.alicelandry.suite101.com/hildegard-peplau
MID ANGE THEOY OF SPIITUAL WELL BEING
Middle ange Theory of Spiritual Well Being in Illness
Nurse meta-theorists have recently been very much concerned about the different seasons of the patient's life, which has supported and promoted the development of middle range theories in the field of nursing. This is due to the reason that these theories focus on the specific health and illness issues instead of discussing the general issues. These specific health and illness issues focused in the mid range theories are extremely important for the practicing nurses as they spotlight on the particular problem and its solution.
History of Theory Development in Nursing
The practicing nurses started incorporating the nursing theories into their research and practically applying them to real situations during 1970s and 1980s. Majority of the early nursing theories fall in the category of grand theories of nursing because the concepts that described…
Barss, K. (2012). T.R.U.S.T: An affirming model for inclusive spiritual care. Journal of Holistic
Nursing. 30(1). 23-35.
Burkhart, L and Hogan, N. (2008). An Experiential Theory of Spiritual Care in Nursing Practice.
Qualitative Health Research, 18 (7), 929-940.
According to Newman, nurses practicing within this theory find their own lives are enhanced and transformed (Neill, 2002). Her beliefs and consciousness-centered approach were born from her early nursing experiences involving rehabilitation patients (Weingourt, 1998). She came to understand the altered connection between the concept of time for her patients and their limited mobility. For most of her patients, the day would seem to drag along despite the fact that their rehabilitation sessions were relatively short. Her conclusion was that these patients had an altered sense of reality. This eventually sparked her theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness (HEC).
Looking at the practice of nursing through a more metaphysical lens, the HEC posits that there is a universal and expanding consciousness in which all humans participate -- the healthy, the recuperating, and the incurably ill. Newman believed this was a natural law just as real as the law of gravity…
Margaret Newman and James Fowler both focus their attention on the larger, more spiritual context of human experience and the implication this has in one's healing. There are commonalities that exist between the philosophies of both theorists: human reasoning, the ability to adopt to another's perspective, social awareness, and human formation of a world-view. Newman offers the nurse-patient relationship can be enhanced if it is viewed as a caring partnership. HEC does not really pretend to be a quick fix or direct nursing intervention; instead, it presents an opportunity to assist the sick by recognizing patterns and using this intelligence to expand a patient's consciousness, self-care, and comfort (Awa & Yamashita, 2008).
Fowler concerns himself more with faith as a lens through which we see the world. His ideas about faith over the span of one's lifetime can be particularly beneficial when working with elderly populations. Older, Stage 5 and 6 adults may begin to reincorporate earlier religious beliefs and traditions that were previously discarded (Fowler, 2004). This could be due to physical limitations or also used as a self-healing mechanism to avoid feelings of helplessness or abandonment. A nurse who is attentive can acknowledge this mature spirituality as being helpful to a patient attempting to find meaning in his or her illness.
In sum, both theories/frameworks have implications for the practice of nursing. A theory, by definition, is a group of related concepts that propose action that guide practice. From Margaret Newman and even non-nursing theorist James Fowler we see how using a systematic view of inter-relationships between concepts of spirituality, higher consciousness, caring and empathy can be useful for describing, explaining, predicting, and prescribing nursing interventions that make a difference in the lives of patients. Both philosophies offer insight that can create better nurses.
Jomini and Clausewitz
Over the years, many doctrines have seen the light regarding military doctrine. While some of these theories have worked well in tandem, others have diverged and suggested different approaches to explaining the various arts and crafts related to war. Two such theorists include Antoine Henri Baron De Jomini and Carl Don Clausewitz. Although most investigators focus on the fundamental differences between the theories of these authors, it is also possible to recognize them as having co-existed in the historical process and the nature of military doctrine. One might therefore promote the view that Jomini and Clausewitz coexist in many modern military strategies; this has been proven throughout history during the tactical, operational, and strategic levels of war.
Baron De Jomini and the physical aspects of war.
Jomini has placed emphasis on the principals and applications dominating at the operational and tactical levels of war. He mentions, for…
Baron De Jomini, Antoine Henri. 1862. The Art of War. J.B. Lippincott & Company.
Von Clausewitz, Carl. 1906. On War. Project Gutenberg
Nursing Timeline Week 2 • Create a 700- 1,050-word timeline paper historical development nursing science, starting Florence Nightingale continuing present. • Format timeline, word count assignment requirements met
Historical development of nursing timeline
The foundation of modern nursing. Before, nursing was largely the profession of disreputable people and not exclusively female. Based on her experiences during the Crimean War, Florence Nightingale strove to make it a respectable profession with uniform, professional standards. Her approach reduced the death toll in hospitals by 2/3rds during the Crimean War (Florence Nightingale, 2012, Biography: 1). She established the Nightingale Training School and wrote her foundational Notes on Nursing (Florence Nightingale, 2012, Biography: 2-3). Nightingale's canons of nursing compromised everything from an emphasis on proper sanitation to how the nurse should socially interact with the patient.
1880: Famed Civil War nurse Clara Barton founds the American ed Cross.
1909. Hildegard Peplau is born. Heavily influenced…
Betty Neuman's Systems Theory, 2012, Current Nursing. Retrieved:
Clara Barton. (2012). The Civil War. Retrieved: http://www.civilwarhome.com/bartonbio.htm
Doctor of Philosophy. (2012). School of Nursing. Retrieved:
diverse population nurses must attend to, the concept of 'transcultural' nursing is important to understand. Instead of viewing health as a universal concept, transcultural nursing attempts to understand the conceptual building blocks of the nursing profession as cultural products that are socially-constructed. It strives to understand the similarities and differences between different health attitudes and practices (Leininger 1991). First developed by Madeline Leininger, transcultural nursing is founded upon the idea that the "health care providers need to be flexible in the design of programs, policies, and services to meet the needs and concerns of the culturally diverse population, groups that are likely to be encountered" (Transcultural nursing, 2012, Current Nursing).
Nurses must be culturally astute and adapt their practices to patient's cultural needs as well as to physical needs. This concept has been somewhat controversial within the nursing profession given that Western medicine's emphasis on preserving life and optimizing treatment…
Adult obesity facts. (2013).CDC. Retrieved: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html
Dorothea Orem's self-care deficit theory. (2012). Nursing Theories. Retrieved:
Milligan, F. (2008) Child obesity 2: recommended strategies and interventions. Nursing Times;
And if one can work through and delineate the antecedents and the if the group can see behavior as change-worthy, the process of effecting change can then be determined. She saw that the most consistent hope for progress, despite the most troubled situation, is the truly intellectual person who is educated lifelong and constantly involved in the problems and growth of the field. Hildegard Peplaus, first of all, that person and that is how she tried to shape the young ones entering her field. She did not share the aspirations of the fortunate who filled the ranks of the profession in her time. She, instead, saw that nursing and the medical professions as sharing common goals and services, but each with a different and separate health mission in addressing and meeting the health needs of the people. She never felt uncertainty in identifying with her profession and in her sturdy…
Callaway, B. (1999). In Memoriam. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Nursing. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
Clarke, a.R. (1999). Remembering Hldegard E. Peplau. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
Gregg, D.F. (1999).Hildegard E. Peplau: Her Contributions. Perspectives of Psychiatric Care
Holden, M.A. (1999). Hildegard Peplau. Perspectives of Psychiatric Care
Butler believes that gender differences stem from the cultural practice of emulating gender biased acts over a long period of time. Thus, the male may act possessive over the female because that what has been reproduced within his own culture time and time again. This is then a more culturally-based philosophy, with less reliance on the psychology of the isolated individual.
Within the context of social work, both theorists also take individual stances. Chodorow believes that the worker should take a more passive stance to their client, based on Freud's techniques first seen in psychoanalysis. Thus, social workers use empathy to tune into the subconscious of the client, and in a very passive and non-threatening way that the client may not even consciously realize. With threats minimized in the context of the session, the social worker can then get a better and unbiased understanding of the client. Butler presents the…
The Public Sphere
Jurgen Habermas and the "Public Sphere"
The idea that the continuum of people in a geographical space make up some sort of cohesive unit has been championed since the beginning of known history. Humans need the protection of groups because only then does brain power outweigh the otherwise immense power of fang and claw. This seems to be an evolutionary imperative that remains strong within people. However, as people gather together, they begin to realize that their close proximity also means that they have the power to decide how they will live as a community, and that every person can influence that through the power of voice. Every person has the ability to state and opinion, no matter how inane it may seem to the others of the group. Teacher's will often say that there are no dumb questions, and within a social group, there…
Anderson, B. (2006). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.
Benkler, Y. (2006). The wealth of networks: How social production transforms markets and freedom. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Bourdieu, P. (2005). The political field, the social science field, and the journalistic field. In. R. Benson & E. Neveu (Eds.), Bourdieu and the Journalistic Field. (pp. 29-47). Cambridge: Polity Press..
Habermas, J. (1991). The public sphere. In C. Mukerji & M. Schudson (Eds.)., Rethinking popular culture (pp. 398-404). Berkley, CA: University of California Press.
Piaget's And Bruner's Theories For Cognitive Development
Cognitive theory, to some extent, is complex and multipart proposition. It puts forward the idea that development in humans is a function of an interaction with their upbringing, surroundings and individual understanding and experiences. Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner are the two great theorists who constructed cognitive theories (William). Both theories have some similarities and differences which would be discussed in the paper.
Piaget's and Bruner's Cognitive Theories: Similarities and Differences
According to Piaget, the cognitive development of a child depends on four factors. These are genetic maturation, familiarity with the physical environment, understanding of the social environment and equilibration. His cognitive theory also gives an explanation of the four stages of cognitive development. The Sensory Motor Stage (Birth -- 2 years). During this stage, children act impulsively. They demonstrate an egocentric behavior and are indifferent to the needs, wants and interests of…
Cherry G. 2004. An Overview of Jerome Brunner His Theory of Constructivism. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Class_Websites/761_Spring_04/Assets/course_docs/ID_Theory_Reps_Sp04/Bruner-Cherry.pdf [Accessed 26 May 2012].
Seta, C.E., Seta, J., Paulus, P., & Andrews, E.A. 2001. Study Guide for Psychology, Third Canadian edition, by Baron, R., Earhard, B., & Ozier, M. Toronto, ON: Pearson Education Canada Inc. [Print].
William, R.T. Social Cognitive Theories of Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner., [Online]. 41, 117-123. Available at: http://www.takamatsu-u.ac.jp/library/06_gakunaisyupan/kiyo/no41/41_117-123_williams.pdf [Accessed 26 May 2012].
Are Organizations Likely to Find Better Solutions to Information Overload Through Changes to Their Technical or Social Systems?
In various forms, we human beings are suffering from information overload. The term "Information Overload" clicks one sentence in our minds and that is "Too Much Information." The information theorists have defined typologies that distinguish between data, information and knowledge. Most organizations are unable to identify relevant material on timely basis; this requires management through information tools. This essay is based on an analysis whether better solutions to information overload can be achieved through changes to organizations' social systems or technical systems- or both? This essay also explains how a "socio-technical" perspective involving joint consideration of both systems together may be better than dealing with either system by itself.
Are Organizations Likely to Find Better Solutions to Information Overload Through Changes to Their Technical or Social Systems?
The term "Information Overload"…
Bell, B.K. (2000, February). The Role of Email on Information Overload in Organizational Managers. Retrieved July 26, 2012 from http://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1029&context=fac_dis
Edmunds, A., & Morris, A. (2000). The Problem of Information Overload in Business Organizations: A Review of the Literature. International Journal of Information Management, 20, 17-28.
Figure from www.crmbuyer.com. (2009, April 16). Drowning in Data: Web Analytics and Information Overload. Retrieved July 26, 2012 from http://www.crmbuyer.com/story/66810.html .
Heylighen, F. (2002, April 12). Complexity and Information Overload in Society: Why Increasing Efficiency Leads to Decreasing Control. The Information Society. Retrieved July 26, 2012 from http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/Papers/Info-Overload.pdf.
At school, he struggled with math academically, and occasionally had conflicts with his teachers. These conflicts were not characterized by anger, but at his teacher's frustration at what they saw as his lack of attentiveness and lack of class participation. He was often described (and still is) as quiet and reserved by teachers, friends, and family. He recalls resenting going to school many years, and did not get much positive reinforcement in terms of his academic intelligence. Although his academic performance was adequate, he says he did not feel particularly intelligent. This began to change in junior high, when his performance in sports grew stronger after a growth spurt. The growth spurt, the esteem this garnered him on the team and at school translated into a greater sense of self-worth in the classroom, and greater engagement and confidence when dealing with others. For the first time he succeeded in school,…
Cramer, Craig, Bernadette Flynn, & Ann LaFave. (1997). Erikson's stage 4: Latency.
Introduction to Stages. Erikson homepage. Retrieved 8 Nov 2008 at http://web.cortland.edu/andersmd/ERIK/stage4.HTML
oy Adaptation Theory
Callista oy: Adaptation Theory
Not every idea is perfect and neither is any person, so the propagation of theoretical stances proliferate. In the field of nursing it makes sense that there would be theories which were designed to advance the fields of care, patient psychology and of medicine's effect on the body, but care, the essence of nursing seems the most crucial. Care theories have been advanced providing guidance for every facet of the practice, and the concept of the oy adaptive model is just one of the many. This essay will examine the oy adaptive theory from every angle in an attempt to recognize its place in nursing.
"Sister Callista oy was born in 1939 in Los Angeles, CA" (Masters, 2011). This seems to be where all of the discussions of Ms. oy begin, and it tells the researcher three crucial items about the…
Basavanthappa, B.T. (2007). Nursing theories. New Delhi: Japee Brothers Publishing.
Butts, J.B., & rich, K.L. (2010). Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Chesnay, M.D. (2007). Caring for the vulnerable: Perspectives in nursing theory, practice, and research. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Current Nursing. (2010). Roy's adaptation model. Retrieved from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Roy_adaptation_model.html
Sister Callista oy Theory
At the age of 14 years old, Callista oy had already started working in large general hospital where she moved from being a pantry, to maid to the nurse's maid. After considerations, Callista decided to join the Sisters of Saint Joseph Carondelet where she became a member for more that 40 years of her entire life. She joined college and pursued liberal arts program where she successfully completed a program in Bachelor of Arts majoring in nursing at Mount St. Mary's College in Los Angeles (The Trustees of Boston College, 2013).
She further pursed successfully her masters in Sociology and a doctorate in sociology as well both at University of California (Jones & Barlett, 2013). It was at this point that oy wanted to fuse both sociological approach and nursing approach to the nursing care of the patients. She is accredited for coming up with and…
Current Nursing, (2012). Application of Roy's Adaptation Model (RAM). Retrieved September 11, 2013 from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/application_Roy%27s_adaptation_model.html
Gonzalo, (2011). Theoretical Foundations of Nursing. Retrieved September 11, 2013 from http://nursingtheories.weebly.com/sister-callista-roy.html
Jones & Barlett, (2013). Nursing Theories: A Framework for Professional Practice. Retrieved September 11, 2013 from http://samples.jbpub.com/9781449626013/72376_CH10_Masters.pdf
The Trustees of Boston College, (2013). Sr. Callista Roy, Ph.D., RN, FAAN Retrieved September 11, 2013 from http://www.bc.edu/schools/son/faculty/featured/theorist.html
Work - Family Conflict
It has been the traditional division of labor between men and women that men would be the bread -earners of family and that women would cater to managing the household responsibilities as women have to take care of children. The work within the family was extended and decreased accordingly since it was an unpaid labor. ut as developments took place women started to work outside their homes. As a result of both working parents the family and work conflict started to emerge. As a result the families of the present age are being affected by several responsibilities of work, family and community on individuals.
The conflict between work and family is due to the depression, stress and anxiety, which occur as a result of the divergent responsibilities. These divergent responsibilities make it extremely difficult in taking care of these responsibilities. Developmental Psychologists and work-family sociologists have…
Frone, Michael R., Yardley, John K. And Markel, Karen S. 1997 Developing and testing an integrative model of the work-family interface. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50(2): 145-167.
Frone, M.R., Russell, M., & Cooper, M.L. (1992). Antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflict: Testing a model of the work-family interface. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 65-78.
Kahn, R.L., Wolfe, D.M., Quinn, R.P., Snoek, J.D., & Rosenthal, R.A. (1964). Organizational stress. New York: Wiley.
Greenhaus, J.H., & Beutell, N.J. (1985). Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Academy of Management review, 10, 76-88.
ar in Iraq: An Application of Conflict Theory
The recent war with Iraq has been on the minds of people all across the world since well before it started. Many are worried that the United States will be seen as being too controlling, and that it should let the Iraqi people work out their own problems. Others, who are concerned about the threat of terrorist activity in this country and others, stick with the belief that the United States was right in their attempt to remove Saddam Hussein from power.
Regardless of which opinion one holds, there are theorists, both classical and modern, who have strong views on war. This is largely due to conflict theory, which is that life is largely characterized more by conflict that it is by consensus. Those who uphold this theory have different ways of looking at it, and the purpose of this paper is…
Collins, Randall. "Conflict Sociology." New York: Academic Press, 1974. 56-61.
Conflict. 2003. 10 April 2003 http://www.sunflower.com/~syber/sociology/html/conflict.html.
Dugger, William M., & Howard J. Sherman. "Institutional and Marxist theories of evolution." Journal of Economic Issues, 31 (1997): 991-210.
Introduction to sociological theory. 2003. 10 April 2003 http://www.dustbunny.fsnet.co.uk/Soci1.htm .
As the roles and functions of religions and their leaders changed according to the changing needs of the communities they served, they provided both stability in times of change as well as the leadership to effect changes as necessary.
Of the three theorists, Marx appears to include the most negative elements in his considerations of religion. It must also be noted however that Marx places more focus on elements other than religion, whereas the other two theorists study religion in itself as it connects with society and its needs. Marx instead viewed religion as one of the elements that could be detrimental in effecting social change when necessary. Durkheim in turn places greater emphasis on the spiritual and esoteric quality of religion than the others, but nevertheless also places it within the context of a society that creates their gods as reflections of themselves. Weber is the most practical of…
Cox, Judy. An Introduction to Marx's Theory of Alienation. International Socialism, Issue 79, July 1998. http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/isj79/cox.htm
Deflem, Mathieu. Max Weber (1864-1920): The Rationalization of Society. Sept 2004. http://www.cas.sc.edu/socy/faculty/deflem/zClassics.htm
Dunman, L. Joe. Emile Durkheim: The Division of Labor. 2003. http://durkheim.itgo.com/divisionoflabor.html
Townsley, Jeramy. Marx, Weber and Durkheim on Religion. Aug. 2004. http://www.jeramyt.org/papers/sociology-of-religion.html
LABO UNIONS IN THE U.S.: Evaluation of Social Theory as Applied to the Concept of Organized Labor
CHAPTE IN BIEF INTODUCTION history of labor unions, their composition and development in the U.S. over time, discussion of the "building blocks" of such organizations
ELEVANCE OF LABO UNIONS ACCODING TO SOCIAL THEOISTS discussion of the relevance of labor unions according to the following social theorists: Durkheim, Simmel, Weber and Marx. Why labor unions are formed according to each of the social theorists; the idea of labor unions as a positive or negative force; labor unions as collective representatives of society; labor unions as reflective of society's need to collectively gather; who is represented by labor unions; economic factors in labor gatherings (Marx, on the idea that labor unions are created to promote the economic interests of employees within organizations)
Labor unions were created for a variety of reasons, in part to…
Hurst, Charles E. Living Theory. The Application of Classical Social Theory to Contemporary Life. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2000.
Schuster, Frederick. Human Resource Management. Reston: Reston Publishing
Turner, Jonathan; Beeghley, Leonard; Powers, Charles. The Emergence of Social
Theoretical Foundations of Nursing:
Nursing can be described as a science and practice that enlarges adaptive capabilities and improves the transformation of an individual and the environment. This profession focuses on promoting health, improving the quality of life, and facilitating dying with dignity. The nursing profession has certain theoretical foundations that govern the nurses in promoting adaptation for individuals and groups. These theoretical foundations include theories, theory integration, reflection, research and practice, and assimilation.
Grand Nursing Theory:
There are several grand nursing theories that were developed by various theorists including the Science of Unitary Human Beings by Martha ogers, Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model, and Systems Model by Betty Neuman. Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model is based on the consideration of the human being as an open system. She argues that the system reacts to environmental stimuli via cognator and regulator coping techniques for individuals. On the other hand, the…
American Sentinel (2012). 5 Steps for Nurses to Stay Updated with Health Care Changes.
Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.nursetogether.com/5-steps-for-nurses-to-stay-updated-with-health-care-changes
Andershed, B. & Olsson, K. (2009). Review of Research Related to Kristen Swanson's Middle-range Theory of Caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 598-610.
"Application of Theory in Nursing Process." (2012, January 28). Nursing Theories: A
When children are given the option between a reward they would like and the internal desire to learn something, most children would rather have the reward. That is also true of many adults, whether they are in an educational setting or a business setting. Still, that does not mean that intrinsic interest cannot come along with extrinsic reward, or that operant theory is completely wrong. Many educators mix operant theory with cognitive theory in an effort to provide those with different learning styles more of an opportunity to learn and develop. This helps to reach the largest number of students per educator, improving the overall educational goal.
ognitive Theory of Learning
The cognitive theory of learning has been part of education since the late 1920's, when a Gestalt psychologist focused on the issue of Gestalt teaching and learning, and what that could offer to students who were not learning…
Carton, J.S. (1996). The differential effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation: A comparison of cognitive evaluation theory and operant theory. The Behavior Analyst, 19, 237-255.
Cavalier, a.R., Ferretti, R.P., & Hodges, a.E. (1997). Self-management within a classroom token economy for students with learning disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18, 167-178.
Davidson, P., & Bucher, B. (1978). Intrinsic interest and extrinsic reward: The effects of a continuing token program on continuing nonconstrained preference. Behavior Therapy, 9, 222-234.
76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…
Impotantly, he builds his case on the
sociological theoies of those who peceded him. To this extent, he
emaks at one junctue, "as Giddens (1984) states, 'institutions by
definition ae the moe enduing featues of social life... giving solidity
to social systems acoss time and space.' Institutions exhibit these
popeties because of the pocess set in motion by egulative , nomative,
and cultual cognitive elements." (Scott, 1) In othe wods, the
implications of the institution ae essentially ecipocal. It is only
ational that popety and pocess should exist within the context of a
cycle. The human aspects of an institution, whethe it be a sustained
cultual goup such as a global eligious faith o a copoation with a
centuy of oganizational development behind it, thee ae aspects of
society which ae going to inevitably impact the ways the people behave.
Fo instance, with the adoption of Civil Rights in the…
references throughout his discussion will ultimately remove many of the
stigmas and simultaneous obstacles by which minority groups can hope to
This example reflect the fact that the concept of the institution is
a distinctly human one which has taken on a systems-level proportion based
on its permanence, its permeation and its power. As a result,
institutional property and process are engaged in a constant exchange, with
human interactants functions as the grease in the gears.
For example, Tocqueville was able to explain 18th century European aristocrat behavior by looking at social consequences. Like Tocqueville, Marx believed that they could explain individual actions by looking at subconscious class interests. Frey has demonstrated that people will accept individually negative outcomes, if they have positive group benefits.
Nietzsche believed that, while conscious of class interests, individual actions and beliefs should be viewed from an individual perspective, since they are motivated by the positive consequences to the individual actor. In discussing his theory of bounded rationality, Simon seemed to combine elements from the different theorist, by showing how social actions include cognitive dimensions.
3. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of human behavior?
Again, the author does not make it clear how he feels human actions and other forms of human behavior are different. Instead, he explains how various theorists have attempted to differentiate human…