Theorists Essays (Examples)

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Theorist in the Field of Nursing There

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98478957


In the field of Nursing there are those individuals who had a major impact upon the way care is provided. One such person is Dorthea Orem. She developed a critical care theory that redefined the industry. To fully understand these ideas requires studying Orem's Self-Care Theory / Theoretical Framework and analyzing the different components of this approach. Together, these elements will offer specific insights about how these principals can be utilized in a modern health care environment.

Development of Orem's Self-Care Theory and Theoretical Framework

The development of Orem's Self-Care Theory was based upon experiences that Dorthea Orem would have in the real world. What happened was her positions in government gave her the ability to see the potential impact of nursing and the challenges of many individuals in the field. This took place between 1949 and 1980. During this time is when Orem was serving on the Indiana…… [Read More]


Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory. (2011). Nursing Theory. Retrieved from: 

Hartweg, D. (1991). Self-Care Deficit Theory. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
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Realist Liberal Critical Theorist

Words: 1627 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68801795

ealist, Liberal, Critical Theorist

ousseau: ealist, Liberal, Critical Theorist?

What is ousseau's real Philosophical identity?

There are several questions and ideas to be addressed and analyzed in this paper. One: Is Jean-Jacques ousseau a realist -- can it be said from the assigned essay, without equivocation that his views follow those of classic realism? (ealism: the doctrine that puts forth the idea that universals only exist outside one's mind; the insistence that all things in the empirical world should be explained in terms of the "real world" and not in terms of abstractions or perceptions.)

Based on this essay, is ousseau a liberal in the tradition sense -- not today's "liberal" in the popular juxtaposition of "liberal" and "conservative" -- and do his views follow that thread throughout his extensive narrative? (Liberalism: a moral philosophy that emphasizes religious toleration, personal freedom, governments being led by consent of the governed, economic…… [Read More]


Froese, Katrin. "Beyond Liberalism: the moral community of Rousseau's social

Contract." Canadian Journal of Political Science 34 (2001): 579-581.

Hall, Cheryl. "Reason, passion, and politics in Rousseau." Polity 34 (2001): 69-89.

Merriman-Webster. "Realism" and "Liberalism." 30 Nov. 2004.
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Sociology Theorist From What I

Words: 1072 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91142729

The third reason that I chose Marx is the apparently cyclical nature of change and restriction. The last century has seen some tremendous social changes. The 1960s Civil ights Movement and the Sexual evolution changed the face of modern America. However, there seems to have been a pendulum swing back to more restrictive behavior. It is now considered more appropriate to be openly sexist and racist than it was in the 1980s. In fact, propaganda has promoted the idea of the white, middle-class, Christian male as being the target of discrimination, even though this group still maintains almost all of the status-related privilege that it had prior to either of those movements, still getting more opportunities and greater benefits, as a group, than racial minorities, women, or religious minorities. One example of this is a chain e-mail I received that said something along the lines of "Dear God, why is…… [Read More]


Kreis, S. (2008). Karl Marx, 1818-1883. Retrieved March 2, 2012 from the History Guide


Vissing, Y. (2011). An introduction to sociology: Ashford University discovery series. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Wolff, J. (2010). Karl Marx. Retrieved March 2, 2012 from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy website:
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Marxist or Neo-Marxist Research Theorist Theory Summary

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70523138

arxist or Neo-arxist Research


Theory Summary

Critique of Theory

ax Weber

According to ax Weber the state is a special entity that possesses a monopoly on the legitimate use of violence. Weber believes politics is a required activity of government used in order to influence and control the relative distribution of force and power in the country.

Weber wrote of three main types of authority and political leadership domination that is present in society. These three types are charismatic, traditional and legal domination.

Weber also developed a theory of stratification where he explained and used such ideas as class, status, and party. According to his theory class is determined by an individual's economic situation. The notion of status is similar to prestige and honor. And the main purpose of parties is to gain domination in certain spheres of life. Like Weber, arx saw society as the struggle for class…… [Read More]

Mao Zedong

Marxism identifies only 2 types of production, Two types of production can be used, human and material. These two aspects have interrelation and they depend on each other. However, Mao tried to prove that such an interrelation is not essential. In his opinion both types of production should be included in the economic plan. He also took care and observed the process of population growth. Initially, China's post-1949 leaders were ideologically disposed to view a large population as an asset. Mao said an army of people is invincible. During Mao's rule, from 1949 to 1976, China's population increased from around 550 to over 900 million people. Mao believed that family planning should be integrated as a part of the overall plan for the development of the national economy, and that people should learn how to manage material production and how to manage themselves.

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Nursing Theory and Theorist Dynamic Nurse Patient Relationship Ida Jean Orlando

Words: 1571 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16641702

Ido Jean Orlando and analyzes how her contribution has impacted the nursing profession. It has 3 sources.

The field of nursing requires the utmost care on the part of nurses if they are to understand their patients. Nurses are an integral part of the medical care provision because they provide patients both physical and emotional care. Even doctors cannot succeed in reaching the level of emotional contact that nurses can achieve with their patients. According to Ida Jean Orlando, this kind of close relationship is dependent on the communication that nurses establish with the patients. This communication, whether verbal or non-verbal, plays a vital role in dealing out the most appropriate treatment as quickly as possible. Ida Jean Orlando's The Dynamic Nurse-Patient Relationship: Function, Process, and Principles, is a book that has had an immense impact on the field of nursing, popularizing Orlando's theory.

The Theorist:

Ida Jean Orlando was…… [Read More]


Lego, S. (1999) One-to-One Nurse-Patient Relationship. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care.

Ida Jean Orlando Theorist (Accessed on 3-11-2003)

Ida Jean Orlando Biography (2003)
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Two Major Theorist in Corporate Social Responsibility

Words: 1590 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65900040

Corporate ocial Responsibility: Bowen and Carroll

Howard R. Bowen was the founder of the concept of corporate social responsibility. In his book "ocial Responsibility of the Businessman," Bowen argued that business was a major force that touched the lives of numerous individuals. ince business was inextricably and continuously involved in processes of judgment and decision-making, many of their proposals and assertions touched the lives of vast numbers of citizens. These included not only employees of the firm but also their families, acquaintances, and so forth. The larger the firm, therefore, the more corporate responsibility, accordingly the industry had in regards to the decisions that it formulated. As Bowen asked: "What responsibilities to society may businessmen reasonably be expected to assume?" (p. xi). And he responded:

"It refers to the obligations of businessmen to pursue those policies, to make those decisions, or to follow those lines of action which are desirable…… [Read More]

Sniderman, S. (2011). "Bill & Melinda gates Foundation outlines 7 social good initiatives for 2011"

Whoriskey, P. (Oct. 6, 2011) Record thin on Steve Job's philanthropy. Washington Post.
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Nurse Theorist the Roy Adaption Model

Words: 3386 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64933693

Nursing Theorist: Sr. oy Adaptation Model

The oy Adaptation model for Nursing had its beginning when Sister Callista oy happened to get admitted in the Masters Program of pediatric nursing in the University of California, Los Angeles, in the year 1964. At that time, Sr. Callista was familiar with the idea of 'adaptation' in nursing, and it must be mentioned that Sr. Callista's adviser at that time was Dorothy E. Johnson, who believed firmly in the need to define nursing as a means of focusing the development of knowledge, for the practice of nursing. When Sr. Callista oy started working with children in the pediatric ward of the hospital, she was quite impressed with the basic resiliency of the small children who had been admitted into the wards for treatment. This was why when the first seminar in pediatric nursing was called for; Sr. Callista oy proposed that the basic…… [Read More]


"Callista Roy's Adaptation Model" Retrieved From Accessed 28 October, 2005

'Case Study" Retrieved From Accessed 28 October, 2005
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Personality Theorist Isabel Briggs Myers

Words: 2424 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75063505

Her wellness did not allow participation in the second that took place in 1977; however Isabel Myers took pleasure in the other 2 extensively, though sometimes she would be dismayed at the different ways that the analysts treated her information. She understood that the intuitive 'kind' or personality indexes will need to alter the MBTI [instrument] as that is in their nature but she hoped that prior to the time when they altered it, they will initially attempt to comprehend exactly what had been done as the foundation of the theory because her reasons for choosing a certain structure were logical and justified. In 1975, publication of the Indicator was presumed by CPP, Inc. For the first time, the MBTI [instrument] was readily available as an instrument prepared for use in assisting individuals (Kirby and Myers, 2000).

In the last months of her life, when she invested much time sleeping…… [Read More]


Bowdon, T.B. (2010). 50 Psychology Classics. Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

Drucker, C.T. (2007). Once Upon a Type: Mythological Dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. ProQuest Publications.

Kirby, L.K. And Myers, K.D. (2000). Introduction to Type. Cpp Publications.

Myers, I.B. (1962). The Myers-Briggs type indicator. Consulting Psychologists Press.
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Kurt Lewin The Theorist

Words: 2984 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81553193

Kurt Lewin. The influence of his theories on the field of psychology and obstacles faced by social psychologists are also dealt with. Lastly, a personal evaluation of how Lewin's theories may be applicable to daily life is included. The paper discusses and reviews all theories founded and furthered by Lewin in his career as psychologist and researcher. It allows scope for assessment and criticism, followed by response.

Theorist Kurt Lewin (1890 -- 1947) can be counted among the most prominent psychologists of his time. His works laid the groundwork for organizational development and are even now regarded as pivotal to the field. It has been aptly stated that almost no questions can be raised with regards to Kurt Lewin being the intellectual founder of modern applied behavioral science theories, as well as planned change and action research. Lewin's groundbreaking planned-change research works on different styles of leadership. Many of his…… [Read More]


Ash, M.G. (1992). Cultural contexts and scientific change in psychology: Kurt Lewin in Iowa. American Psychologist, 47(2), 198-207. doi:

Written by Ash, this article follows Kurt Lewin's partial biography after his move to America from Germany in 1933. While working for Iowa Child Welfare Research Station, Lewin had to encounter several challenges. Lewin attempted to reproduce his scientific group, like the one he had established in Germany. Unable to accomplish this, Lewin's tactic changed, and he adapted himself to the new world. He transferred his life stories to his cultural- change adaptation theories, formulated successful research systems and transformed the bases of psychology in the U.S.

Burnes, B., & Cooke, B. (2013). Kurt Lewin's Field Theory: A Review and Re-evaluation. International journal of management reviews, 15(4), 408-425.

This work describes field theory, with sufficient examples. A pedestal to evaluate all arguments regarding it is granted to the author. This theory is reviewed, along with other facts. Finally, re-evaluation is carried out in the end.
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Prince Is the Political Theorist

Words: 1715 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3706245

Knowing the character of the principality the prince had acquired, and tailoring his use of repression and forms of coercion, and the degree, was essential -- a lesson that has proved, one might argue, quite difficult for the United States in its involvement in the Middle East, and its involvement with other territories with long and rich histories that are very different from the history of the relatively young United States.

Machiavelli's own work is inevitably affected by when he wrote, during an age characterized small, divided leadership centers, in one of the most fractious and back-biting of all of the Italian cities. However, although being ruled by his ideal prince may hardly be attractive to a resident of a modern democracy, many of his observations of people during times of war and peace are still useful. His guide can prove helpful as well to a citizen trying to interpret…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Machiavelli, Niccolo. (1513). The Prince. Full text available from the Constitution

Society. Maintained by Jon Roland. Created 10 Jul 1997. Updated 20 Sept 2005. Retrieved 27 Feb 2008 at
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John Rawls Is Presented as a Justice Theorist

Words: 876 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14407748

John Rawls' theory…. In his book A Theory of Justice John Rawls offers readers a "Kantian Interpretation" of his "original position," according to an essay in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SAP). First, a review of Rawls' "original position" will set up the explanation of his Kantian link. Rawls posits (in his "original position") that in understanding his philosophy readers should imagine themselves as "…free and equal" and as willing to agree to "commit themselves to the principles of social and political justice" (SAP, p. 1). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy asserts that the "main distinguishing feature" of Rawls' "original position" is "the veil of ignorance" (SEP, p. 1). hat that means is that in order to be certain there is a total "impartiality of judgment, the parties are deprived of all knowledge of their personal characteristics and social and historical circumstances" (SEP. p. 1).

In the original position (the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brooks, Thom, and Freyenhagen, Fabian. (2005). The Legacy of John Rawls. New York:

Continuum International Publishing Group.

Piccard, Richard. (2003). A Theory of Justice, by John Rawls. Ohio University. Retrieved February 20, 2012, from .

Rorty, Richard. (2007). Pragmatism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February
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Analysis of a Critical Theorist Take on Education

Words: 1853 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62288309

Freedom in the Classroom

The first chapter asks why theory, especially Critical Theory, matters in today's classrooms. The very first chapter essentially sets the stage for the kind of "freedom" that is aimed at achieving in the classroom: freedom from "historical norms" such as marriage being between a man and a woman (Hinchey, 2010, p. 1). Granted, this is just an example of the way ideas become entrenched in society, and Hinchey proceeds to apply this observation to the ways in which schools become bogged down by accepted norms -- such as the use of standardized text books, the division of work into subjects, and the amount of time spent in a class room as opposed to outside of it. The purpose of this chapter is to draw attention to the cultural habits that keep us from questioning conventional attitudes about the way things are done -- especially when it…… [Read More]


Hinchey, P. (2010). Finding Freedom in the Classroom. NY: Peter Lang Publishing.
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Aristotle Plato Thucydides

Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35478847

theorists regarding political stability, the ideas and opinions of Aristotle, Plato, and Thucydides will be mentioned by thoroughly analyzing the viewpoints of these theorists in their books such as: Aristotle's "The Politics" And "Nicomachean Ethics," Plato's "The Republic," and Thucydides "The

Peloponnesian War." The analysis and observations of the viewpoints of these theorists will be included in the paper. The question on which the analysis will be based is as under:

What is the key to political stability, according to Aristotle? Why? Compare Plato or Thucydides' answers to this question.

Political stability is one of the most difficult problem on which many attempts have been made by the government to gain a stable political system so that the people living in the country can have an independent and free life. History and researches show that despite of many attempts the leaders have failed to maintain stable and under controlled political…… [Read More]

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Beyond the Contributions of Sigmund

Words: 1406 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93836076

Traveling worldwide, ogers participated in negotiating sessions involving disputes between Protestants and Catholics, religious, racial, and ethnic differences in South Africa, racial disputes in the United States, and consumers and health care professionals in several jurisdictions. He was widely recognized as being successful at resolving serious differences in most of these difference scenarios.

Carl ogers was born and raised in the United States but Carl Jung was born and raised in Switzerland. While ogers was an extroverted, personable individual, Carl Jung was a highly introverted individual who preferred a solitary life. By his own admission, Jung was happiest when he was left alone with his thoughts (Wehr, 2001).

Jung academic background was founded in the field of medicine. While attending medical school, Jung developed an interest in spirituality and it was this interest that eventually led to his becoming interested in psychiatry as a specialty. As part of his graduation…… [Read More]


Jung, C.G. (1968). Man and His Symbols. New York: Dell.

Kirschenbaum, H. (2008). Life and Work of Carl Rogers. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

Rogers, C. (1979). The Foundations of the Person-Centered Approach. La Jolla, CA: Centrre for Studies of the Person.

Wehr, G. (2001). Jung: A Biography. Boston: Shambhala.
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Influential Theories Related to Deviance by Robert

Words: 3803 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29991827

influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. Firstly, the paper provides the historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas. Secondly, the paper provides a summary of their original theory. Thirdly, the paper provides a discussion of how the model has been critiqued and altered as new research has emerged. Lastly, the paper delves into the theory's current usage/popularity within criminology.

The historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas

There is huge contribution of influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. As a matter of fact, He is considered one of the most significant sociologists of modern times. Moreover, he has also made large number of contributions to the criminology field. Undoubtedly, Merton influenced various fields of science, humanities, law, political theories, economics and anthropology (Cole, 2004, p.37). Merton's introduced numerous concepts like anomie, deviant behavior, self-fulfilling prophecy, strain, middle range theory and…… [Read More]


American Sociological Review (2012). Retrieved January 29, 2014 from 

Bernanke, Ben, S. (1995) 'The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach', Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 27 February.

Bivens, T. (2004). Robert K. Merton Draft. Florida State University Publications

Calhoun, C. (2003). Remembering Robert K. Merton. Papers in Honor of Robert K. Merton. 175-220. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
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Hildegard Peplau the Nightingale of

Words: 1812 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60714060

ut if they can manage to terminate the temporary relationship, they will become more emotionally balanced and mature persons (Young).

Why Choose the Peplau Model

oth its interpersonal theory and nursing process have a concrete sequence of use and focus on the therapeutic relationship (Current Nursing, 2012). oth utilize appropriate problem-solving techniques, which aim in common at filling the client's needs. oth use observation and communication as well as recording as basic tools, which are already used in nursing care. The four phases inter-relate and inter-weave the varying components of each phase. The Theory or model is applicable to endeavors, which follow the concepts of client, health, environment and nursing. It proceeds in a logical and systematic manner in viewing and processing nursing situations. Its generalizability rests in its simplicity in the logical progression of the partnership. It has produced testable hypotheses. It can be used in psychiatric patients. It…… [Read More]


Current Nursing (2012). Theory of interpersonal relation. Current: Current Nursing.

Retrieved on March 30, 2012 from

Landry, a, (2009). Hildegard Peplau: interpersonal relations theorist. Suite 101:

Suite Retrieved on March 30, 2012 from
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Grand or Mid Range Theory

Words: 3055 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90388700

ange Theory


Middle ange Theory of Spiritual Well Being in Illness

Nurse meta-theorists have recently been very much concerned about the different seasons of the patient's life, which has supported and promoted the development of middle range theories in the field of nursing. This is due to the reason that these theories focus on the specific health and illness issues instead of discussing the general issues. These specific health and illness issues focused in the mid range theories are extremely important for the practicing nurses as they spotlight on the particular problem and its solution.

History of Theory Development in Nursing

The practicing nurses started incorporating the nursing theories into their research and practically applying them to real situations during 1970s and 1980s. Majority of the early nursing theories fall in the category of grand theories of nursing because the concepts that described…… [Read More]


Barss, K. (2012). T.R.U.S.T: An affirming model for inclusive spiritual care. Journal of Holistic

Nursing. 30(1). 23-35.

Burkhart, L and Hogan, N. (2008). An Experiential Theory of Spiritual Care in Nursing Practice.

Qualitative Health Research, 18 (7), 929-940.
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Function of Theory in Nursing

Words: 2840 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29582100

According to Newman, nurses practicing within this theory find their own lives are enhanced and transformed (Neill, 2002). Her beliefs and consciousness-centered approach were born from her early nursing experiences involving rehabilitation patients (Weingourt, 1998). She came to understand the altered connection between the concept of time for her patients and their limited mobility. For most of her patients, the day would seem to drag along despite the fact that their rehabilitation sessions were relatively short. Her conclusion was that these patients had an altered sense of reality. This eventually sparked her theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness (HEC).

Looking at the practice of nursing through a more metaphysical lens, the HEC posits that there is a universal and expanding consciousness in which all humans participate -- the healthy, the recuperating, and the incurably ill. Newman believed this was a natural law just as real as the law of gravity…… [Read More]

Margaret Newman and James Fowler both focus their attention on the larger, more spiritual context of human experience and the implication this has in one's healing. There are commonalities that exist between the philosophies of both theorists: human reasoning, the ability to adopt to another's perspective, social awareness, and human formation of a world-view. Newman offers the nurse-patient relationship can be enhanced if it is viewed as a caring partnership. HEC does not really pretend to be a quick fix or direct nursing intervention; instead, it presents an opportunity to assist the sick by recognizing patterns and using this intelligence to expand a patient's consciousness, self-care, and comfort (Awa & Yamashita, 2008).

Fowler concerns himself more with faith as a lens through which we see the world. His ideas about faith over the span of one's lifetime can be particularly beneficial when working with elderly populations. Older, Stage 5 and 6 adults may begin to reincorporate earlier religious beliefs and traditions that were previously discarded (Fowler, 2004). This could be due to physical limitations or also used as a self-healing mechanism to avoid feelings of helplessness or abandonment. A nurse who is attentive can acknowledge this mature spirituality as being helpful to a patient attempting to find meaning in his or her illness.

In sum, both theories/frameworks have implications for the practice of nursing. A theory, by definition, is a group of related concepts that propose action that guide practice. From Margaret Newman and even non-nursing theorist James Fowler we see how using a systematic view of inter-relationships between concepts of spirituality, higher consciousness, caring and empathy can be useful for describing, explaining, predicting, and prescribing nursing interventions that make a difference in the lives of patients. Both philosophies offer insight that can create better nurses.
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Jomini and Clausewitz Over the Years Many

Words: 1538 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3502975

Jomini and Clausewitz

Over the years, many doctrines have seen the light regarding military doctrine. While some of these theories have worked well in tandem, others have diverged and suggested different approaches to explaining the various arts and crafts related to war. Two such theorists include Antoine Henri Baron De Jomini and Carl Don Clausewitz. Although most investigators focus on the fundamental differences between the theories of these authors, it is also possible to recognize them as having co-existed in the historical process and the nature of military doctrine. One might therefore promote the view that Jomini and Clausewitz coexist in many modern military strategies; this has been proven throughout history during the tactical, operational, and strategic levels of war.

Baron De Jomini and the physical aspects of war.

Jomini has placed emphasis on the principals and applications dominating at the operational and tactical levels of war. He mentions, for…… [Read More]


Baron De Jomini, Antoine Henri. 1862. The Art of War. J.B. Lippincott & Company.

Von Clausewitz, Carl. 1906. On War. Project Gutenberg
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Nursing Timeline Week 2 & 8226 Create a

Words: 1221 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23992783

Nursing Timeline Week 2 • Create a 700- 1,050-word timeline paper historical development nursing science, starting Florence Nightingale continuing present. • Format timeline, word count assignment requirements met

Historical development of nursing timeline

The foundation of modern nursing. Before, nursing was largely the profession of disreputable people and not exclusively female. Based on her experiences during the Crimean War, Florence Nightingale strove to make it a respectable profession with uniform, professional standards. Her approach reduced the death toll in hospitals by 2/3rds during the Crimean War (Florence Nightingale, 2012, Biography: 1). She established the Nightingale Training School and wrote her foundational Notes on Nursing (Florence Nightingale, 2012, Biography: 2-3). Nightingale's canons of nursing compromised everything from an emphasis on proper sanitation to how the nurse should socially interact with the patient.

1880: Famed Civil War nurse Clara Barton founds the American ed Cross.

1909. Hildegard Peplau is born. Heavily influenced…… [Read More]


Betty Neuman's Systems Theory, 2012, Current Nursing. Retrieved:

Clara Barton. (2012). The Civil War. Retrieved: 

Doctor of Philosophy. (2012). School of Nursing. Retrieved:
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Theoretical Foundations of Nursing First Half

Words: 2037 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10078501

diverse population nurses must attend to, the concept of 'transcultural' nursing is important to understand. Instead of viewing health as a universal concept, transcultural nursing attempts to understand the conceptual building blocks of the nursing profession as cultural products that are socially-constructed. It strives to understand the similarities and differences between different health attitudes and practices (Leininger 1991). First developed by Madeline Leininger, transcultural nursing is founded upon the idea that the "health care providers need to be flexible in the design of programs, policies, and services to meet the needs and concerns of the culturally diverse population, groups that are likely to be encountered" (Transcultural nursing, 2012, Current Nursing).

Nurses must be culturally astute and adapt their practices to patient's cultural needs as well as to physical needs. This concept has been somewhat controversial within the nursing profession given that Western medicine's emphasis on preserving life and optimizing treatment…… [Read More]


Adult obesity facts. (2013).CDC. Retrieved: 

Dorothea Orem's self-care deficit theory. (2012). Nursing Theories. Retrieved:

Milligan, F. (2008) Child obesity 2: recommended strategies and interventions. Nursing Times;
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Personality Theoretical Perspective of the Approach According

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42749887


Theoretical perspective of the approach

According to behavioral approach human behavior can be learned and unlearned. When a behavior is unlearned, new behaviors are learned in its place. This approach is primarily concerned with observable and measurable aspects of human behavior. Unacceptable behaviors are unlearned. This approach views development as a continuous process in which children play a positive role. This approach can be used in a clinical and educational set up. Behavioral theorists posit that real things are things that can be seen and observed (Bustamante, Howe-Tennant, & Ramo, 1996). The mind, the id, or the unconscious, cannot be seen, but people's actions, how they react, and behave can be seen. From ones behavior inferences can be made about the minds and the brain. However, the mind and the brain are not the primary focus of investigation. It is what people do that is subject of study and…… [Read More]

Pavlov is one of the pioneer behaviorist theorists. He was the first person who came up with the idea of conditioning. According to him behavior was reflexive. It took him some time to distinguish reflexive behaviors from instinctive behaviors. Instinctive behaviors are at times thought to be motivated. An animal has to hungry, be sexually aroused, or have nest building hormones before the instinctive behaviors can occur (SparkNotes, 2013). Pavlov averred that there was no basis for distinguishing between reflexes and reflexive behaviors. Pavlov was more concerned with the nervous system and to be specific the cerebral cortex. Pavlov thought that learning of elicited responses in animals and conceptual behaviors in humans was due to mechanisms of classical conditioning. This has thus been proved wrong (SparkNotes, 2013). None the less, his ideas were one of the greatest ideas of our culture.

John B. Watson is considered one of the most colorful personalities in realms of psychology. He was behaviorism's chief spokesman and protagonist. He believed that mechanism had a thing in explaining behavior. He averred that the study of mind is the province of philosophy and that the mind is the realm of speculation and endless word games. He was categorical that the mind has no place in psychology (SparkNotes, 2013). To him psychology has to be based on objective phenomena and ultimate explanation must be found in the central nervous system. Watson convinced psychologists that the real explanation of behavior lay in the nervous system. When the brain is understood a little better, most mysteries would be demystified. It was for Watson that many psychologists believed that what they called conditioning was so important.

Skinner described the principles of operant conditioning. He strongly believed that environment is a stimulus of ones behavior. He attributed certain behavior patterns to particular kinds of response tendencies. People will therefore learn to behave in particular ways over time. Behaviors with positive consequences will increase while those with negative consequences will decrease. Skinner never believed that childhood had a role in shaping ones personality (SparkNotes, 2013). To him, personality is something that whose development is lifelong process. People's responses change as they encounter new situations. Take the example of a man who lived in the suburbs when he was young who had developed a liking for fast driving because his friends rode with him and he never got speeding tickets. After leaving, college this man moved to the city. Whenever he drove
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Hildegard Peplau Introduction the Mere

Words: 1830 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53114585

And if one can work through and delineate the antecedents and the if the group can see behavior as change-worthy, the process of effecting change can then be determined. She saw that the most consistent hope for progress, despite the most troubled situation, is the truly intellectual person who is educated lifelong and constantly involved in the problems and growth of the field. Hildegard Peplaus, first of all, that person and that is how she tried to shape the young ones entering her field. She did not share the aspirations of the fortunate who filled the ranks of the profession in her time. She, instead, saw that nursing and the medical professions as sharing common goals and services, but each with a different and separate health mission in addressing and meeting the health needs of the people. She never felt uncertainty in identifying with her profession and in her sturdy…… [Read More]


Callaway, B. (1999). In Memoriam. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Nursing. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care

Clarke, a.R. (1999). Remembering Hldegard E. Peplau. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care

Gregg, D.F. (1999).Hildegard E. Peplau: Her Contributions. Perspectives of Psychiatric Care

Holden, M.A. (1999). Hildegard Peplau. Perspectives of Psychiatric Care
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Theories Which Attest to the

Words: 412 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44994321

Butler believes that gender differences stem from the cultural practice of emulating gender biased acts over a long period of time. Thus, the male may act possessive over the female because that what has been reproduced within his own culture time and time again. This is then a more culturally-based philosophy, with less reliance on the psychology of the isolated individual.

Within the context of social work, both theorists also take individual stances. Chodorow believes that the worker should take a more passive stance to their client, based on Freud's techniques first seen in psychoanalysis. Thus, social workers use empathy to tune into the subconscious of the client, and in a very passive and non-threatening way that the client may not even consciously realize. With threats minimized in the context of the session, the social worker can then get a better and unbiased understanding of the client. Butler presents the…… [Read More]

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Jurgen Habermas the Public Sphere Jurgen Habermas

Words: 2623 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 602843

Jurgen Habermas

The Public Sphere

Jurgen Habermas and the "Public Sphere"

The idea that the continuum of people in a geographical space make up some sort of cohesive unit has been championed since the beginning of known history. Humans need the protection of groups because only then does brain power outweigh the otherwise immense power of fang and claw. This seems to be an evolutionary imperative that remains strong within people. However, as people gather together, they begin to realize that their close proximity also means that they have the power to decide how they will live as a community, and that every person can influence that through the power of voice. Every person has the ability to state and opinion, no matter how inane it may seem to the others of the group. Teacher's will often say that there are no dumb questions, and within a social group, there…… [Read More]


Anderson, B. (2006). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.

Benkler, Y. (2006). The wealth of networks: How social production transforms markets and freedom. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Bourdieu, P. (2005). The political field, the social science field, and the journalistic field. In. R. Benson & E. Neveu (Eds.), Bourdieu and the Journalistic Field. (pp. 29-47). Cambridge: Polity Press..

Habermas, J. (1991). The public sphere. In C. Mukerji & M. Schudson (Eds.)., Rethinking popular culture (pp. 398-404). Berkley, CA: University of California Press.
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Piaget's and Bruner's Theories for Cognitive Development

Words: 918 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89368403

Piaget's And Bruner's Theories For Cognitive Development

Cognitive theory, to some extent, is complex and multipart proposition. It puts forward the idea that development in humans is a function of an interaction with their upbringing, surroundings and individual understanding and experiences. Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner are the two great theorists who constructed cognitive theories (William). Both theories have some similarities and differences which would be discussed in the paper.

Piaget's and Bruner's Cognitive Theories: Similarities and Differences

According to Piaget, the cognitive development of a child depends on four factors. These are genetic maturation, familiarity with the physical environment, understanding of the social environment and equilibration. His cognitive theory also gives an explanation of the four stages of cognitive development. The Sensory Motor Stage (Birth -- 2 years). During this stage, children act impulsively. They demonstrate an egocentric behavior and are indifferent to the needs, wants and interests of…… [Read More]


Cherry G. 2004. An Overview of Jerome Brunner His Theory of Constructivism. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 26 May 2012].

Seta, C.E., Seta, J., Paulus, P., & Andrews, E.A. 2001. Study Guide for Psychology, Third Canadian edition, by Baron, R., Earhard, B., & Ozier, M. Toronto, ON: Pearson Education Canada Inc. [Print].

William, R.T. Social Cognitive Theories of Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner., [Online]. 41, 117-123. Available at:  [Accessed 26 May 2012].
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Overload Are Organizations Likely to Find Better

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27470771


Are Organizations Likely to Find Better Solutions to Information Overload Through Changes to Their Technical or Social Systems?

In various forms, we human beings are suffering from information overload. The term "Information Overload" clicks one sentence in our minds and that is "Too Much Information." The information theorists have defined typologies that distinguish between data, information and knowledge. Most organizations are unable to identify relevant material on timely basis; this requires management through information tools. This essay is based on an analysis whether better solutions to information overload can be achieved through changes to organizations' social systems or technical systems- or both? This essay also explains how a "socio-technical" perspective involving joint consideration of both systems together may be better than dealing with either system by itself.

Are Organizations Likely to Find Better Solutions to Information Overload Through Changes to Their Technical or Social Systems?

The term "Information Overload"…… [Read More]


Bell, B.K. (2000, February). The Role of Email on Information Overload in Organizational Managers. Retrieved July 26, 2012 from

Edmunds, A., & Morris, A. (2000). The Problem of Information Overload in Business Organizations: A Review of the Literature. International Journal of Information Management, 20, 17-28.

Figure from (2009, April 16). Drowning in Data: Web Analytics and Information Overload. Retrieved July 26, 2012 from .

Heylighen, F. (2002, April 12). Complexity and Information Overload in Society: Why Increasing Efficiency Leads to Decreasing Control. The Information Society. Retrieved July 26, 2012 from .
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Erikson's Stage 4 Middle Childhood

Words: 427 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32705578

At school, he struggled with math academically, and occasionally had conflicts with his teachers. These conflicts were not characterized by anger, but at his teacher's frustration at what they saw as his lack of attentiveness and lack of class participation. He was often described (and still is) as quiet and reserved by teachers, friends, and family. He recalls resenting going to school many years, and did not get much positive reinforcement in terms of his academic intelligence. Although his academic performance was adequate, he says he did not feel particularly intelligent. This began to change in junior high, when his performance in sports grew stronger after a growth spurt. The growth spurt, the esteem this garnered him on the team and at school translated into a greater sense of self-worth in the classroom, and greater engagement and confidence when dealing with others. For the first time he succeeded in school,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cramer, Craig, Bernadette Flynn, & Ann LaFave. (1997). Erikson's stage 4: Latency.

Introduction to Stages. Erikson homepage. Retrieved 8 Nov 2008 at
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Sister Callista Roy

Words: 3204 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41068432

oy Adaptation Theory

Callista oy: Adaptation Theory

Not every idea is perfect and neither is any person, so the propagation of theoretical stances proliferate. In the field of nursing it makes sense that there would be theories which were designed to advance the fields of care, patient psychology and of medicine's effect on the body, but care, the essence of nursing seems the most crucial. Care theories have been advanced providing guidance for every facet of the practice, and the concept of the oy adaptive model is just one of the many. This essay will examine the oy adaptive theory from every angle in an attempt to recognize its place in nursing.

The Theorist

"Sister Callista oy was born in 1939 in Los Angeles, CA" (Masters, 2011). This seems to be where all of the discussions of Ms. oy begin, and it tells the researcher three crucial items about the…… [Read More]


Basavanthappa, B.T. (2007). Nursing theories. New Delhi: Japee Brothers Publishing.

Butts, J.B., & rich, K.L. (2010). Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Chesnay, M.D. (2007). Caring for the vulnerable: Perspectives in nursing theory, practice, and research. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Current Nursing. (2010). Roy's adaptation model. Retrieved from
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Sister Callista Roy Theory at the Age

Words: 2329 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42469924

Sister Callista oy Theory

At the age of 14 years old, Callista oy had already started working in large general hospital where she moved from being a pantry, to maid to the nurse's maid. After considerations, Callista decided to join the Sisters of Saint Joseph Carondelet where she became a member for more that 40 years of her entire life. She joined college and pursued liberal arts program where she successfully completed a program in Bachelor of Arts majoring in nursing at Mount St. Mary's College in Los Angeles (The Trustees of Boston College, 2013).

She further pursed successfully her masters in Sociology and a doctorate in sociology as well both at University of California (Jones & Barlett, 2013). It was at this point that oy wanted to fuse both sociological approach and nursing approach to the nursing care of the patients. She is accredited for coming up with and…… [Read More]


Current Nursing, (2012). Application of Roy's Adaptation Model (RAM). Retrieved September 11, 2013 from

Gonzalo, (2011). Theoretical Foundations of Nursing. Retrieved September 11, 2013 from 

Jones & Barlett, (2013). Nursing Theories: A Framework for Professional Practice. Retrieved September 11, 2013 from    

The Trustees of Boston College, (2013). Sr. Callista Roy, Ph.D., RN, FAAN Retrieved September 11, 2013 from
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Work Family Conflict

Words: 5465 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29895419

Work - Family Conflict

It has been the traditional division of labor between men and women that men would be the bread -earners of family and that women would cater to managing the household responsibilities as women have to take care of children. The work within the family was extended and decreased accordingly since it was an unpaid labor. ut as developments took place women started to work outside their homes. As a result of both working parents the family and work conflict started to emerge. As a result the families of the present age are being affected by several responsibilities of work, family and community on individuals.

The conflict between work and family is due to the depression, stress and anxiety, which occur as a result of the divergent responsibilities. These divergent responsibilities make it extremely difficult in taking care of these responsibilities. Developmental Psychologists and work-family sociologists have…… [Read More]


Frone, Michael R., Yardley, John K. And Markel, Karen S. 1997 Developing and testing an integrative model of the work-family interface. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50(2): 145-167.

Frone, M.R., Russell, M., & Cooper, M.L. (1992). Antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflict: Testing a model of the work-family interface. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 65-78.

Kahn, R.L., Wolfe, D.M., Quinn, R.P., Snoek, J.D., & Rosenthal, R.A. (1964). Organizational stress. New York: Wiley.

Greenhaus, J.H., & Beutell, N.J. (1985). Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Academy of Management review, 10, 76-88.
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War in Iraq

Words: 2751 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10391735

ar in Iraq: An Application of Conflict Theory

The recent war with Iraq has been on the minds of people all across the world since well before it started. Many are worried that the United States will be seen as being too controlling, and that it should let the Iraqi people work out their own problems. Others, who are concerned about the threat of terrorist activity in this country and others, stick with the belief that the United States was right in their attempt to remove Saddam Hussein from power.

Regardless of which opinion one holds, there are theorists, both classical and modern, who have strong views on war. This is largely due to conflict theory, which is that life is largely characterized more by conflict that it is by consensus. Those who uphold this theory have different ways of looking at it, and the purpose of this paper is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Collins, Randall. "Conflict Sociology." New York: Academic Press, 1974. 56-61.

Conflict. 2003. 10 April 2003

Dugger, William M., & Howard J. Sherman. "Institutional and Marxist theories of evolution." Journal of Economic Issues, 31 (1997): 991-210.

Introduction to sociological theory. 2003. 10 April 2003
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Philosophy Division of Labor the

Words: 2669 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7887827

As the roles and functions of religions and their leaders changed according to the changing needs of the communities they served, they provided both stability in times of change as well as the leadership to effect changes as necessary.

Of the three theorists, Marx appears to include the most negative elements in his considerations of religion. It must also be noted however that Marx places more focus on elements other than religion, whereas the other two theorists study religion in itself as it connects with society and its needs. Marx instead viewed religion as one of the elements that could be detrimental in effecting social change when necessary. Durkheim in turn places greater emphasis on the spiritual and esoteric quality of religion than the others, but nevertheless also places it within the context of a society that creates their gods as reflections of themselves. Weber is the most practical of…… [Read More]


Cox, Judy. An Introduction to Marx's Theory of Alienation. International Socialism, Issue 79, July 1998. 

Deflem, Mathieu. Max Weber (1864-1920): The Rationalization of Society. Sept 2004.

Dunman, L. Joe. Emile Durkheim: The Division of Labor. 2003.

Townsley, Jeramy. Marx, Weber and Durkheim on Religion. Aug. 2004.
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Living Theory

Words: 1713 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21400130

LABO UNIONS IN THE U.S.: Evaluation of Social Theory as Applied to the Concept of Organized Labor

CHAPTE IN BIEF INTODUCTION history of labor unions, their composition and development in the U.S. over time, discussion of the "building blocks" of such organizations

ELEVANCE OF LABO UNIONS ACCODING TO SOCIAL THEOISTS discussion of the relevance of labor unions according to the following social theorists: Durkheim, Simmel, Weber and Marx. Why labor unions are formed according to each of the social theorists; the idea of labor unions as a positive or negative force; labor unions as collective representatives of society; labor unions as reflective of society's need to collectively gather; who is represented by labor unions; economic factors in labor gatherings (Marx, on the idea that labor unions are created to promote the economic interests of employees within organizations)


Labor unions were created for a variety of reasons, in part to…… [Read More]


Hurst, Charles E. Living Theory. The Application of Classical Social Theory to Contemporary Life. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2000.

Schuster, Frederick. Human Resource Management. Reston: Reston Publishing

Company, 1985

Turner, Jonathan; Beeghley, Leonard; Powers, Charles. The Emergence of Social
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Theoretical Foundations of Nursing Nursing Can Be

Words: 4161 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25325887

Theoretical Foundations of Nursing:

Nursing can be described as a science and practice that enlarges adaptive capabilities and improves the transformation of an individual and the environment. This profession focuses on promoting health, improving the quality of life, and facilitating dying with dignity. The nursing profession has certain theoretical foundations that govern the nurses in promoting adaptation for individuals and groups. These theoretical foundations include theories, theory integration, reflection, research and practice, and assimilation.

Grand Nursing Theory:

There are several grand nursing theories that were developed by various theorists including the Science of Unitary Human Beings by Martha ogers, Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model, and Systems Model by Betty Neuman. Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model is based on the consideration of the human being as an open system. She argues that the system reacts to environmental stimuli via cognator and regulator coping techniques for individuals. On the other hand, the…… [Read More]


American Sentinel (2012). 5 Steps for Nurses to Stay Updated with Health Care Changes.

Retrieved September 4, 2013, from

Andershed, B. & Olsson, K. (2009). Review of Research Related to Kristen Swanson's Middle-range Theory of Caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 598-610.

"Application of Theory in Nursing Process." (2012, January 28). Nursing Theories: A
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Learning Cognitive Theory of Learning

Words: 5035 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10711915

When children are given the option between a reward they would like and the internal desire to learn something, most children would rather have the reward. That is also true of many adults, whether they are in an educational setting or a business setting. Still, that does not mean that intrinsic interest cannot come along with extrinsic reward, or that operant theory is completely wrong. Many educators mix operant theory with cognitive theory in an effort to provide those with different learning styles more of an opportunity to learn and develop. This helps to reach the largest number of students per educator, improving the overall educational goal.

ognitive Theory of Learning


The cognitive theory of learning has been part of education since the late 1920's, when a Gestalt psychologist focused on the issue of Gestalt teaching and learning, and what that could offer to students who were not learning…… [Read More]

Carton, J.S. (1996). The differential effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation: A comparison of cognitive evaluation theory and operant theory. The Behavior Analyst, 19, 237-255.

Cavalier, a.R., Ferretti, R.P., & Hodges, a.E. (1997). Self-management within a classroom token economy for students with learning disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18, 167-178.

Davidson, P., & Bucher, B. (1978). Intrinsic interest and extrinsic reward: The effects of a continuing token program on continuing nonconstrained preference. Behavior Therapy, 9, 222-234.
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Management and Decision Sciences From

Words: 25680 Length: 90 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55501983

76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…… [Read More]

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Institutional Property and Process the

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83201152

Impotantly, he builds his case on the
sociological theoies of those who peceded him. To this extent, he
emaks at one junctue, "as Giddens (1984) states, 'institutions by
definition ae the moe enduing featues of social life... giving solidity
to social systems acoss time and space.' Institutions exhibit these
popeties because of the pocess set in motion by egulative , nomative,
and cultual cognitive elements." (Scott, 1) In othe wods, the
implications of the institution ae essentially ecipocal. It is only
ational that popety and pocess should exist within the context of a
cycle. The human aspects of an institution, whethe it be a sustained
cultual goup such as a global eligious faith o a copoation with a
centuy of oganizational development behind it, thee ae aspects of
society which ae going to inevitably impact the ways the people behave.
Fo instance, with the adoption of Civil Rights in the…… [Read More]

references throughout his discussion will ultimately remove many of the
stigmas and simultaneous obstacles by which minority groups can hope to
achieve equality.
This example reflect the fact that the concept of the institution is
a distinctly human one which has taken on a systems-level proportion based
on its permanence, its permeation and its power. As a result,
institutional property and process are engaged in a constant exchange, with
human interactants functions as the grease in the gears.
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Boudon 2001 Theories of Social

Words: 838 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87823124

For example, Tocqueville was able to explain 18th century European aristocrat behavior by looking at social consequences. Like Tocqueville, Marx believed that they could explain individual actions by looking at subconscious class interests. Frey has demonstrated that people will accept individually negative outcomes, if they have positive group benefits.

Nietzsche believed that, while conscious of class interests, individual actions and beliefs should be viewed from an individual perspective, since they are motivated by the positive consequences to the individual actor. In discussing his theory of bounded rationality, Simon seemed to combine elements from the different theorist, by showing how social actions include cognitive dimensions.

3. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of human behavior?

Again, the author does not make it clear how he feels human actions and other forms of human behavior are different. Instead, he explains how various theorists have attempted to differentiate human…… [Read More]

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Bauman Theorizing Society the Writings

Words: 2634 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32879622

Bauman summarises these factors by referring to the methods of scientific and bureaucratic rationality and logic which reached extreme levels during this period in Germany. While on the one hand bureaucratic rationality can be seen as a positive aspect in relation to the ordered development of society, it can also be seen as the underlying cause that led to an atmosphere of moral distancing and irresponsibility.

3. Context

In respect to the theoretical view of civilization and society espoused by the theorist, the above discussion highlights Bauman's view that sociology as a science has not taken into account the full implications of the rational-scientific worldview. This is evident from his critique of the Webber's model of sociology as a science that follows the rational dictates of modernism. (Bauman, 1988, p. 478) As the author states;

The anxiety can hardly abate in view of the fact that none of the societal…… [Read More]


Bauman Z. 1988, 'Sociology after the Holocaust', The British Journal of Sociology, Vol.

39, No. 4, pp. 469-497.

Bauman Z. 2007, Liquid Times: Living in an Age of Uncertainty, Polity, Cambridge.

Bauman Z. And Ga-ecki L. 2005, The unwinnable war: an interview with Zygmunt
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Combination of Modern and Postmodern Bereavement Theory Explain and Contrast

Words: 5009 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16035742

Postmodern Bereavement Theory

Bereavement is a universal observable fact as every human being experiences the loss of a loved one at some point in his/her life. However, every individual experiences it in a unique way. It is, without a doubt, an undeniable truth that to be human is to grieve. The passing away of a loved one can be difficult, irresistible and dreadful for any normal individual. When people are faced with such overwhelming situations, a majority of them especially the older adults get into the habit of enduring their loss with time. On the other hand, to forget and live without a loved one is not as easy for some individuals. It becomes difficult for these people to cope up with the grief-stricken situations as they experience a grief of greater concentration or time (Hansson & Stroebe, 2007). There are a number of theorists who have put forwarded their…… [Read More]


Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L.M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test o f a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(2), 226-244. Retrieved from

Bonanno, G.A., Keltner, D., Holen, A., & Horowitz, M.J. (1995). When avoiding unpleasant emotions might not be such a bad thing: Verbal-autonomic response dissociation and midlife conjugal bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,

69(5), 975-989.

Dent, A. (2005). Supporting the Bereaved: Theory and Practice. Counselling at Work, 22-23. Retrieved May 28, 2012 from
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Art of Nursing According to Virginia Henderson

Words: 1537 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39459880

Art of Nursing According to Virginia Henderson

Virginia Henderson has tremendously helped to bring a new perspective of the art of nursing. For this reason, her biographical sketch together with educational and professional details earned her the name the Modern-day Mother of nursing and the Nightingale of modern nursing. Virginia Henderson's theory was a major stride in the field of nursing and in the art of nursing. The theory has also been used by the theorist to come up with another definition of nursing. The art of nursing according to Virginia Henderson has had major implication on nursing and is of relevance to the current nursing practices. This paper will give a biographical sketch of Virginia Henderson. In addition to this her educational and professional overview will be analyzed also. Henderson's theory and its applications will then be reviewed where the four major concepts constituting it will be looked at.…… [Read More]


Henderson, V. (1955). Harmer and Henderson's Textbook of the principles and practice of nursing. New York: Macmillan

Henderson, V. (1956). Research in nursing practice: when? Nursing research, 4 (3), 99

Henderson, V. (1960). International council of nurses basic principles of nursing care ICN,

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Poverty - Marx Poverty and

Words: 1649 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51882220

Marx's theory explains poverty far better than those of the individualistic theorists. Many studies have shown that most of the working class poor are willing to work, and in fact, do work. Their wages are low, which results in the inability to attain their own source of income, so they continue to have to work for minimal wages. Without a higher income, they are unable to attain capital, or attend college to gain the knowledge for a higher position. Spencer and the other individualists' theories are illogical, in that those theorists blame the poor as a whole for their plight, without seeking outside sources of their poverty.

The Marxist theory of poverty is well documented throughout history. Even as far back as the middle ages, those who worked for the aristocracy, or the capitalist, found themselves with no way to gain property. They were often barred from owning land, subjected…… [Read More]

References ore, Tom. A Dictionary of Marxist Thought.

Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1983.

Marx, Carl, and Engels, Frederick. The Communist Manifesto. 1848. The Australian National University. 2 Dec 2004. .

Spencer, Herbert." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2004. 2 Dec 2004.
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Aristotle Plato

Words: 793 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24964676

Aristotle and Plato the books are as under:

Aristotle's "The Politics"

And "Nicomachean Ethics"

Plato's "The Republic."

These are the names of the three books, which will be considered and viewed in the paper as a guide and reference to various questions related to Aristotle's and Plato viewpoint on the questions, which are as follows:

What mistake do oligarchs and democrats make in thinking about Justice, according to Aristotle?

To what extent would Plato agree with Aristotle's analysis?

What explains the similarities and/or differences in their approaches?

The paper will analyze and observe the viewpoints of the theorists and their relative opinions regarding these questions. In order to answer these questions the paper will introduce the background regarding these books and their relative themes. The paper will be presented in a compare/contrast format according to which the similarities and differences in the opinions of the theorists will be discussed and…… [Read More]

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Social Strain Robert K Merton's

Words: 1904 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93893589

By the 1980s, theories had begun to swing the other way again, with doubts being cast on the relevance of aggregate social strain theories (Bernard 1987). Even social strain theorists were finding new and more individualistic and specific features within the theory (Agnew 1985).

In the past two decades, social strain theory has continued to be attacked by some as an antiquated and invalidated method for explaining subversive and criminal behavior, with some theorists stating outright that the empirical evidence supports alternative explanations far better than it supports traditional social strain theories (Burton et al. 1994). Other researchers have found evidence that in their view directly refutes certain aspects of social strain theory while seeming to support certain other conclusions and hypotheses that are a part of the overall explanation for criminality (De Clercq & Dakhil 2009). Ultimately, all of the problems and discrepancies that have been found with social…… [Read More]


Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strain theory of delinquency. Social forces 64(1): 151-67.

Bernard, T. (1987). Testing social strain theories. Journal of research in crime and delinquency 24(4): 262-80.

Burton, V., Cullen, F., Evans, T. & Dunaway, R. (1994). Reconsidering strain theory: Operationalization, rival theories, and adult criminality. Journal of quantitative criminology 10(3): 213039.

De Clercq, D. & Dakhil, M. (2009). Personal strain and ethical standards of the self-employed. Journal of business venturing 24(5): 477-90.
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Georg Simmel it Can Be

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77760724

From this perspective, the field of sociology is involved in the analysis of the patterns of these interactions. Therefore, for Simmel Sociology is more than just the study of "natural laws." Simmel also emphasized the study of small groups. This differed for the classical theorists like Durkheim and Marx.

The primary contemporary interest in Simmel's work stems from the analysis of individual action within the ambit of the structural approach. An essential difference between Simmel's view of sociological analysis and other major theorists is that while theorists like Durkheim considered the aim of sociology to be the creation of logical and inclusive overarching theoretical constructs, Simmel viewed society, as it were, from the bottom up: with the focus on the way that smaller groups and individuals interact. This approach is more in line with contemporary phenomenological and existential theories.

It is in this light that a reassessment of the work…… [Read More]


Durkheim E. " Sociology and its Scientific Field, in K.H. Wolff (editor), Essays on Sociology and Philosophy by Emile Durkheim et al., New York: Harper and Row (1964). pp. 354 -75.
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Ethics in Patents in Amazon One Click

Words: 810 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57564314


Ethics in Patents in Amazon One Click

Patents are meant to protect the intellectual property of the people who apply for them. They are given when the process is a unique idea, or it offers an improvement to an existing idea that does not infringe on the original patent and is itself unique. The question is not whether patents themselves are ethical, but whether a business requesting a patent for a process, in its entirety, is ethical. People with different philosophical outlooks would see this case very differently. On the one had rule utilitarian's would see the patent rules and judge based on that criteria whereas a natural rights theorist would have a completely different outlook. This paper looks at the patent application for Amazon's revolutionary "one-click" payment processing through the lens of both a rule utilitarian and a natural rights theorist and determine how a person with that…… [Read More]

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Theory Analysis Why We'll Keep Going to War

Words: 1814 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1771271

overriding aim of globalization is to eliminate physical boundaries, uniting all the countries of the world into one massive village. So far, globalization has had both positive and negative influences, and has literally split the world into three -- the portion that is already reaping the benefits of globalization and is characterized by high standards of living and stable governments (the Core); that which is yet to reap any benefits and is still grappling with political repression and widespread disease (the Gap); and that which exhibits features of both the Core and the Gap (the Seam)[footnoteRef:1]. Most Americans tend to think that the problems the Core faces are a result of its association with the Gap; and hence, believe that cutting links would be the solution to the issues of drugs and terrorism. This, however, is not a valid argument because as long as the Gap is not enjoying the…… [Read More]


ADP 3-0, "Unified Land Operations," Department of the Army,    (accessed 23 July 2014).

Barnett, Thomas, "The International Security Environment; the Pentagon's New Map: It Explains Why We are Going to War and Why We'll Keep Going to War," Pentagon News Map, (Accessed 23 July, 2014).

Joint Publication 3-0, "Joint Operations," Department of the Navy and Department of the Army,   (accessed 23 July 2014),

Prados, John and Ames, Christopher (Eds.), "The Iraq War -- Part II: Was There Even a Decision?" The George Washington University, / (accessed 23 July, 2014
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Adult Learning Styles in the

Words: 7981 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98200563

For countries such as the U.S. And France, these needs can be reasonably expected to relate to the respective national cultures involved. For instance, in their book, Education in France, Corbett and Moon (1996) report, "An education system needs to justify itself constantly by reference to the values which underpin a nation's culture. In a democracy it is expected to transmit a range of intellectual, aesthetic and moral values which permeate the curriculum and approaches to teaching and learning" (p. 323).

Just as the United States has been confronted with a number of challenges in recent decades in identifying the best approach to providing educational services for an increasingly multicultural society, France has experienced its fair share of obstacles in this regard as well. According to Corbett and Moon, "In societies forced to come to terms with change, values are always challenged. French society, like others, had to adapt to…… [Read More]


Atkinson, R.D. (2006, May-June). Building a more-humane economy. The Futurist, 40(3), 44.

Blanchard, E. & Frasson, C. (2005). Making intelligent tutoring systems culturally aware: The use of Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Montreal, Quebec Canada: Computer Science Department, HERON Laboratory.

Bryant, S.M., Kahle, J.B. & Schafer, B.A. (2005). Distance education: A review of the contemporary literature. Issues in Accounting Education, 20(3), 255.

Calder, J. (1993). Disaffection and diversity: Overcoming barriers for adult learners. London: Falmer Press.
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Cognitive Theories of Development Piaget's

Words: 885 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88820358

This is because they are both considered as constructivists whose approach to learning and teaching is based on the link between mental construction and cognitive development. On the stages of development from birth through adolescence, the two theorists propose that boundaries of cognitive development are determined by societal influences.

Piaget explains the ability of societal factors to influence a child's cognitive development through the sensorimotor, pre-operational and concrete operational stages. In his explanations of these stages, Piaget states that intelligence is demonstrated through symbols, which are obtained from societal influences. On the other hand, Vygotsky believes that societal influences especially cultural tools have a significant effect on cognitive development since they can be passed from one person to another. Cognitive development cannot be separated from the societal influences and include imitative learning, instructed learning and collaborative learning. In possible classroom applications, the views of both Piaget and Vygotsky on cognitive…… [Read More]


Gallagher, C. (1999, May). Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from 

Huitt, W. & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from 

"Social Development Theory (L. Vygotsky). (n.d.). The Theory Into Practice Database.

Retrieved July 25, 2011, from
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Realism and the End of

Words: 1070 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54528994

S.S.R. stands the fact that civil strife is less dangerous if it takes place on the losing side that it is on the winning side (p99).

Realists and Their Critics

Predictive failure: realism through structural realism failed to predict the fall of the U.S.S.R. And instead foresaw stability in the bipolar system. However, no theory considered the idea of the way in which the Cold War would end. Even so, theorists did not have a clear understanding of the actual capabilities of the two actors because these capabilities contain non-material aspects as well.

Correlation between "power" and "change": it is difficult to make because a clear focus must be placed on the need of the U.S.S.R. To revitalize its economy in order to maintain its power in the 1980s that may have brought about the change. Further, this correlation is based on the internal and international factors such as the…… [Read More]

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Myra Levine Nursing Reasons Why the Myra

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Myra Levine Nursing

easons why the MYA LEVINE NUSE theorist developed the theory

Myra Levine an influential figure in the nursing vocation set up new methods which were effective for educating the nursing degrees students with fundamental concepts and caring, of the patients (Parse 2009). Her objective was to present individualized and reactive care of the patients which concentrated less on medical procedures and maximized on individual contexts of the patients. With this, it led to nursery theory's creation and patient care approach. The theory implies criteria which help in evaluating the nurses and what to do.

It offers concepts which are skilled in sustaining research which are useful to the nurses. Hence, it creates knowledge which is exclusive to the nurses. By that, it enhances the nurse's status as a better profession. In promoting the research, the nurses' theory endorses the education of the nurse (Allan 2011). With that,…… [Read More]


Allan, H.T., Smith, P., & O'Driscoll, M.. "Experiences of supernumerary status and the hidden curriculum in nursing: a new twist in the theory-practice gap?"Journal Of Clinical

Nursing, 2011 p850.

Melat, Z. "Theory -- Directed Nursing Practices" Wolterskluwer.2005. p. 270

Reimer, A.P., & Moore, S.M.. "Flight nursing expertise: towards a middle-range theory."
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Iranian & Global Nuclear Realism Iran Has

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Iranian & Global Nuclear Realism

Iran has made a choice, and that choice is to sustain a global stance of nuclear realism. And it has chosen to do this in no small part because its chief opponents who favor the new school of institutionalism are unable and unwilling to counterpunch. For right now, the major organizations of global collaboration are actually down if not out on the mats of the boxing ring, fearing, in reality, their own revival. If they arise and confront Iran, they would not only bring unwanted attention to a significant and potentially expensive conflict (which they cannot afford), they might also even have to acknowledge that they are able to unleash an entire new level of nuclear manipulation and confusion, one that would engage the destructive capabilities of cyberwarfare -- a potential blow to many elements of deterrence and power.

At this point, however, the match…… [Read More]


Boucek, C. And Sadjadpour, K. (2011) Rivals -- Iran vs. Saudi Arabia. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved from .

Hirsch, M. (2008). Iran's Great Game. The Daily Beast. Retrievable from

Jonsson, C. And Tallberg, J. (n.d). International Theory and International Relations. Retrievable from

Korab-Karpowicz, W. Julian, "Political Realism in International Relations," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .
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Search for the Criminal Man Revisited

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99437899

Criminal Justice -- the Search for the "Criminal Man" Revisited

Numerous theories have been devised in an attempt to understand criminal behavior. iosocial theories focus on the interaction between biological factors with other factors in such a way that certain behaviors result. Ellis, Walsh, Cullen and Mednick are among the theorists supporting biosocial theories of criminology. Mednick focused on criminals' apparent inability to learn from their mistakes and settled on the impaired Autonomic Nervous Systems (ANS) interacting with external cues. Other biosocial theorists have studied biochemical factors such as nutritional deficiencies, hormonal influences, allergies and environmental contaminants. In contrast to biosocial theorists, biological theories focus on "the criminal man," a born criminal who exhibits psychological, physical and social traits. Cesare Lombroso, often called "the Father of Modern Criminology," formed the theory of "the criminal man" in the late 19th Century and listed revealing physical characteristics of this instinctive criminal who…… [Read More]

Biosocial theories of criminality study the ways in which biological characteristics interact with other factors to "shape" a person's behavior. Biosocial theories are supported by a number of theorists, including Lee Ellis, Anthony Walsh and Francis T. Cullen (Lilly, 2010, p. 352). The authors of our textbook stress the biosocial theory of Sarnoff A. Mednick, who argues that criminals do not seem to learn from their mistakes because they have impaired Autonomic Nervous Systems (ANS). According to Mednick, the normal ANS responds to environmental cues so the individual learns from them; however, a person with an impaired ANS will be slower to pick up on those cues and slower to mature or learn from them. A person with a normal ANS who engages in an antisocial behavior will pick up environmental cues, will feel the positive reinforcement of less fear when the antisocial behavior is suppressed and will learn to inhibit that antisocial behavior because of that positive reinforcement; however, a person with an abnormal ANS will not pick up or will be far slower to pick up on those cues, will not feel the positive reinforcement of less fear from suppressing the antisocial behavior and therefore will not learn or will be slower to learn to inhibit antisocial behavior (Lilly, 2010, pp. 358-9).

Though Mednick's theory is mentioned prominently in our textbook, biosocial theories also consider numerous other factors that may interact with biological characteristics to form criminal behavior. Some biosocial theorists believe that criminal behavior can be caused by biochemical factors such as: nutritional deficiencies, including lack of vitamins and minerals required for normal functioning; hormonal influences by male hormones, including testosterone; allergies, usually to foods such as milk, corn, wheat, chocolate, eggs and nuts; environmental contaminants, including food dyes, copper, artificial coloring, mercury and chlorine (Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services, 2010). In any event, a key to understanding biosocial theories is that they study the ways in which some factor interacts with biological characteristics and forms or shapes behavior.

b. Contrast Biosocial And Biological