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(Marriner-Tomey; Alligood, 2006)
After proper interpretation of patient's actions and the process recordings, the nurse would be in a position to intervene a better plan of care and assistance for the patient. The plan of care would be included as individual therapy through which the nurse will help the patient directly and the familial therapy too as the nurse will also help the family members of the patient to refine and assume roles they have performed in the past, or are using currently. These roles will help the family members to cope with the patient's illness and also, they will provide a better environment for the patient to improve fast. The evaluation process of the while planning and their results will be used to determine the success of this planned role taking. (Marriner-Tomey; Alligood, 2006)
The major concepts adapted by the iehl Model of nursing are as follows:
Marriner-Tomey, Ann; Alligood, Martha Raile. (2006) "Nursing theorists and their work" Elsevier Health Sciences.
N.A. (2010) "Riehl, Sisca, Joan" Free Dictionary, Retrieved 6 August 2010 from http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Riehl-Sisca
O'Brien, Patricia G. (2009) "Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing: An introduction to theory and Practice" Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Walker, Patricia Hinton; Neuman, Betty M. (1996) "Blueprint for use of nursing models: education, research, practice, and administration" Jones & Bartlett Learning.
V. COMPONENTS of the THEORY TESTED
Morrison (2004) states that the theory of Rosemary Parse is one that "reflects a commitment to nursing as a human science...[and]...describes nursing in terms that emphasize the human element in all that occurs in the activity of nursing." Morrison additionally relates that the nursing process is inclusive of five elements that make the provision needed by a nurse in a method of approaching patient care and are that in any encounter with a patient: (1) the nurse assess the patient situation; (2) makes a nursing diagnosis based on the assessment; (3) develops a plan of nursing care; (4) implements the plan of nursing care; and (5) evaluates the plan of nursing care. (2004)While the nursing process may appear to be one that is linear in nature, in reality "the stages of the process are 'dynamic and continuous'.
VI. MOCK CLINICAL CASE
McKenna, H.P. (1997) Nursing Theories and Models. Routledge 1997. Google Books. Online available at http://books.google.com/books?id=yDWG45lc8mQC&dq=Rosemary+Parse:+nursing+theory,+model&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
Hagopian, G.A. (2001) Nursing Theorists. Week 11 and 12. Online available at http://personal.uncc.edu/lmoore/NURS3200/theorists.pdf
Hickman, J.S. (nd) Nursing Theories: The Base for Professional Nursing Practice.
Nursing Theorists: Rosemary Parse
Though in theory these methods sound hokey the practice is actually relatively simple to see if one takes elements of application for the theory and divorces it from the ideological, such as equating the terminology laying of hands with the use of therapeutic massage or heat therapy with consistent and historical use of heat pads, blankets and circulation instruments to raise body temperature of a patient as well as provide comfort and pain relief. These methods, taken out of the context of Leddy's model language then are then not actually untested but foundational to the ideology of the nurse as the bringer of comfort measures for reestablishment of health.
elationship of Man, Health, Environment to Nursing
Leddy's theories may in careful analysis come across as relatively ideological and frankly metaphysical, especially when given her emphasis on the unseen, the different energy flow theories, such as the Chakra (pp. 91-93) and…
Leddy, S.K. (2006) Integrative Health Promotion. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
While Duldt would not fundamentally disagree with Henderson's assertions, Duldt's conceptualization is more useful when nurses must function as health teachers in the community: someone who is diagnosed with type II diabetes must know how to feed him or herself and use medication, diet, and exercise to manage his or her condition. It is not enough that the nurse merely knows these aspects of self-care are essential for the patient's health; the nurse must communicate this fact to the patient. The nurse herself must be a good listener as well as a good instructor. The nurse must understand why certain health-promoting behaviors may prove more difficult for some patients, due to economic or personal circumstances, and work to overcome these difficulties in an individualistic fashion.
The philosophy of humanism is manifest in Duldt's theory by its stress upon the 'I-thou' relationship. In the so-called 'I-thou' relationship, the dyad of human…
Duldt, B.W. (1985). Theoretical perspectives for nursing. Boston: Little Brown & Co.
Parker, Marilyn E. (2001). Nursing theories and nursing practice. Philadelphia: E.A. Davis Co.
Skelley, Ariel. (2006). Henderson theory of nursing. Novel guide. Retrieved April 15, 2010 at http://www.novelguide.com/a/discover/genh_0002_0002_0/genh_0002_0002_0_00412.html
Van Essendelft, Monique & Suzanne Woolard. (1996, April 19). Humanistic nursing communication. Interpersonal communication between nurse and client, peers, and colleagues. Retrieved April 15, 2010 at www.bwbatteyconsult.com/T-HNCT.doc
Nursing Theorist Nola Pender:
One of the significant roles of nurses in their daily activities is to assist patients to learn to take care of themselves and make decisions and choices that promote their health. The reason nurses help patients to learn to take care of themselves is that patient's participation in their own self-care helps in preventing illnesses and diseases and ensure that they have improved overall health. As a result of this need, several theories have been developed by various practitioners in the nursing field to help patients towards self-care. One of these theories is the Health Promotion Model, which was developed and introduced by nursing theorist Nola Pender. The main basis for the development of this theory is to assist patients to prevent illnesses through their choices and behaviors. In the past few years, health promotion has been a major subject that has attracted substantial interest among…
Gonzalo. (2011). Theoretical Foundations of Nursing -- Nola Pender. Retrieved December 5,
2013, from http://nursingtheories.weebly.com/nola-pender.html
"Health Promotion Model -- Nola Pender." (n.d.). Middle Range and Borrowed Theories.
Retrieved December 5, 2013, from https://sites.google.com/site/shunu530team3midborrowed/health-promotion-model
Florence Nightingale was born in 1820 in Florence, Italy, the daughter of a wealthy landowner who was involved in the anti-slavery movement. e saw that she was educated in the classics as well as math and science. At the age of 17, she felt that she was called by God to some higher unknown purpose. (Ferrence and Nick, 2000)
Florence rejected many proposals of marriage. Going against her upper class parents' wishes, at the age of 25 she decided to become a nurse, a job usually reserved for the lower classes. It wasn't until age 31 that her parents relented. She went to Germany to study nursing. Two years later, she was appointed as superintendent of a hospital for invalid women in London. When the Crimean War broke out in 1854, Florence took 38 nurses to Turkey. She found the conditions deplorable.
In these conditions, it was not surprising that…
Her ideas quickly spread. "In 1987 it was estimated that over 100,000 nurses had graduated from schools emphasizing the Roy Adaptation Model." (Carey) She has lectured all across the world and her work has been translated into 12 languages. She is presently teaching at Boston College and continuing to update the Roy Adaptation Model. In her own words,
The model provides a way of thinking about people and their environment that is useful in any setting. It helps one prioritize care and challenges the nurse to move the patient from survival to transformation." (Carey)
The model starts off with identifying and classifying the demands placed on a patient and the patient's ability to adapt to those demands. Roy sees the patient as a complete biopsychosocial individual, but also as a recipient of nursing practice. In her model there are any environmental factors that impact or have the potential to impact the patient must be considered relevant. The challenge for the patient and attendent caretakers is in coping with adptation problems or adjustments which are continual. To interecede, the nurse must first analyze and assess the situation, both present and potential, and create a plan of action, but always with the understanding that further adaptation may be required. (Carey)
Nursing Theorist: Sr. oy Adaptation Model
The oy Adaptation model for Nursing had its beginning when Sister Callista oy happened to get admitted in the Masters Program of pediatric nursing in the University of California, Los Angeles, in the year 1964. At that time, Sr. Callista was familiar with the idea of 'adaptation' in nursing, and it must be mentioned that Sr. Callista's adviser at that time was Dorothy E. Johnson, who believed firmly in the need to define nursing as a means of focusing the development of knowledge, for the practice of nursing. When Sr. Callista oy started working with children in the pediatric ward of the hospital, she was quite impressed with the basic resiliency of the small children who had been admitted into the wards for treatment. This was why when the first seminar in pediatric nursing was called for; Sr. Callista oy proposed that the basic…
"Callista Roy's Adaptation Model" Retrieved From
http://www.geocities.com/ninquiry2002/callistaroy Accessed 28 October, 2005
'Case Study" Retrieved From
http://www.geocities.com/ninquiry2002/casestudy.html Accessed 28 October, 2005
(2008). The study measures public opinion concerning two scenarios: one in which the kidney donor is given a fixed financial compensation; and one in which the donor is provided with health insurance coverage for life. According to the findings of the study, "although almost half of the respondents (46%) were reluctant towards introducing a system with fixed compensation to increase the number of living kidney donors, still 25% of the general public reacted positively." (Kranenburg, 1039) This study would conduct a similar comparative discussion, but would expand the number of available options discussed and would use a different sample population, as discussed in the subsequent section.
Subjects and Sampling Technique:
The subjects will be drawn from amongst nursing professionals working in randomly selected renal specialty facilities and wards. Initial contact will be made by phone with a Director of Nursing at selected facilities requesting participation. Those that agree will receive…
Conesa, C.; Rios, a.; Ramirez, P.; Sanchez, J.; Sanchez, E.; Rodriguez, M.; Martinez, L.; Ramos, F. & Parrilla, P. (2009). Attitude of Primary Care Nurses Toward Living Kidney Donation. Transplantation Proceedings, 37(9), 3626-3630.
Kranenburg, L.; Schram, a.; Zuidema, W.; Weimar, W.; Hilhorst, M.; Hessing, J. & Busschbach, J. (2008). Public Survey of Financial Incentives for Kidney Donation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 23(3), 1039-1042.
Neyhart, C. & Colaneri, J. (2004). Living Anonymous kidney donation: A solution to the organ donor shortage? Nephrology Nursing Journal. Online at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ICF/is_3_31/ai_n17207253/
Watson, J. (2007). Theory of Human Caring: Theory Evolution. University of Colorado at Denver. Online at http://www.nursing.ucdenver.edu/faculty/jw_evolution.htm
In what ways did the wave of the nursing shortage in the 1980's and in 2000 support or constrain theoretical thinking? Why? Are there ways to influence the cycle of shortage and theoretical thinking? Identify one nursing theorist that would support your discussion/views. Provide rationale for selection of theorist.
Nursing shortages have been a problem in this country for a long time. It has been found that because of these shortages there needed to be a better way to incorporate theoretical thinking into nursing education so that nurses are better prepared to be the best that they can be. The accomplishment of critical thinking abilities has been recognized as an essential product of undergraduate nursing teaching. It has been found that nursing scholars learn best by way of experiential education. Kolb's experiential learning theory is the basis for a practice incorporation technique intended to offer critical thinking skills in undergraduate…
Experiential Learning (Kolb). (2008). Retrieved September 30, 2010, from Web site:
Kim, Hesook Suzie. (2010). The Nature of Theoretical Thinking in Nursing. Retrieved September 29, 2010, from Web site:
Concept Synthesis on Personal Nursing Philosophy
My interest in nursing peaked at an early age when I attended Clara Barton High School for health professions in Brooklyn NY and graduated in 1991. I first worked as a nurse's aide and home health aide for about two years and found this position to be quite rewarding. I subsequently moved to North Carolina where I took the CNA course in 1995 and began working as a CNA at various nursing homes and hospitals in the regional area. My experience as a CNA certainly helped me in my journey and provided the foundation for the later developments in my career.
Later I moved to Las Vegas in 1997 where I got married in 1998. After forming this union I went back to school for my BSN in 2002 while working as a CNA. I finished my BSN from Nevada…
Andrews, H., & Roy, C. (1991). The Adaptive Model. Norwalk: Appleton and Lange.
Denler, H., Wolters, C., & Benzon, M. (2013). Social Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from Education: http://www.education.com/reference/article/social-cognitive-theory/
Farlex. (2011). The Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from Farlex: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/adaptation+model
Nursing Theory. (2011). Sister Callista Roy. Retrieved from Nursing Theory: http://nursing-theory.org/nursing-theorists/Sister-Callista-Roy.php
One of the complexities of 21st century medicine is the evolution of nursing care theories in combination with a changing need and expectation of the stakeholder population. Nurses must be advocates and communicators, but must balance these along with an overall philosophy of ethics while still remaining mindful of budgets and the need for the medical institution to be profitable. It seems as if these issues comprise a three-part template for nursing: respect for patient value & individuality, education of patients, and cognition and respect for the realities of contemporary medicine. In many ways, too, modern technology has advanced further than societal wisdom, especially when confronting the issue of death. The modern nurse's role is to create a nurse-patient culture that encourages the individual to take responsibility for their healthcare and, in partnership with the nurse, to be involved in their recovery. The modern complexities of…
Basford, L. And O. Slevin. (2003). Theory and Practice of Nursing: An Integrated Approach to Caring Practice. New York: Nelson Thomas.
Beckstead, J. And Beckstead, L. (2004). A multidimensional analysis of the epistemic origins of nursing theories, models and frameworks. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 43
Cohen, J. (1991). Two portraits of caring: a comparison of the artists - Leininger
A nurse must weigh these variables, physical, mental, and spiritual, when advising a course of treatment and deciding how to approach a patient or patient's family. An adolescent who is an injured athlete envisioning a lucrative college scholarship might demand and be able to physically and mentally withstand a more aggressive form of treatment, due to psychological and developmental and goal-related visions (spiritual) factors than might a less motivated elderly patient.
A nurse who is training other nurses can instill consideration for all such variables in her various trainees -- and encourage nurses to engage in self-care as well as patient care on spiritual, preventative physical health care, and mental levels. Additionally, in a work environment with many diverse cultures, remind other nurses that Neuman's model has also been modified slightly to take into consideration culture as well as mind, body, and spirit -- although culture and spiritual values are…
Neuman, B.M. (1990). The Neuman systems model: A theory for practice. In M.E. Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories in practice (pp. 241-261). New York: National League for Nursing.
Neuman, B.M. (Ed.). (1995). The Neuman systems model (3rd ed.). Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.
Pierce, J.D., & Hutton, E. (1992). Applying the new concepts of the Neuman systems model. Nursing Forum, 27(1), 15-18.
Nursing theory, research, and practice
Scenario in which theory, research, and practice interact to create good patient outcomes
Imogene King’s theory
Using the Imogene King’s theory to enhance Nurse-Patient Relationship
Enhanced Patient care
narrative explanation of your visual representation following the diagram.
Nursing theories have been developed as a way of trying to explain the fundamental importance of clinical practice (INSCOL, 2014). Even though these theories are used to guide practice, it is true to claim that most of them have not been put to the test as a way of determining whether the proposed nursing actions produce the claimed effects. If nursing asserts itself as the professional practice it is a professional practice environment must be supported and practiced. In order to enhance the outcome of patients and nursing staff then the professional nursing practice must be supported (INSCOL, 2014). There exist several nursing theories…
This is one of the most common forms of research and, for some research questions is clearly a strong design (Ethics in Critical Care Nursing Research, 2005).
The research that was done in this article would be considered a non-experimental type. There were two types of observation that were conducted. The first type was that of focus groups and the second being the file audit, both of which are observational in nature. In this case this was the most appropriate type of research design to use. Since they were simply trying to see what was actually going on in this area and how that was affecting patients the only real way to tot this was by observation. From this article a nursing care issue that can be raised is that of how palliative care nurses manage family involvement with end of life issues. Are there any standard procedures that are…
Nursing Theory Application
Case Study Overview from the viewpoint of a new EMT -- Patient was a 78-year-old mail presenting breathing difficulties. Patient had early stage cancer with a DRN bracelet and note. Patient's wife was aware of the DNR, but her natural reaction was to try to save her husband. The call, then, was more to assure the wife than the husband, who accepted the situation but was still distressed.
Nursing Theory Applied -- "Nursing as Caring" was developed by Boykin and Schoenhofer in the 1980s when looking at the dimensions of caring and how it applied to the overall patient/health care paradigm. In general, the theory is a framework that guides and acts as a tool box when dealing with common issues in modern health care. The central dimensions of the theory is that caring is what makes humans 'human,' that caring is a moment to moment and…
Cardinal Stritch University. (2010, June). Anne Boykin & Sarvina Schoenhoffer - Nursing as Caring. Retrieved from stritch.edu: http://www.stritch.edu/Library/Doing-Research/Research-by-Subject/Health-Sciences-Nursing-Theorists/Anne-Boykin-Sarvina-Schoenhofer-Nursing-as-Caring/
Kubler-Ross, E. (2007). On Grief and Grieving. New York: Scribner.
Kubler-Ross, E. (2007, April). The Kubler-Ross Grief Cycle. Retrieved from Changing Minds:: http://changingminds.org/disciplines / change_management/kubler_ross/kubler_ros s.htm
Kubler-Ross, E. (2013, January). On Death and Dying. Retrieved from ELR Foundation: http://www.ekrfoundation.org/
Nursing Timeline Week 2 • Create a 700- 1,050-word timeline paper historical development nursing science, starting Florence Nightingale continuing present. • Format timeline, word count assignment requirements met
Historical development of nursing timeline
The foundation of modern nursing. Before, nursing was largely the profession of disreputable people and not exclusively female. Based on her experiences during the Crimean War, Florence Nightingale strove to make it a respectable profession with uniform, professional standards. Her approach reduced the death toll in hospitals by 2/3rds during the Crimean War (Florence Nightingale, 2012, Biography: 1). She established the Nightingale Training School and wrote her foundational Notes on Nursing (Florence Nightingale, 2012, Biography: 2-3). Nightingale's canons of nursing compromised everything from an emphasis on proper sanitation to how the nurse should socially interact with the patient.
1880: Famed Civil War nurse Clara Barton founds the American ed Cross.
1909. Hildegard Peplau is born. Heavily influenced…
Betty Neuman's Systems Theory, 2012, Current Nursing. Retrieved:
Clara Barton. (2012). The Civil War. Retrieved: http://www.civilwarhome.com/bartonbio.htm
Doctor of Philosophy. (2012). School of Nursing. Retrieved:
nursing theory practice setting.
Provide an overview of the theory
Myra Estrin Levine is known as the most important Nursing theorist for developing "The Conservation Model." Levine got a diploma in 1944 and obtained her B.S in 1949 and finished M.S.N in 1962 from Wayne State College. She acted as a specialist to healthcare facilities and colleges of nursing. Furthermore, she offered a teaching format for the medical or surgical sector of nursing and developed "The 4 Conservation Fundamentals." "She clearly connected wellness to the procedure of conservation design and viewed wellness as one of its necessary elements" (Levine, 1991).
The 3 significant ideas of the Conservation Model are 1) wholeness, 2) adaption, and 3) conservation. "Whole, wellness, hale all are sourced from the Anglo-Saxon word hal" (Levine, 1973, p. 11). Myra Levine formulated her take of wholeness as an open system, which meant checking out the components of the…
Alligood, Martha Raile (2010). Nursing theory: Utilization and application. Toronto: Mosby Elsevier.
Chinn, P.L., & Kramer, M.K. (2011). Integrated knowledge development in nursing (8th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.
Current Nursing (2010). Levine's four conservation principles. Retrieved from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Levin_four_conservation_principles.html .
Levine, M.E. (1973). Introduction to Clinical Nursing (2nd Ed.). Philadelphia F.A. Davis.
One of the major theoretical models for healthcare delivery is the Parse theory of human becoming, created by Rosemarie Rizzo Parse—originally titled the man-living-health theory (2011). This theory focuses on healthcare and the human through the lens of quality of life. This theoretical premise for delivering and receiving healthcare was able to gain steam as a result of its alternative to the more standard bio-medical method and the biological-psychological-social and spiritual method contained in the bulk of other theories of nursing. This theory has enjoyed much attention and use when delivering healthcare as a result of the fact that it views quality of life as all relative to a person’s viewpoint.
Main assumptions of Human Becoming Theory
Human becoming allows one to select specific meaning in situations within the realm of human experience. Reality is the culmination of lived experiences. A sometimes nebulous process of co-creation occurs via…
Nursing Theorist Grid Dorothea Oren Theory
Over the years, nursing theories have been used in defining the ways healthcare is delivered through the interaction of patients and nurses. This study presents a theoretical discussion of the self-care concept in relation to health care delivery among elderly patients. The self-care concept is popular as Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing by Orem. Orem's theory perceives individuals as self-care agents equipped with unique needs. The theory focuses on transactional analysis in enhancing rehabilitative roles of nursing and positively influencing self-care agency among individuals. This creates power component based on self-care behaviors. The theory was initially defined as the analysis of exchanges between people in their interactions and communications with one another. The focus also classifies, understands, predicts and alters human behavior among the well and sick individuals. The theory supports individuals treated as adults and has a higher likelihood of using Adult ego…
Butts, J.B., Rich, K. (2012). Nursing Ethics: Across the Curriculum and Into Practice. New York: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Finfgeld- Connet, D (2008). Qualitative Convergence Of Three Nursing Concepts: Art Of Nursing, Presence And Caring. Journal of Advanced Nursing 63(5): 527-534.
Ranheim, A., (2010). Caring And Its Ethical Aspects -- An Empirical, Philosophical Dialog On Caring. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well- being. 4(2) p 78-85.
Ranheim. A., Karner, A., Arman, M., Rehnsfeldt, A & Bertero, C. (2010). Embodied reflection in practice- 'Touching the core of Caring'. International Journal of Nursing Practice. 16. p 241-247.
The main focus of this essay is going to concern the nurse-patient relationship idea, and why it is important. This was chosen because the researcher desired to achieve a better accepting of how a helpful nurse-patient relationship can be advanced and even from different theorists who have discovered this idea. In this essay, the researcher sets out to demonstrate what they have learnt regarding the nurse-patient relation concept and how this connection can utilized in the clinical practice setting. T The nurse patient connection, according to a study done by Press Gamey Associates Inc., creates the quality of the care experience and generates an influential influence on patient gratification. Nurses will a lot of their time with patients. Patients see nurses' relations with people among the care team and make their own conclusions about the hospital founded on what they are observing. Furthermore, nurses' approaches toward their vocation,…
Berdes, C. & . (2001). Race relations and caregiving relationships: A qualitative examination of perspectives from residents and nurses aides in three nursing homes. Research on Aging, 23(1), 109-126.
Biering, P. (2002). Caring for the involuntarily hospitalized adolescent: The issue of power in the nurse-patient relationship. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 16(2), 65-74.
Heijkenskjold, K.B. (2010). The patients dignity from the nurses perspective. Nursing Ethics, 6(3), 313-24.
LaSala, C.A.-B. (2007). The role of the clinical nurse specialist in promoting evidence-based practice and effecting positive patient outcomes. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 38(6), 262-70.
(Newman, 1) Here, it can be evidenced that the empathy accorded by the theoretical framework will provide an ideological umbrella for how best to address one's condition while simultaneously abiding the regulatory medical requirements common to most forms of modern treatment.
This means possessing a degree of pertinent information where nursing theory is concerned that will allow for such pragmatism and a firm understanding of the practices pertinent to kidney donation as denoted in the annotated bibliography provided here below.
Cohen, E. & Pifer-Bixler, J. (2009). Surgeons Remove Health Kidney Through Donor's Vagina. CNN. Online at http://www.cnn.com/2009/HEALTH/02/03/kidney.vagina.surgery/index.html
The article here described a first-ever successful procedure in which a healthy kidney was removed through a donor's vagina rather than through traditionally employed and far more invasive surgical procedures. This is useful to our discussion because it reduces the strain and cosmetic impact of making a kidney donation. The article cites the…
Cohen, E. & Pifer-Bixler, J. (2009). Surgeons Remove Health Kidney Through Donor's
Vagina. CNN. Online at http://www.cnn.com/2009/HEALTH/02/03/kidney.vagina.surgery/index.html
Griffin, D. & Fitzpatrick, D. (2009). Donor Says He Got Thousands For His Kidney. CNN. Online at http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/meast/09/01/blackmarket.organs/index.html
McKay, R. (2010). Kidney Donor Needed Own Transplant. Chicago Tribune. Online at http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/chi-tc-nw-man-kidney-0104-0105jan05,0,2513301.story
A person's health is an ever-changing state of being resulting from the interaction with the environment. Optimum health is the actualization of both innate and obtained human potential gained through rewarding relationships with others, obtaining goals and maintaining expert personal care. Adaptations can be made as required to maintain stability and structural integrity. A person's state of health can vary from wellness to illness, disease, or dysfunction. Professional nursing is founded on the need to promote wellness practices, the attentive treatment of persons who are acutely or chronically ill or dying, and restorative care of patients during convalescence and rehabilitation. It also includes the education and measurement of those who perform or are learning to perform nursing responsibilities, the support and communication of research to enhance knowledge and practice, and the management of nursing in healthcare delivery systems. Nursing practice centers on the application of a body of knowledge in…
Johnston, N., Rogers, M., Cross, N. And Sochan, a.(2007) Global and planetary health:
teaching as if the future matters. Nursing Education Perspectives 26(3), 152
Nyatanga, L. (2005) Nursing and the philosophy of science. Nurse Education Today 25(8), 670-675
The death of a child is significant and in this case avoidable and a plaintiff has the right to seek compensatory damages as is allowed by law.
Case Study 1 Part B
At the end of the night shift, Nurse Brown took a verbal handover and then noticed the observation chart had not been filled in. To assist her friend, Nurse Harvey, whom she knew had a busy night, filled in the observation chart and fluid balance chart for the hours from 0200-0600 hrs.
Overcome by the events of the last 24 hrs, Nurse Harvey and Nurse Brown go to the local tavern for a few drinks before Nurse Harvey goes on duty. They discussed Mr. Spencer and his son. John, a friend of Mr. Spencer, overheard the conversation and joined them. He was also upset by the events of the day and was most keen to discuss the accident…
Hall, J. (1960). General Principles of Criminal Law (2nd ed.). Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
Markesinis, B.S., & Deakin, S.F. (1999). Tort Law (4th ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
ANCI Competency Standards for the Enrolled Nurse at http://www.anmc.org.au/docs/Publications/Competency%20standards%20EN.pdf
Scope of Nursing Practice Decision Making Framework, 2006 at http://www.nursingboardtas.org.au/nbtonline.nsf/attachment/SoPDMFFinal/$File/Scope%20of%20Nursing%20Practice%20Decision%20Making%20Framework.pdf
According to the research, it "is defined as a practice-based ethic that is patient centered, It is an individualistic ethic that unites the reason why a decision is made with the action itself and the foreseeable consequences of that action," (Brown, 2010). In this the theory also shares with Parse's theory the importance of individual decision making and choices. One of the main differences is the notion of how we relate to one another. We have a freedom from aggression, known as negative right, based on this relationship, where we are not scared of others acting out irrationally against us. As such, the health care professionals do not act to harm the patients, but the patients also have the strict role of being the patients, thus "to fulfill his responsibilities in the treatment plan and not to place any unreasonable demands on the healthcare professional" (Brown, 2010). This is different…
Brown, Barbara. (2010), A bioethical decision making guide: A synopsis of Symphonology. Health and Human Development. Penn State University. Web. http://www.personal.psu.edu/dxm12/n458/symphonology.htm
Parse, Rosemary Rizzo. (2011). Human becoming theory. Nursing Theories. Web. http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Rosemary_Pars_Human_Becoming_Theory.html
Taking the history of a patient is a crucial aspect of patient assessment and treatment. A good history can mean the difference between a successful patient outcome and unsatisfactory outcomes. However, taking a complete and useful history is a skill that is developed by means of training and practice; it is not some talent that is innate (Bickley & Szilagyi, 2007; McKenna et al., 2011). According to Craig (2007) nurses are increasingly being asked to take patient histories. Given these growing responsibilities nurses need training and guidelines to taking an adequate patient history. The following is a summary and critique of Craig, L. H, (2007), A "Guide to Taking a Patient's History" in Nursing Standard, volume 22, issue 13, pages 42-48.
Craig (2007) takes a comprehensive approach to explaining the interview and history taking process. This approach is applicable for most any patient population; however, Craig does not…
Alarcon, R.D. (2009). Culture, cultural factors and psychiatric diagnosis: Review and projections. World Psychiatry, 8, 131 -- 139.
Bickley, L.S. & Szilagyi, P.G. (2007). Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History
Taking. 9th ed. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
Craig, L.H. (2007). A guide to taking a patient's history. Nursing Standard, 22 (13), 42-48.
Nursing Theory Framework
ecognizing Addiction through Attachment Theory
Affect egulation and Addiction
Handling Addiction as an Attachment Disorder
The First Phase of Therapy
Nursing Theory Framework
The misappropriation of prescription drugs by teens in the United States is a growing public health issue. Using a nursing theory framework, the scope of the problem of prescription drug use among teens is reviewed. Equal in variety to manifestations of addiction are sundry psychological theories that attempt to explain and treat the problem. Hardy (2011) was able to look into four traditional models for recognizing alcoholism (social learning theory, tension reduction theory, personality theory, and interactional theory,) in addition to five theoretical models that were developing at the time of their writing.
An approach to treating and understanding addiction that has created a huge amount of research in current decades, and which displays big promise for effective…
Caplan, J.P. (2012). Neuropsychiatric effects of prescription drug abuse. Neuropsychology Review, 17(3), 363-80.
Elkashef, A.M. (2012). Prevention and treatment of addiction. Psychiatric Times, 16-18.
Fischer, B.P. (n.d.). Assessing the prevalence of nonmedical prescription opioid use in the general canadian population: Methodological issues and questions. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(9), 606-9.
Flores, P.J. (2012). Group psychotherapy and neuro-plasticity: An attachment theory perspective. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 60(4), 546-70.
Theoretical Foundations of Nursing:
Nursing can be described as a science and practice that enlarges adaptive capabilities and improves the transformation of an individual and the environment. This profession focuses on promoting health, improving the quality of life, and facilitating dying with dignity. The nursing profession has certain theoretical foundations that govern the nurses in promoting adaptation for individuals and groups. These theoretical foundations include theories, theory integration, reflection, research and practice, and assimilation.
Grand Nursing Theory:
There are several grand nursing theories that were developed by various theorists including the Science of Unitary Human Beings by Martha ogers, Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model, and Systems Model by Betty Neuman. Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model is based on the consideration of the human being as an open system. She argues that the system reacts to environmental stimuli via cognator and regulator coping techniques for individuals. On the other hand, the…
American Sentinel (2012). 5 Steps for Nurses to Stay Updated with Health Care Changes.
Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.nursetogether.com/5-steps-for-nurses-to-stay-updated-with-health-care-changes
Andershed, B. & Olsson, K. (2009). Review of Research Related to Kristen Swanson's Middle-range Theory of Caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 598-610.
"Application of Theory in Nursing Process." (2012, January 28). Nursing Theories: A
According to Newman, nurses practicing within this theory find their own lives are enhanced and transformed (Neill, 2002). Her beliefs and consciousness-centered approach were born from her early nursing experiences involving rehabilitation patients (Weingourt, 1998). She came to understand the altered connection between the concept of time for her patients and their limited mobility. For most of her patients, the day would seem to drag along despite the fact that their rehabilitation sessions were relatively short. Her conclusion was that these patients had an altered sense of reality. This eventually sparked her theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness (HEC).
Looking at the practice of nursing through a more metaphysical lens, the HEC posits that there is a universal and expanding consciousness in which all humans participate -- the healthy, the recuperating, and the incurably ill. Newman believed this was a natural law just as real as the law of gravity…
Margaret Newman and James Fowler both focus their attention on the larger, more spiritual context of human experience and the implication this has in one's healing. There are commonalities that exist between the philosophies of both theorists: human reasoning, the ability to adopt to another's perspective, social awareness, and human formation of a world-view. Newman offers the nurse-patient relationship can be enhanced if it is viewed as a caring partnership. HEC does not really pretend to be a quick fix or direct nursing intervention; instead, it presents an opportunity to assist the sick by recognizing patterns and using this intelligence to expand a patient's consciousness, self-care, and comfort (Awa & Yamashita, 2008).
Fowler concerns himself more with faith as a lens through which we see the world. His ideas about faith over the span of one's lifetime can be particularly beneficial when working with elderly populations. Older, Stage 5 and 6 adults may begin to reincorporate earlier religious beliefs and traditions that were previously discarded (Fowler, 2004). This could be due to physical limitations or also used as a self-healing mechanism to avoid feelings of helplessness or abandonment. A nurse who is attentive can acknowledge this mature spirituality as being helpful to a patient attempting to find meaning in his or her illness.
In sum, both theories/frameworks have implications for the practice of nursing. A theory, by definition, is a group of related concepts that propose action that guide practice. From Margaret Newman and even non-nursing theorist James Fowler we see how using a systematic view of inter-relationships between concepts of spirituality, higher consciousness, caring and empathy can be useful for describing, explaining, predicting, and prescribing nursing interventions that make a difference in the lives of patients. Both philosophies offer insight that can create better nurses.
diverse population nurses must attend to, the concept of 'transcultural' nursing is important to understand. Instead of viewing health as a universal concept, transcultural nursing attempts to understand the conceptual building blocks of the nursing profession as cultural products that are socially-constructed. It strives to understand the similarities and differences between different health attitudes and practices (Leininger 1991). First developed by Madeline Leininger, transcultural nursing is founded upon the idea that the "health care providers need to be flexible in the design of programs, policies, and services to meet the needs and concerns of the culturally diverse population, groups that are likely to be encountered" (Transcultural nursing, 2012, Current Nursing).
Nurses must be culturally astute and adapt their practices to patient's cultural needs as well as to physical needs. This concept has been somewhat controversial within the nursing profession given that Western medicine's emphasis on preserving life and optimizing treatment…
Adult obesity facts. (2013).CDC. Retrieved: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html
Dorothea Orem's self-care deficit theory. (2012). Nursing Theories. Retrieved:
Milligan, F. (2008) Child obesity 2: recommended strategies and interventions. Nursing Times;
History Of Nursing Science
Nursing has existed in some for as long as humans have roamed the earth. The modern era of nursing began with the emergence of Florence Nightingale during the Crimean War in the 1850's. The daughter of affluent parents, Nightingale greatly accelerated the development of nursing and is widely acknowledged as the most important person in the history of nursing. Nursing science translates to the profession itself in the form of best practices that have been formulated, debated, reviewed and analyzed so as to verify the validity of nursing theories before they are put into practice.
As is the case with many nurses and others who dedicate their lives to the care of others, Nightingale was driven largely by her spirituality and religious convictions. Many people perceive there to be an inherent conflict between religion and science but Nightingale did not believe this to be…
George, J.B. (2011). Nursing theories, the base for professional nursing practice. (6 ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
McKenna, H. (1998). Nursing theories and models. Taylor & Francis.
Parker, M.E., & Smith, M.C. (2010). Nursing theories and nursing practice. (3 ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Co.
Walker, L.O., & Avant, K.C. (2011). Strategies for theory construction in nursing. (5 ed.). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
Leadership -- nursing
Discover and/or create an image, poem, quote, or selection of music that symbolizes, or speaks to you of, what it means to be a caring nurse in the organizational context. Describe why you have selected this symbol. Link your personal understanding gained by reflecting on your authentic "piece" to course literature to reveal resonance, differences and new insights.
According to Bonnie Raingruber in "Meanings in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Nursing" from the Jan-Mar 2004 edition of The Journal of Child and Adolescent Psycatric Nursing by familiarizing the nurse or patient reader and nurse and patient writer with new worlds of experience, poetry increases one's capacity to tolerate pain, understand oneself, and other people. Poetry is "dialogical: it seeks in the listener an ally whose empathy will take the form of sharing the survivor's anguish and struggle" (Kaminsky, 1998, p. 408). In light of this insight, poetry…
Kaminsky, M. (1998). "Voicing voicelessness: On the poetics of faith." American Journal of Psychoanalysis. 58, pp.405-416.
Neuman, B., & Fawcett, J. (Eds.) (2002). The Neuman Systems Model. Fourth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Raingruber, Bonnie. (Jan-Mar 2004) "Meanings in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Nursing." The Journal of Child and Adolescent Psycatric Nursing.
Wendt, D.A., & Vale, D.J. (1999). "Managing quality and risk." In P.S. Yoder-Wise (Ed.), Leading and managing in nursing. Second Edition. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, pp. 173-189).
Art of Nursing According to Virginia Henderson
Virginia Henderson has tremendously helped to bring a new perspective of the art of nursing. For this reason, her biographical sketch together with educational and professional details earned her the name the Modern-day Mother of nursing and the Nightingale of modern nursing. Virginia Henderson's theory was a major stride in the field of nursing and in the art of nursing. The theory has also been used by the theorist to come up with another definition of nursing. The art of nursing according to Virginia Henderson has had major implication on nursing and is of relevance to the current nursing practices. This paper will give a biographical sketch of Virginia Henderson. In addition to this her educational and professional overview will be analyzed also. Henderson's theory and its applications will then be reviewed where the four major concepts constituting it will be looked at.…
Henderson, V. (1955). Harmer and Henderson's Textbook of the principles and practice of nursing. New York: Macmillan
Henderson, V. (1956). Research in nursing practice: when? Nursing research, 4 (3), 99
Henderson, V. (1960). International council of nurses basic principles of nursing care ICN,
Middle ange Nursing Theorist: ozzano Locsin
Dr. ozzano Locsin attained a PhD in nursing at the University of the Philippines in 1988. He is currently a tenured Professor of Nursing at Florida Atlantic University. Locsin has extensive experience in nursing research in a variety of nations: "Through the Fulbright Scholar Award, he developed the first Masters program in Nursing in Uganda while researching the phenomenon 'waiting-to-know' and the lived experiences of persons exposed to patients who died of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever" (ozzano Locsin, 2011, Pro-Libraries). His current research interests focus on themes of technology and caring in nursing and "life transitions in human health" (ozzano Locsin, 2011, Pro-Libraries). Locsin calls his mid-range theory the "technological competency as caring model."
Theory development: How the theorist came about to develop his/her theory
Locsin's theory arose because of the frustrations he perceived in nurses when they were coping…
Locsin, Rozzano C. (2005). Technological competency as caring in nursing.
Sigma Theta Tau International
Parker, Marilyn E & Marlaine C. Smith. (2010). Nursing theories & Nursing practice.
F.A. Davis Company.
Likewise, Callista oy's Adaptation Model of Nursing provides a contextual bridge between the internal physiological determinants of patient health and the crucial aspects of external environment that typically influence patient health and (especially) patient perceptions and attitudes about health and medical or nursing interventions. Together, application of the principles promoted by Watson's Caring Model and by oy's Adaptation Model of nursing complement my clinical training in a manner that I believe enables me to contribute the most to my patients, to my profession, and to myself as a nurse.
Dobratz, M.C. "Moving nursing science forward within the framework of the oy
Adaptation Model." Nursing Science Quarterly, Vol. 21; (2008): 255-259.
Fawcett, J. (2005). Analysis and Evaluation of Conceptual Models of Nursing, St. Louis,
Pipe, T.B., Kelly, a., LeBrun, G.; Schmidt, D., Atherton, P., and obinson, C. "A
prospective descriptive study exploring hope, spiritual well-being, and quality of…
Dobratz, M.C. "Moving nursing science forward within the framework of the Roy
Adaptation Model." Nursing Science Quarterly, Vol. 21; (2008): 255-259.
Fawcett, J. (2005). Analysis and Evaluation of Conceptual Models of Nursing, St. Louis,
1. Nursing Theorist Overview
Theory guides nursing practice and provides a framework for nurse leadership and healthcare management (McKenna, Pajnikar & Murphy, 2014). All prominent nursing theorists like the individuals covered in the multimedia presentation have influenced nursing practice in some way or another, and all do resonate with me on a personal and professional level. I will incorporate elements of all theorists into my practice in terms of interpersonal communications and attitudes towards health and healing. Of the theorists covered in the presentation, those of Florence Nightingale resonate the most because of her inclusion of environmental factors implicated in patient care. Environmental factors like lighting or ventilation can have a profound impact on perceptions of quality of care, too, which has a strong bearing on the efficacy of the healthcare institution (Sabza & Pirani, 2016). The environmental factors that Nightingale identified as being important to patient care also have…
Myra Levine Nursing
easons why the MYA LEVINE NUSE theorist developed the theory
Myra Levine an influential figure in the nursing vocation set up new methods which were effective for educating the nursing degrees students with fundamental concepts and caring, of the patients (Parse 2009). Her objective was to present individualized and reactive care of the patients which concentrated less on medical procedures and maximized on individual contexts of the patients. With this, it led to nursery theory's creation and patient care approach. The theory implies criteria which help in evaluating the nurses and what to do.
It offers concepts which are skilled in sustaining research which are useful to the nurses. Hence, it creates knowledge which is exclusive to the nurses. By that, it enhances the nurse's status as a better profession. In promoting the research, the nurses' theory endorses the education of the nurse (Allan 2011). With that,…
Allan, H.T., Smith, P., & O'Driscoll, M.. "Experiences of supernumerary status and the hidden curriculum in nursing: a new twist in the theory-practice gap?"Journal Of Clinical
Nursing, 2011 p850.
Melat, Z. "Theory -- Directed Nursing Practices" Wolterskluwer.2005. p. 270
Reimer, A.P., & Moore, S.M.. "Flight nursing expertise: towards a middle-range theory."
There is a clear divide between the real care nurses must give -- and do give, every day -- and the layperson's perceptions of nursing (Scher 2003).
Scher, Betty. (2003). Second opinion. Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing Journal.
1(1). Retrieved http://www.son.jhmi.edu/JHNmagazine/archive/spring2003/pages/second_opinion.htm
In my work as a nurse on the med/surg floor of an urban hospital, I encountered many individuals with lifestyle-related issues. Heart disease, diabetes, and strokes may present themselves as acute situations, but often the real precipitating cause is related to choices about diet and exercise the individual has made over the course of a lifetime. A recent sociological theory that can help address this issue is the concept of 'social contagion:' individuals tend to norm their health behaviors to the lifestyle choices of their friends. If their friends make good choices regarding food, exercise, and preventative care, they are likely to do so as…
Forman-Hoffman, Valerie L. & Cassie L. Cunningham, Cassie L. (2008). Geographical
clustering of eating disordered behaviors in U.S. high school students.
International Journal of Eating Disorders, 41 (3): 209-214.
Philosophy statement of the Olympic College Practical Nursing Program, according to the Olympic College's official website, is that this one-year program resolves to prepare graduates to provide safe, direct patient care as licensed practical nurses in a variety acute care, long-term care, home health, and ambulatory care settings. Olympic College stresses the importance of critical thinking as well as compassion in the development of the nurse as a medical practitioner.
The nursing theorist Jean atson stated that she essentially believed that nursing was an "inter-subjective" human process and placed a high value on the caring relationship between the nurse and the recipient of care. (Souriel, 1996) In contrast, according to the ashington State Legislature, the nursing process is defined as a "systematic problem solving approach" to medical care that "has the goal of facilitating an optimal level of functioning and health for the client, recognizing diversity. Effective nursing, states the…
Olympic College Practical Nursing Program. (2005) Official website. Retrieved 21 Feb 2005 at http://www.oc.ctc.edu/index.html
Souriel, S. (24 Aug 1196)"An Analysis and evaluation of Watson's theory of human care." Advanced Nursing. 2:400-4.
Washington State Legislature. (2005) "Nursing Laws." Official website. Retrieved 21
http://www.leg.wa.gov/WAC/index.cfm?section=246-840-700& ; fuseaction=section
eleis, A.I., & Dracup, K. (2005). The case against the DNP: History, timing, substance, and marginalization. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 10(3), 1-8.
Ever since the establishment of nursing as a distinct profession, nurses have worked hard and long to make a case that they are healthcare professionals who have a unique contribution to make to the field of medicine. Nurses are not merely the helpmates of doctors -- they offer their own distinct brand of caritas to patients. One component of the effort in garnering respect for nurses has been the effort to institutionalize nursing theory at an advanced level in academia. To expand the potential for nurses to gain advanced certification, the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) is currently offered at many academic institutions. However, according to eleis & Dracup (2005), nursing is ultimately about performing in the field, and it can be detrimental to…
Meleis, A.I., & Dracup, K. (2005). The case against the DNP: History, timing, substance, and marginalization. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 10(3), 1-8.
Ever since the establishment of nursing as a distinct profession, nurses have worked hard and long to make a case that they are healthcare professionals who have a unique contribution to make to the field of medicine. Nurses are not merely the helpmates of doctors -- they offer their own distinct brand of caritas to patients. One component of the effort in garnering respect for nurses has been the effort to institutionalize nursing theory at an advanced level in academia. To expand the potential for nurses to gain advanced certification, the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) is currently offered at many academic institutions. However, according to Meleis & Dracup (2005), nursing is ultimately about performing in the field, and it can be detrimental to separate nursing theory from nursing practice. In fact, the authors argue that the creation of the DNP actually conspires against the goal for nurses to gain respect within the academy, and feel that the current, doctoral-level degrees as more appropriate venues to do so. There are already a number of advanced degrees that fulfill the goals of enabling nurses to conduct academic research about their profession: Doctor of Nursing Science (DNS or DNSc) degree, the Doctor of Science in Nursing (DSN) degree, the Doctor of Education (EdD) degree, and the Nursing Doctorate (ND). Having a professional degree other than the PhD merely confuses how to evaluate nurses' current credentials. These degrees also strive to marry theory to practice, while the DNP strives to create a division between the two, by focusing on practice.
The authors also feel that there are more important debates within the profession other than the need to generate new degrees, and a candidate should either elect to get a master's degree or advanced to the PhD track, rather than linger in some nebulous 'in-between' zone. The authors are persuasive in their statement that although initially there may not seem to be any harm in getting a degree for a degree's sake, given the finite resources that exist on a university level (and in terms of prospective candidate's time and financial resources), the case for the additional value of the degree must be made to justify its existence. The DNP also seems to suggest, contrary to what is taught by most nursing theorists, that there is a divide between work in the field and work in the academy.
nursing -- caring, empathy and ethics. The author (Lachman, 2012) uses numerous examples, each of which show the positive impacts of caring. Along with examples of ethical decisions that must be made, and with theories on caring and empathy put forward by scholars, the paper examines morality, competence, and the "reciprocal" relationships between nurses and their patients. That is, caring for a patient is reciprocal because if the needs of the patient are met, there is reciprocity -- the giving of care and the receiving and acknowledgement of that care giving.
Summary of Key Points
On page 113 Lachman references several leading theorists and scholars that have provided important research and results on nursing ethics and the caring concepts alluded to in the Introduction. Dr. Jean atson has a caring theory (112) that has three main components: a) carative factors; b) the "transpersonal caring relationship"; and c) the "caring occasion/caring…
French, Peter. (1999). The development of evidence-based nursing. Journal of Advanced
Nursing, 29(1), 72-78.
Lachman, Vicki D. (2012). Applying the Ethics of Care to Your Nursing Practice. Ethics, Law,
and Policy, 21(2), 112-115.
Nursing Knowledge: A Controversy
The scope of the nursing profession has increased dramatically over the last thirty years. The demarcation between medical and nursing tasks is quickly dissolving as the nursing profession is becoming increasingly multidisciplinary and complex. In 1996, nurse practitioners were mandated to obtain master's degrees to address their changing role in medical care (Nicoteri & Andrews, 2003). In this multidisciplinary and evolving healthcare environment, adaptation is paramount to providing effective patient care. Currently, there is a controversy in nursing regarding the direction that the development of nursing knowledge should take. There are many critics who believe that developing new nursing theories is an effective way to promote this development. However, theories are often abstract and not adaptable to specific healthcare settings. The belief that the knowledge base for nursing should evolve entirely from theory has important implications for nursing as an academic discipline and by extension the…
Attree, M. (2001). Patients' and relatives' experiences and perspectives of 'good' and 'not so good' quality care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 33, 456 -- 466.
Burman, M.E., Hart, A.M., Conley, V., Brown, J., Sherard, P., Clarke, P.N. (2009). Reconceptualizing the core of nurse practitioner education and practice. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 21, 11-17.
Hart, A.M., Macnee, C. (2007). How well are NPs prepared for practice: Results from a 2004 survey. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 19, 35 -- 42.
Mantzoukas, S., Jasper, M. (2008). Types of nursing knowledge used to guide care of hospitalized patients. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62, 3, 318-326.
What are the core concept definitions of each nursing model? Are there commonalities between the models? If so, what are they? What are the differences, if any?
The core concepts of each nursing model is of course care for the patient as well as improvement of nurse.
Evidence-Based nursing for instance tries to better the nurse by placing review and analysis of research material and critical thinking as base.
Jane Watson's model too, calls for greater motivation and vigor in nurse's practice by using a spiritual approach where nurses see patients as per a holistic whole. Neuman (1995) used systems theories in arguing that people are a system that strives for stability whilst the most influential model in the UK based on Roper at al (1990) describes the person as functioning along an independence/dependence continuum throughout his lifespan
At base, all the nursing models have the following commonalities:
Fawcett J (1995) Analysis and Evaluation of Conceptual Models of Nursing. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis Co.
In the previous section, Estabrooks raised the question of the ability of the EP framework to provide the "best evidence" in nursing practice and the danger of excluding nurses in decision-making tasks as a result of EP prevalence and dominance.
Rolfe, while he analyzed the empirical foundations of EP, also looked at it from a practical perspective, or how EP is applied in the current practice of nursing. Identifying the problem of EP as the question of its "technical rationality," Rolfe uncovered an important issue that best describes also Estabrooks' contentions in her article: the "theory-practice" gap in nursing practice.
In thoroughly discussing this phenomenon in nursing, Rolfe illustrated how theory-practice gap occurs in the practice scenario (39):
First, that nurses rarely read research reports; second, that when they do read them, they rarely understand them; and third, even when they do read and understand research reports, they are reluctant…
Avis, M. (Oct 2006). "Evidence for practice, epistemology, and critical reflection." Nursing Philosophy, Vol. 7, Issue 4.
Estabrooks, C. (1998). "Will evidence-based nursing practice make practice perfect?" Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, Vol. 30, No. 1.
McCormack, B. (2006). "Evidence-based practice and the potential for transformation." Journal of Research in Nursing, Vol. 11, No. 2.
Rolfe, G. (Jan 2006). "Nursing praxis and the science of the unique." Nursing Science, Vol. 19, No. 1.
Cody uses a lot of fancy words and makes mention of philosophy and nursing as a study and a science but it gets a little too sweet and sugary to the point of almost being self-serving or sycophantic, with the only real question whether Cody is trying to make himself look good, nursing as an industry/career/educational pursuit look good or a combination of the two. First, he makes mention of nursing possibly dying off as a science and that is simply specious. The form and function of nursing shall certainly change as the years change but it's NEVE going to go away. It may be called something else someday just like PTSD used to be called shell shock. However, the root nature of the job and the role is not going to change in its basic function, to ease pain and treat the sick.
Another dimension of the treatise mentioned…
Cody, W. (2003). Nursing Theory as a Guide to Practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 16, 225-231.
In the field of Nursing there are those individuals who had a major impact upon the way care is provided. One such person is Dorthea Orem. She developed a critical care theory that redefined the industry. To fully understand these ideas requires studying Orem's Self-Care Theory / Theoretical Framework and analyzing the different components of this approach. Together, these elements will offer specific insights about how these principals can be utilized in a modern health care environment.
Development of Orem's Self-Care Theory and Theoretical Framework
The development of Orem's Self-Care Theory was based upon experiences that Dorthea Orem would have in the real world. What happened was her positions in government gave her the ability to see the potential impact of nursing and the challenges of many individuals in the field. This took place between 1949 and 1980. During this time is when Orem was serving on the Indiana…
Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory. (2011). Nursing Theory. Retrieved from: http://nursing-theory.org/theories-and-models/orem-self-care-deficit-theory.php
Hartweg, D. (1991). Self-Care Deficit Theory. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
As noted above, one of the most prominent leadership theories that has been applied to the nursing profession is transformational leadership. Properly applied and managed, transformation leadership can also be used to facilitate creativity in the workplace. For instance, according to Vesterinen, Isola and Paasivaara (2009, p. 504), transformational leadership can create changes and, by definition, is capable of transformed individuals and the organization in which they work. By providing the leadership needed to motivate employees to bigger and better aspirations, transformational leaders can therefore encourage the creative spark among their followers in ways that might not otherwise be possible (Vesterinen et al. 2009). Indeed, Vesterinen et al. (2009, p. 504) specifically state that, "A transformational leader motivates inspirationally, stimulates intellectually and considers employees individually." Taken together, these positive outcomes are valuable in any organizational setting, but they can be particularly important in health care settings.
Why understanding organisational culture…
Fourie, WJ & Keogh, JJ 2011, October, 'The Need for Continuous Education in the Prevention
of Needlestick Injuries,' Contemporary Nurse: a Journal for the Australian Nursing
Profession, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 194-201.
Hutin, Y, Hauri, A, Chiarello, L, Catlin, M, Stilwell, B, Ghebrehiwet, T & Garner, J 2003, July,
Wit: Susie’s Nursing Metaparadigm
One of the pivotal characters in the movie Wit (2001) is that of Susie Monahan. Susie a nurse who has little knowledge of the poetry of John Donne so dear to the protagonist Vivian Bearing. Yet Susie shows expert mastery of the role of a healthcare provider in relation to her patients. Regarding the nursing paradigm of patient, environment, health, and nursing, Susie again and again demonstrates that she regards the patient as central in the ethical responsibilities of the nurse (Nikfarid, et al., 2018). Other characters, particularly the physicians and researchers handling Vivian’s case, place their own research needs above the needs of the patient. Vivian, although highly educated, admits she knows little of cancer research and does not fully understand she is being used as a test subject for research from which she is unlikely to benefit. For Susie, the patient is always first…
We can compare the healthcare workplace to what is seen by a person when he/she looks through a kaleidoscope: since there are numerous different patterns that appear as the moments pass by. The shortage of nurses which has been publicized widely and the high turnover rates amongst the nurses are some of the unwanted patterns which have occurred. The dependence of healthcare institutions on the nurse-managers for the retention and recruitment of nurses is steadily increasing (Contino, 2004).
There are a number of routes through which the critical care nurses have become the leaders. Most of these routes don't have any educational or managerial training as a part of the process. There is a need for effective strategies for the care leaders who provide critical care in order to inspire the staff and manage the departmental operations in an effective manner to get positive results. One of the strategies…
Adams, J., Erickson, J., Jones, D., & Paulo, L. (2009). An evidence-based structure for transformative nurse executive practice, Nursing Administration Quarterly, 33(4), 280-87
Advisory Board Web site. (2004). Available at: http://www.advisory.com .
Ales, B.J. (1995). Mastering the art of delegation. Nurs Manage. August; 26: 32A, 32E.
American Organization of Nurse Executives (2005). AONE Nurse Executive Competencies. Nurse Leader, 3(1), 15-22.
The Beginning: Nightingale
Although nursing care has been around since the first cave man got a cut, the formal, organized discipline of nursing can be traced to the work of Florence Nightingale. Around the time Nightingale began her research and studies in earnest, a number of medical breakthroughs were being made that impacted the history of nursing. One was the advancement of anesthetics, which greatly enhanced the ability of nurses and doctors to care for their patients and perform surgeries. Anesthesia became especially critical on the battlefield.
US Civil War to WWII
Wartime became a primary arena for nurses to carry out their practice, as the numbers of wounded required attention. Florence Nightingale was a nurse during the Crimean War. Like Nightingale, Dorethea Lynde Dix was one of the profession's first nurse leaders and managers. Dix led teams of nurses during the Civil War in the United States. Along…
Penn Nursing Science (2012). History of nursing timeline. Retrieved online: http://www.nursing.upenn.edu/nhhc/Pages/timeline_1700-1869.aspx?slider1=1#chrome
Nursing Theory -- oy Adaptation Model
The oy Adaptation Model is one of the most commonly cited and used options when it comes to nursing theories. It has been in existence since 1976, and has had a number of years to be adjusted and changed to work with the adjustments that have occurred in the field of nursing over time (Alligood, 2011). Being able to adapt and change is a very important part of nursing, because all patients are different. Additionally, treatments and medications change rapidly, and that can be difficult to keep up with if a nurse is not focused on adapting his or her style and beliefs to the changing nature of medicine. Here, the importance of nursing theory will be explored, along with the key points that are used in the oy Adaptation Model. The views and ideas that the model provides when it comes to nursing…
Alligood, M.R. (2011). The power of theoretical knowledge. Nursing science quarterly, 24(4), 304-305.
Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2013). Essentials of nursing research. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Roy, C. (2011). Extending the Roy adaptation model to meet changing global needs. Nursing science quarterly, 24(4), 345-351.
Roy, C. (2011). Research based on the Roy Adaptation Model last 25 years. Nursing science quarterly, 24(4), 312-320.
In the pantheon of nursing theories, borrowed theories are those that derive from other disciplines and have been adapted to the nursing context. Many such borrowed theories come from the different social sciences, such as psychology or sociology, because they directly reflect critical issues in care such as human nature and the role of human interactions in well-being. One could apply religious theories to care for religious people, and it is possible even to consider things like motivational theories as well, if the nurse is trying to motivate the patient (for example, to change behavior as a means of changing health outcomes). Borrowed theories have perhaps received less study than either grand theories or mid-level theories, but they are nevertheless an important source of insight for the nursing educator, and it is important to understand the theory, where it comes from, and how it has been adapted to apply…
Villarruel, A., Bishop, T., Simpson, E., Jemmott, L. & Fawcett, J. (2001). Borrowed theories, shared theories and the advancement of nursing knowledge. Nursing Science Quarterly. Vol. 14 (2) 158-163.
Zalenski, R. & Raspa, R. (2006). Maslow's hierarchy of needs: A framework for achieving human potential in hospice. Journal of Palliative Medicine. Vol. 9 (5) 1120-1127.
Zhan, L. (2000). Cognitive adaptation and self-consistency in hearing-impaired older persons: Testing Roy's adaptation model. Nursing Science Quarterly. Vol. 13 (2) 158-165.
Historical Development Of Nursing Science
Timeline: History of nursing
Florence Nightingale publishes her Notes on Nursing, which includes her thirteen canons of nursing. This book was the first book to establish nursing as a unique profession that required specific skills and attributes. Nightingale drew upon her experiences as a nurse during the Crimean War and called for more intensive education of future nurses (Theory of Florence Nightingale, 2012, Nursing Theories).
The American Civil War was a bloody, prolonged conflict. Nurses such as Walt Whitman, Louisa May Alcott, Clara Barton, and Dorothea Dix distinguished themselves serving on the battlefield. As a result of the Battle of Bull un, Barton and Dix created a nursing corps to deal with the need to treat the fallen in a systematized fashion. There were few hospitals in existence at the time. Also, at the time the profession was largely made up of men (Stein…
Betty Neuman. (2012). Theories of Nursing. Retrieved:
Development of nursing theories. (2012). Nursing Theories. Retrieved:
(Feldman & Geenbeg, 2005, p. 67) Staffing coodinatos, often nuse leades must seek to give pioity to educational needs as a eason fo adjusting and/o making schedules fo staff, including offeing incentives to staff not cuently seeking educational goals fo assisting in this pioity egadless of the implementation of a tuition eimbusement pogam. (Feldman & Geenbeg, 2005, p. 233)
Nuse Leades as Academic Theoists
The fact that many nuse leades seve as the fundamental souces fo new and emeging nusing paadigms and theoies cannot be ignoed in this eview. The theoies associated with nusing ae as divese as nuses themselves and seve seveal puposes. With egad to nuse ecuitment and the ole that nusing theoy and paadigm plays in it, nuse leades seve to espouse theoy though mentoship and taining that helps individuals see thei futue intinsic ole in nusing. To explain this ole a bief discussion of nusing theoy…
references and Affirmative Action in Making Admissions Decisions at a Predominantly White University. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 31(4), 269.
Burgener, S.C., & Moore S.J. (May-June, 2002) The role of advanced practice nurses in community settings. Nursing Economics 20 (3) 102-108.
Cimini, M.H., & Muhl, C.J. (1995). Twin Cities Nurses Reach Accord. Monthly Labor Review, 118(8), 74.
Cleary, B. & Rice, R. (Eds.). (2005). Nursing Workforce Development: Strategic State Initiatives. New York: Springer.
Daly, J., Speedy, S., Jackson, D., Lambert., V.A., & Lambert, C.E. (Eds.). (2005). Professional Nursing: Concepts, Issues, and Challenges. New York: Springer.
Personal Definition of Nursing
Like most facilities, my institution stresses that it cares for its patients. Its belief in the value of caring and the place of caring at the center of nursing practice has caused it to make Jean Watson's Human Caring Theory the core of its philosophy. Watson's theory states that caring is an interpersonal science and a "caring environment is one that offers the development of potential while allowing the person to choose the best action for himself or herself at a given point in time" (Jean Watson's theory of nursing, 2012, Current Nursing). One critical assumption that I see implemented in my practice is the idea that "caring is more 'healthogenic' than is curing. A science of caring is complementary to the science of curing" (Jean Watson's theory of nursing, 2012, Current Nursing). Nursing may be a science, but nurses must always remember that…
Jean Watson's theory of nursing. (2012). Current Nursing. Retrieved:
Nursing models of care. (2013). Highland Hospital. Retrieved:
A relationship exists between theories, research, practical application, and education. The latter three, in fact, ought to be directed by the former. Further, research works inform education as well as practical application through offering evidences for nursing instruction- and care provision- related best practices. Education forms the context for learning. Educators need to base their teaching on scholarly evidences in the areas of learning/teaching, learning/teaching theories, and practice arena requirements. Practice contexts are where learners are taught, patients are provided evidence-based care, and nurses acquire experiences to aid them in formulating novel nursing theories and topics for future studies. Theory is the foundation for:
· How to learn and teach nursing concepts like nursing theories, brain-based education, neurocognitive studies, principles/frameworks, learning approaches, adult learning models, and educational models.
· How to frame researches and understand findings within professional settings, and how to develop the profession for ensuring most…
Caring in Nursing
Over time, nursing and caring have largely been regarded synonymous. With that in mind, it is important to note that quite a number of caring theories have been developed based on caring as a central concept. Some of these theories include the Cultural Care theory by Leininger as well as the Human Caring theory by Jean Watson whose development took place in 1970's. In this text, I will concern myself with caring as a concept in nursing. In so doing, I shall come up with a detailed evaluation of the nature of the practice theory gap most particularly in Bahrain as far as nursing is concerned.
Caring in Nursing: A Definition
To begin with, it is important to note that caring behaviors in the context of nursing can be taken to be those approaches as well as practices that are evidenced by nurses as they seek to…
Barker, A.M. (2009). Advanced Practice Nursing: Essential Knowledge for the Profession. Jones and Bartlett Learning
Callara, L.E. (2008). Nursing Education Challenges in the 21st Century. Nova Publishers
Chitty, K.K. (2005). Professional Nursing: Concepts and Challenges. Elsevier Health Sciences
Cody, W.K. (2006). Philosophical and Theoretical Perspectives for Advanced Nursing Practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning
Timeline: Historical Development of Nursing Science
Nurse Science Timeline
Timeline 1850-2010: Historical Development of Nursing Science
Florence Nightingale begins her nursing training in Alexandria, Egypt at the Institute of St. Paul.
Florence Nightingale, in Paris, visits the Daughters of Charity in their Motherhouse in Paris to learn their methods.
Florence Nightingale goes to Turkey with 38 volunteer nurses to assist in caring for the injured of the Crimean War. (October21)
Mary Seacole leaves London to establish a "British Hotel" at Balaklava in the Crimea. (January 31)
Biddy Mason is granted her freedom and moves to Los Angeles. She works as a nurse and midwife and becomes a successful businesswoman.
1857 -- Ellen anyard creates the first group of paid social workers in England and pioneers the first district nursing program in London.
1860 -- Florence Nightingale, Notes on Nursing: What it is and What it is Not…
"History and famous nursing theories." (2011). NursingAvenue.com Retrieved August 23, 2011, from http://www.nursingavenue.com/Nursing-Theories.html
Kendall, C. (2010, Apri 15). The history of nursing. Helium Retrieved August 23, 2011, from http://www.helium.com/items/1805546-nursing-history-theory-and-timeline
"Notable nurse timeline." (2011). timetoast Retrieved August 23, 2011, from http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/8652
"Nursing theory development bullets." (2011). Scribd, inc Retrieved August 23, 2011, from http://www.scribd.com/doc/14083218/Nursing-Theory-Development-bullets
healthcare practices and history of nursing in the Jewish culture.
There are several healthcare practices within the Jewish culture. According to the rabbinic lore, no aging process existed until the time that Abraham was born. No disease also existed until the time when Jacob came to existence.
The connections of Jews to the healing process at patients as well as physician level is noted to be ancient with a deep root in history and theology (MyJewishLearning.com, 2011).In most religions, the idea of medical treatment was largely an anathema. In most traditional religions, disease, deformity and accident were regarded as parts of God's creation that those of human beings. Anything to do with medical treatment was largely considered to be a process of meddling with the Creator's (God's) work and will. Judaism however, views the concept of medical treatment in appositive light. It views medical treatment as an obligation on the…
Gesundheit, B., Hada, E (2005).Maimonides (1138-1204): Rabbi, Physician and Philosopher*. IMAJ 2005;7:547-553
Illievitz, AB (1935).Maimonides the Physician. Can Med Assoc J. 1935 April; 32(4): 440-442.
Leininger MM (1997) Overview and Reflection of the Theory of Culture Care and the Ethnonursing Method. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 8:2, 32.52.
Leininger MM (1991) Culture Care Diversity and Universality: A Theory of Nursing. National League for Nursing Press, New York.
The proficient nurses perceive situations as wholes rather than in terms of distinct aspects, and performance is determined by maxims. Perceive or perception is the main word: The perspective is not thought out but presents itself based on experience and earlier events. Proficient nurses understand a situation because they perceive its meaning in regard to long-term goals. Because of their experience, proficient nurses can recognize when the expected normal picture does not materialize, which can considerably improve decision making (Benner, 1984, p. 27-29.)
Lastly, the expert performers do not have to count on an analytic principle, such as a rule, guideline or maxim, to connect their understanding of a situation to an appropriate action. Because of their strong background with an intuitive grasp of situations, they can zero in on the accurate region of the problem without trying unfruitful alternative solutions.
Benner's model of skill acquisition is based on…
Communicability: It is almost impossible for intuitive models to communicate something that is intangible and which the practitioner is unable to express. Given that Benner's model relies on experimental knowledge as the basis of "knowing" as opposed to the science of communicable research, it is difficult to think of a situation where nursing's knowledge base becomes a shared resource open equally to all practitioners.
Similarly, systematic-rational models may promote communicability, but the process itself may not be that relevant if it does not fit with reality of clinical practice (Thompson, 1999, p.1225).
Simplification: If the information processing model does not capture all variables in decision making and clinical diagnosis, and also communicating this incomplete picture to other practitioners in the form of scientific evidence, then nursing's knowledge base will continue to develop in an ad hoc manner with major holes in the complete picture. The intuitive model at least permits the complexity of decisions akin to healthcare provision and sees that health is more than the sum of its parts. Also,
Dorothea Orem Nursing Theory
A theory is related concepts, and propositions used to guide a professional practice. Moreover, nursing theory serves as the interrelated concepts, predictive in nature, statement explanatory that assists in understanding the nursing phenomenon, which helps to explain and predict the nursing outcomes. Nursing theory is an organized body of knowledge used to explain the phenomena and supporting the nursing practice. Moreover, the nursing theory is defined as a set of definitions, concepts, assumptions, and relationships or propositions that are derived from the nursing model. However, the nursing theories consist of grand and middle-ranged theory. The middle ranged theory is the testable theory, limited in scope, limited in a variable, and used for the clinical research. More importantly, nursing theory serves as the body of knowledge that assists in carrying out the nursing research.
The objective of this study is to use the Dorothea Orem theory to…
Aliakbari, F., Parvin, N., Heidari, M., & Haghani, F. (2015). Learning theories application in nursing education. Retrieved May 10, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355834/
Maria, O. (2015). Application of Dorothea Orem's Theory of Self-Care to the Elderly Patient on Peritoneal Dialysis. Nephrology Nursing Journal 41(5): 495-498.
Roussel, L. (2013). Management and Leadership for Nurse Administrators, Sixth Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Wong, C. L., Ip, W. Y., Choi, K. C., & Lam, L. W. (2015). Examining Self-Care Behaviors and Their Associated Factors Among Adolescent Girls With Dysmenorrhea: An Application of Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47(3), 219-227. doi:10.1111/jnu.12134