The last step is rating the elements on the constructs based on a 5, 7 or 10 point rating system Smith, 1980()
Another method is work sampling whereby the proportion of time a worker spends on a particular activity such as fixing a machine or designing a new system is measured. Hierarchical task analysis is another method and it involves giving a description of the performance of the employee based on the organization's hierarchy. This method involves describing the interactions between the employee, their supervisor and other managers in the hierarchy Shepherd, 1985()
Problems with job analysis
The job analysis process involves a variety of methods, detailed plans, tools and human effort which makes it prone to problems and challenges. One major problem that comes with job analyses is the lack of support by the management team. This is a huge problem that arises when the job analyst is unable to elicit the support of the management team. This may come about as a result of breakdown in communication, improper communication or employees taking the wrong interpretation of the purpose of the job analysis. This problem can be avoided by the management engaging the employees in the job analysis process and taking time to inform and educate them on the need and purpose of the job analysis Carter & Biersner, 1987()
A second problem that may arise is the lack of cooperation of employees. Since the job analysis process involves collecting information from employees, it becomes difficult to collect genuine and real data from the employees without their support. The employees must be willing to collaborate and cooperate in the job analysis process otherwise no useful data will be collected. This problem is avoided through informing and educating the employees and engaging them in the process in order to ensure they understand that it is to better their working conditions and to solve their problems.
A third problem that arises with job analyses is the inability to identify the specific purpose of the job analysis. Without a specific objective to the job analysis, the whole process becomes compromised since the data collected will be irrelevant and at the same time, the analyst, employees and managers will not be able to know why the process sis being conducted which makes it difficult for them to cooperate. This is also avoided by informing, educating and engaging employees in the job analysis process.
Bias is also a huge problem associated with job analyses. Achieving an unbiased and balanced approach is a challenge but at the same time a necessity since it is the only way in which the analysis will achieve its objectives. The job analyst needs to be impartial throughout the whole process and there are only two ways this can be avoided. The first is by training the job analyst thoroughly in the need of an unbiased and balanced approach and how to achieve this. The second way is to hire a professional job analyst or outsource the job analysis to a professional firm Nel et al., 2012()
Another problem that may arise from the job analysis process is the use of a single data source. A single data source prevents the job analyst from having sufficient information for the analysis. Therefore the process will not be as thorough as it is supposed to be. This is avoided by ensuring a detailed approach of the job analysis process is created which allows the process to include several sources of data.
Carter, R.C., & Biersner, R.J. (1987). Job requirements derived from the Position Analysis Questionnaire and validated using military aptitude test scores*. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 60(4), 311-321. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8325.1987.tb00263.x
Dessler, G., Griffilhs, J., & Lloyd-Walker, B. (2007). Human resource management: Theory, skills & application (3rd ed.). Australia: Pearson.
Nel, P., Plessis, A. d., Fazey, M., Erwee, R., Pillay, S., Mackinnon, B.H., . . . Millet, B. (2012). Human Resource Management in Australia and New Zealand. Victoria, Australia: OUP Australia & New Zealand
Shepherd, A. (1985). Hierarchical Task Analysis and Training Decisions. Innovations in Education & Training International, 22(2), 162-176. doi: 10.1080/1355800850220209