Management and Organizational Behaviour Why Case Study

Excerpt from Case Study :

Most personal activities are dependent upon the input of smaller groups like the immediate family or friends or cousins or colleagues which could include academic choices, outings, etc. Most social activities are founded around and are bound to the formation of a large group and the success of that group in working together whether it is in offices, industries, sports, NGOs, media, etc.

The deficiency of a firm foundation and structure of social needs does negatively affect an individual's social behavior and interaction with others. Some of the affects of the absence of social needs is that the individual can go through elements of frustration, loneliness and depression (Wahba & Bridgewell, 1976).

In Turner's case, the absence of the fulfillment of the social needs was the biggest factor that caused him to react the way that he did and behave the way that he did. As aforementioned, he came to work in a very close-knit unit and making his place within that close-knit was proving to be difficult for him. Plus, he couldn't work at the same rate of efficiency as his colleagues were used to which is why he missed 99% of the unofficial coffee breaks available to the employees as a source of getting social and improving their personal and professional networks. This absence in the long run made him lonely and made him feel left out which then made him suspicious of everyone in terms of their motives behind shutting him out and consequently made him suspicious of the work that they were doing on the previously Turner Workshop owned trucks.

Esteem needs

Esteem, simply, suggests the give and take of respect in all human interactions. The fact of the matter is that all any human really has is his/her respect without which the individual's aims and goals can never be attained because as aforementioned all activities of an individual are group-based irrespective of whether the group is small or large. All goals and aims of the individual are based around making himself recognizable and stand out in the crowd while at the same time making sure that he still is able to maintain a sense of respect, network and belonging.

The self-esteem within the organization really matters for an efficient and above par performance from an individual. If an employee within an organization goes through a process without gaining any form of respect then such occasions can lead to having low-self-respect, inferiority complex and low-self-esteem. It is very important for an employee to feel like his work is being respected appreciated and he is being understood by not only manger but also his peers. Low self-esteem can result in making an individual throw tantrums, demand attention and get defensive for everything that he is responsible for (Wahba & Bridgewell, 1976).

In Turner's case, he was definitely feeling left out and did not feel like he was being appreciated and that could be one of the main reason behind him losing focus on what he was doing right and instead tried to increase his pace to get the approval, respect and appreciation of his peers as well as his clients. The downside with that decision was that it backfired on him and he ended losing even more respect and gained a higher level of isolation and disregard from his colleagues.

The Two Factor Theory was designed by Frederick Herzberg and it is more popularly called Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory. The main idea that Herzberg wanted to highlight in this theory was that the level of contentment or discontentment an employee felt is not dependent variables but is actually independent of each other in every way. He said that this particular proof could be found in the different elements and factors that led to the satisfaction of an employee and the different set of elements that led to the dissatisfaction of the employees (Herzberg, 1966).

The common denominator between Herzberg's theories and Maslow's theory was the theory of motivation. The main similarity is the overall impact that motivation has on the employee's interaction and opinion towards the manager or the administration of the company. Herzberg theorizes that if an individual can get more salary and can move up the ladder in an efficient form then he would choose that over being moderately paid and having a great working environment. This is because he will always have far more psychological, social and esteem satisfaction when he is making more money as opposed to when he is being paid far less and is working under the post of an assistant. This is pretty much the same theory that Maslow presents in his hierarchy of needs theory where he mentions that the satisfaction of an employee is influenced by many elements that are different from the elements that influence the dissatisfaction of an employee.

The addition that Herzberg made to the theory mentioned above was that he designed the two-factor prototype which highlighted in two different pathways the elements that influenced an employee to experience job satisfaction and the elements that influenced an employee to experience job dissatisfaction. He also agrees with Maslow's theory that both elements: job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are independent of each other and just because one is increasing does not mean that the other is simultaneously decreasing (Herzberg, 1966).

In Turner's case, his satisfaction level with his job was very low and his dissatisfaction level was very high but, as Herzberg and Maslow ascertain, none of the factors aforementioned have been responsible for his low satisfaction rate, however, all of them are directly linked to and influence his dissatisfaction with his work and the company.

Like Maslow's approach in determining and differentiating the elements between the satisfying and dissatisfying elements, Herzberg also separates the Two Factor Theory into the following determinants:

Firstly, the motivating elements which an include elements like a difficult or intricate assignment and its fulfillment, the appreciation of a job well done, giving delegating responsibilities, improving package, etc. all of these elements that are meant to be motivating elements are suppose to increase the overall job satisfaction of the employee and allow him to excel and make his mark in the management as well as the related industry. Any task that an employee does because he wants to do it and not because he has to is called a motivational task. Furthermore, any task which is carried out outside of the realm of the job description or project description is also referred to as a motivational task (Herzberg et al., 1959).

Secondly, the hygiene elements which include the factors like overall position in the management, payment, extra benefits and overall job guarantee factors which are independent factors that if absent can result in increased job dissatisfaction however their presence does not necessarily increase the level of job satisfaction that an employee feels when working in an organization.

So technically speaking the first element is mainly focused on making sure that employee does not feel discontent with his job but wants to work instead of needing to do it. The hygiene element also categorizes the type of work and its methodology and what methods and what elements increase the satisfaction of an employee while also motivate him to do better then what is required off him (Herzberg et al., 1959).

The only major difference between Maslow and Herzberg is the proof and backup support that Herzberg had put forward in his studies for all the theories and ideas that he put forth. He gave both theoretical proofs as well as practically applicable evidences to support his ideas and theories on both the motivational factors and the hygiene factors that are mentioned above. Despite the fact that his backup sounds logical and systematic, the overall methodology that he has used has been severely critiqued (Herzberg et al., 1959).

Question 3: Should Turner be fired? Explain Why?

Turner being fired from the Thomas Motor Company would make them loose a large account in the form of the contract that was made with the Turner Workshop and which gave them a large percentage of the trucks that they used for transport and delivery. Losing the Turner Account could leave the company with a deficit in the fulfillment of the demands made by other clients and hence could result in the Thomas Motor Company having to make up a lot of these demands by exhausting other existing resources beyond a certain limit.

However, if turner is fired, yes the Thomas Motor Company would loose a large account but would be able to retain their overall client base as it was before the hiring of Turner. The problem with the recent events was that there were major clients who were being constantly dissatisfied with the overall performance of the company and hence were given the Thomas Motor Company ultimatums. The Thomas Motor Company had not increased its clientele base since the hiring of Turner which is another factor that…

Sources Used in Document:


A.H. Maslow, 1973, "A Theory of Human Motivation, Psychological Review," 50, 370-96.

Cwisfa; Khruschev, Vesh, 2002, "Maslow's Pyramid - a necessity?," 12, 15-17.

Herzberg, F., 1966, "Work and the Nature of Man," Cleveland: World Publishing.

Herzberg, F., Mausner, B. & Snyderman, B.B., 1959, "The Motivation to Work," John Wiley, New York.

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