Empowerment and Performance of Middle Management
The empowerment of middle managers is a paradox that is not easily solved. As this strata or level of management is often given responsibility for making sure goals are achieved yet often they have little actual authority to demand results or use legitimate power (French, Raven, 1960). Empowerment from senior management is one potential approach to augmenting the effectiveness of this level of management yet the context of empowerment is just as critical as the support given (Bartunek, Spreitzer, 2006). This paper will analyze the approaches for middle managers to be more effective in their roles, with empowerment being an enabler, not the foundation, of long-term change. For middle managers to achieve that, they must also continually improve and transform themselves from supporters of the status quo (as managers often do) to being transformational leaders in their own right (Jackson, 1991).
Empowering the Middle Manager -- Harder Than It Looks
The much-used word of empowerment tends to overgeneralize and simplify how difficult it is to give middle management the skills and leadership qualities necessary to get departments and employees to cooperate and get tasks completed on time. Empowerment cannot entirely be conveyed from the outside of any individual. And while the five bases of power, including coercive, reward, legitimate, referent and expert power are all critically important to a middle manager's ability to get work done and gain cooperation, they alone cannot be conveyed on anyone (French, Raven, 1960). Instead, senior management must create an environment that provides middle management with the opportunity to show how their skill sets can be best used for the unique requirements and needs of their organizations, allowing their innate talents and abilities to surface. This...
All of these aspects or attributes of a manager are not possible to provide from the outside or from a simple declaration from a senior leader in an organization (Bartunek, Spreitzer, 2006). Rather, these attributes must be earned and more fundamentally than that, emanate out of who the middle manager really is. If a senior management team can create environments conducive to their promising middle managers so that these innate leadership attributes begin to get used on projects and programs, then the company will be on its way to creating a more effective middle management layer (Ismail, Mohamed, Sulaiman, Mohamad, Yusuf, 2011). It is just as much of a senior management issue as a middle management one. Studies indicate that the most transformational leaders are those that concentrate on creating a culture of trust in their companies, and everyone, from the individual contributor to the senior manager, all are empowered to contribute (Eisenbeiss, Boerner, 2010). Therefore empowerment becomes a cultural aspect of the company, not necessarily one enforced through hierarchical means. Keeping along with this viewpoint it is impossible to order highly skilled and knowledgeable professionals to trust someone they inherently do not. Reporting to a middle manager is not the same as trusting or respecting them, as many employees today would quickly admit (Kuepers, 2011). But for the middle manager to be empowered, they must aspire and gain the trust and respect of their subordinates if they are to increase their own ability to deliver value over time to the organization. The path to empowerment is not a clean, well-defined one with clear mile makers along the way for a given manager. Rather, senior management, the leaders of an organization, need to concentrate on how best to create the right opportunities for middle management to gain trust and respect, begin to forge their own transformational leader skill sets if they are to continue maturing as managers (Jogulu, 2010). It is as much of a shared responsibility as a completely owned one by the middle manager. The hard reality of empowerment is that is it not easy to do well, and second, it requires the concentrated commitment of senior management to make it as effective as possible. Third, empowerment must be individualistic and focused on how best to make…
Part of the supervisor's job is to education social workers, help social workers "internalize the service aspirations of social work practice" and moreover help sustain "the worker-as-person in the face of difficult challenges" (Kadushin, 22-23). Following the reading of this book, I am aware that when social workers perform "non-uniform tasks" in "uncertain and unpredictable contexts" -- toward objectives that are perhaps "ambiguous" -- that leads directly to more "decentralization
This qualitative study, which used the methods of case study, in-depth interviewing, and focus group discussions (FGDs) is particularly vital to the implementation of change in organizational structures, from being a hierarchical to being decentralized. Like Perry, the study puts the manager's role as the most pivotal within the organization, primarily because s/he serves as the 'catalyst' for change and innovation in it. Other literature also stress the role of
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