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Behavior Management in Special Education
Author's note with contact information and more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.
Special Education utilizes a combination of methods of behavior management. Behavior management is a vital part of the service that Special Education provides. Behavior management is a series of systems and strategies to help develop more socially significant, useful, and appropriate behaviors. Special Education teachers in conjunction with the students' families and specialists, compose a plan of action to identify, target, and change behaviors and/or develop skills. This paper will focus upon the use of reinforcement as one of the methods of behavior management available to Special Education professionals.
Behavior Management in Special Education
There are various methods that Special Education teachers have at their disposal to contend with behaviors that require modification. It is best for Special Education teachers to be acutely aware of all their options for behavior modification…
Otten, K. & Tuttle, J. (2012) "Individual Reinforcement Systems." 2012 January 17.
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obertson & Tang (1998) demonstrate through systematic analysis how commitment in an organization can be empirically measured and how organizations can use that information to improve organizational structures, systems, behaviors and thought processes. This can only be achieved through consistent, objective and systematic processes that automatically work to support a more diverse and functioning work environment.
Q4. Explain what is meant by the term "workforce diversity?"
Workforce diversity means different things to different people, leaders, organizations and researchers. Cohen & Krause (2000) define diversity in terms of political diversity, suggesting organizational behavior can result in a decline of performance when a lack of diversity exists within an organizational setting (p. 421). Other define workforce diversity as the ability of an organization to "link individuals and groups to organizational contexts" rather than have individuals focus on the differences that exist between them; meaning the more an organization works to expand…
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An analysis of the B-level factors show the greatest variation is in creating and giving effective presentations and the focus on self-control and personal growth. My manager has very high expectations for each of their direct reports, and this is illustrated in the differences of these B-level factors. An analysis of the B-Level factors is shown in Figure B. Consistent with feedback on the a-Level Factors Analysis, my manager sees me highly effective at planning and running meetings including follow-up. When I asked about this score, the response was given of my strengths at the core management functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling.
Figure B: B-Level Factors Analysis
My remaining attributes were classified as C-Level and are shown in Figure C: C-Level Factors Analysis. My manager and I agree I excel at recruiting new employees and interviewing them, in addition to onboarding them. My manager however states that my…
EDFD260 ASSESSMENT A: BEHAVIOU Management PLAN
Discuss your overall philosophy of behaviour management. efer to theoretical models / approaches which have influenced you.
On the whole, behavior cannot be controlled, but can only be guided. This overall philosophy of behavior management in the classroom, built in part on Glasser's Choice Theory and stemming strongly from Bill oger's Theory of discipline, especially the concept of directional choices (Andrius, 2012). These theories both assert that only individuals themselves can control their behavior, and thus instead of attempting to assert control the most effective way for an educator to manage classroom behavior is to suggest actions and behaviors that are desirable and conducive to creating an effective learning environment, rather than trying to command or control individuals to achieve this end (Andrius, 2012; Furr & Furr, 2012). Knowing that expectations must be clearly set and calmly adhered to while behavioral control…
Andrius, J. (2012). The William Rogers Discipline Model. Accessed 18 September 2012. http://www.teachermatters.com/classroom-discipline/models-of-discipline/the-william-rogers-model.html
Furr, L. & Furr, W. (2012). Choice Theory Psychology. Accessed 18 September 2012. http://www.choicetheory.com/
Behavior Management in Education -- Empowerment, not Punishment
When having a conversation with an educational colleague who does not believe in the concept of behavior management for young children, one would first explain what exactly the concept of behavior management is.
Fundamentally, behavior management is an empowering educational tool by which students are rewarded for exhibiting positive and desirable behavior in the classroom towards others and in regards to their learning, and discouraged from exhibiting negative behaviors.
This is accomplished by only rewarding positive behavior examples and by punishing children not through punitive measures so much as withholding the stimulus of a reward.
The strategy of behavior modification can be employed in a variety of age-appropriate settings, varying the demonstrable reward with the child's level of intellectual and emotional maturity. The issues of age appropriateness is particularly important to the theory of behavior management because the child must comprehend, not…
In behavior management, a young child must first be shown how his or her needs can be met, through appropriate behavior, on a basic functional level. For instance, a very young child must understand that if he or she behaves appropriately, snack time will 'happen' as a result of his or her willingness to clean up his or her work space and prepare for this desirable activity. As the child grows older and becomes more cognizant of the needs of others, he or she begins to realize that the behavior of sharing brings about positive emotional and physical responses of mutual sharing in others and results in the formation of lasting friendships. However, a child will only be willing to share his or her snack, for instance, if he or she is receiving enough food at home, and can be reliably sure that his or her own sense of security -- the snack given at snack time -- will not be arbitrarily snatched away for no reason, because of no behavior of his or her own.
Positive and reliable reinforcement ultimately results in the child or young adolescent reaching the highest principle of the hierarchy, seeking fulfillment in the larger 'scheme of things' by helping others to achieve a sense of empowerment in the world. Greater responsibility leads to greater approval and a sense of internal empowerment and satisfaction on the hierarchy of needs. This value of behavior management is in evidence not simply for children who are within the conventional, accepted framework of developmental identity, but even those children with emotional and behavior problems. The concept of IDEA, for instance, an advocacy group designed to help such children, is based upon the idea of social modeling, which states that, by being educated with other children and being placed in a relatively unrestrictive environment, troubled children will have age-appropriate social models on which to model their behaviors. (CECP.AIR.ORG, 2004) In line with Erikson's theories of behavior modification, IDEA suggests that cloistering special-needs children away from other children denies them the ability to engage in age-appropriate interactions.
Although special needs children with additional emotional, intellectual, or behavioral needs may need individual tutoring and reinforcement outside of the classroom, they also require the social teaching that takes place in the context of a community that includes all individuals, and exposes them to the needs and apprehensions of others, and the system of behavior that rewards socially open and giving behavior and discourages behavior that is selfish and threatening to the needs of others.
Behavior management is a huge component of classroom life that often takes new teachers by surprise. Presenting creative lessons in the context of a teacher education program is much different than in an actual classroom filled with lively elementary school students.
Kraft (2010) points out that teaching and learning can take place only when the proper environment is created and maintained. Inexperienced teachers in particular may resort to "draconian classroom management tactics" (p. 45) out of frustration and fear of loss of control. Well-established classroom procedures make the classroom a student-centered place rather than one that is teacher-centered. Kraft asserts that the best-behaved students are not the ones whose teacher has the strictest rules but the one who has the most interesting and engaging lessons.
Kraft honed his theory in a challenging environment: Life Academy, a small sub-school for at-risk ninth graders at Berkeley High School in California.…
Kraft, M.A. (2010). From ringmaster to conductor: 10 simple techniques can turn an unruly class into a productive one. Phi Delta Kappan 91(7), pp. 44-48.
Lee Canter's theory on classroom discipline is designed to accomplish two primary objectives: 1) Increase teachers' efficiency when dealing with student disruption, and 2) to reduce incidences of unacceptable behavior by students by providing proactive instruction about expected student behavior (Burden, 2003). Canter recommends a three-step cycle of behavior management to increase the positive behavior of students and ensure a productive learning environment. The three-steps of the positive behavior management cycle are as follows: 1) Pre-teach the positive behaviors that students are to perform; 2) Use positive repetition to reinforce the incidence of desirable behaviors; and, 3) If undesirable behavior do occur, following implementation of steps 1) and 2) above, the negative consequences outline in students' Discipline Plan may be used. Underlying this three-step cycle is a belief that children learn to make good choices through clear follow-up with appropriate and understood positive and negative consequences (Arthur-Kelly et…
Burden, P.R. (2003). Classroom management: Creating a successful learning community (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.
Arthur-Kelly et al. (2006) "Classroom Management: Creating positive learning environments" (2nd ed.) Austin, TX: Thomson.
Discussion Questions on Behavior Management
Managing a group of people requires managers have to understand the people very well. Appreciating the psychological differences like perceptions, aspirations, and motivations of people whether at the workplace or a classroom is a recipe for successful group management. Failure to understand these aspects can cause problems in the whole management process. The same concept is very applicable to a school set up. The head teacher has to understand the psychology of the children for him to administer them well. The ability to monitor the progress of students, especially the young ones requires that the teacher in charge understands each one of them at individual level.
Disruptive behaviors are those behaviors that children have that make them turn against systems and go against the standard norm. Disruptive behaviors make children rebellious and go against the authorities placed before them. Disruptive behaviors…
IRIS, (2015). The IRIS Center: Classroom Management Part 1. Retrieved January 28, 2015 from http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/beh1/
The management in the making / influencing of a decision. In accordance to these criteria, the Competing Values Framework identifies four categories of organizational cultures:
Hierarchy, in which a strict chain of command is implemented
Market, in which control is sought, but emphasis is placed on customers
Clan, in which greater emphasis is placed on flexibility, rather than control, and fourth
Adhocracy, in which emphasis is placed on independence and control.
Finally, the Denison Culture Model is less structural and less focused on the creation and identification of specific types of culture. It is in fact constructed on a quarter of a century of research and its focus is that of aligning the organizational culture to the organizational features and goals. The Denison Culture Model is based "on the link between organizational culture and bottom-line performance measures such as return on investment, sales growth, quality, innovation and employee satisfaction" (Denison…
Richman, T., 1999, the culture wars, Inc. Magazine, http://www.inc.com/magazine/19990515/4702.html last accessed on March 4, 2011
Deal and Kennedy's Cultural Model, Changing minds, http://changingminds.org/explanations/culture/deal_kennedy_culture.htm last accessed on March 4, 2011
Denison Culture Model, Denison Consulting, http://www.denisonconsulting.com/advantage/researchModel/model.aspx last accessed on March 4, 2011
The Competing Values Framework, Changing Minds, http://changingminds.org/explanations/culture/competing_values.htm last accessed on March 4, 2011
Classroom Management and Behavior
It is a confirmed fact that relationships are a critical component of both classroom and behavior management. This fact is particularly truthful when applied to male students. Current research indicates that, "For so many of the boys, the issue was not what subject or instructional approach engaged them, but rather for whom they might risk engagement and effort" (eichert & Hawley, 2014). Obviously, the boys denoted in this study are "risking" their effort for the instructor. Moreover, instructors that are able to create a positive relationship with students will be able to engage them better -- better engaged students require less disciplinary efforts than less engaged students. The efficacy of a positive relationship with students to the related ease of classroom and behavior management is described in the subsequent quotation: "You don't win on the strength of your argument. You win on the strength of your…
Budden, J. (2010). Establishing the ground rules. www.teachingenglish.org Retrieved from http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/language-assistant/teaching-tips/establishing-ground-rules .
Ferlazzo, L. (2015). Why viewing classroom management as a mystery can be a good thing. www.edweek.org Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/tm/articles/2015/03/24/why-viewing-classroom-management-as-a-mystery.html
Goulston, M. (2013). Practical tips for overcoming resistance. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2013/07/practical-tips-for-overcoming-r/
Paton, G. (2014). Shouting at children 'increases their behavior problems'. The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/10750525/Shouting-at-children-increases-their-behaviour-problems.html
For example, a teacher would tell a class of first graders to "Please keep your hands and feet to yourself" instead of "Don't hit or kick." It is a distinction that seems simple but has been proven effective.
While it is essential to establish clear teacher-student boundaries, it is important for teachers to build rapport with their students. Guerico (2011) writes that teachers can be friendly without being a friend. Students do not automatically obey an authority figure, but will obey if they respect their teacher. Again, a calm demeanor and clear expectations are important to establishing a climate of respect. Guerico further suggests that teachers let students see them as human beings by putting a few personal items in the classroom (e.g., pictures of family or pets, banners of favorite sports teams). Likewise, teachers should find out about students' interests and, when possible, attend school events such…
Clement, M.C. (2010). Preparing teacher for classroom management: The teacher educator's role. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin 77 (1), 41-44.
Denton, P., & Kriete, R. (2000). The first six-week of school. Turners Falls, MA: Northeast
Foundation for Children.
Frisby, B.N., & Martin, M.M. (2010). Instructor-student and student-student rapport in the classroom. Communication Education 59 (2), 146-164.
he had read Canter's various books; had seen his skills in practice, and was impressed. he decided to use Paul as 'case study' in order to base Canter's techniques on him.
The Cycle in practice
On Ms. Z's first day in school she underlines three letters on the blackboard: WL. This she explains stands for:
tudents Will Learn.
Beneath these she groups 4 rules (1. No calling out; 2. No leaving chair, 3. No eating in class, 4. Respectful talking and conduct to teacher and classmates.) On the wall, has already been pasted a colorful chart with the exact same rules, pictures illustrating their intent.
Miss Z. then carefully and thoroughly walks their content, explaining the rules and their parallel consequence (both reward and punishment -- although Canter seems to emphasize punishment) when obeyed or disobeyed. Miss Z. then asks students to restate the rules in their own…
Canter, L. Assertive discipline: More than names on the board and marbles in a jar. Web. http://campus.dyc.edu/~drwaltz/FoundLearnTheory/FLT_readings/Canter.htm.
Canter, L. (1976). Assertive discipline: A take-charge approach for today's educator. Seal Beach: Canter & Assoc.
Canter, L. & Canter, M. (1992). Canter's assertive discipline: Positive behavior management for today's classroom. CA: Canter & Assoc.
Responsibility in Student ehavior
Previous research on behavior modification has varied in effectiveness with specific type of behavior, or class of behaviors, and the specific type of behavioral intervention (Packer, 2010). The research shows programs that attempt to teach skills, such as self-control and responsibility, as well as incorporate parents and home tend to be more effective than programs that just promote discipline or obedience. The management of contingencies, such as rewards based on good behavior, may reduce inappropriate behaviors if they are implemented classroom wide.
Educational experts feel that effective strategies should focus on prevention at the system and individual levels (Smallwood). Understanding the underlying drivers of the behavior will help to address the whole problem instead of just the end result. Underlying behaviors are complex, but include the lack of social skills, peer pressure, and frustration. It also helps to identify triggers that cause the behavior. The goal…
Marshall, M. & . (2004, Mar). Using a Discipline System to Promote Learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 85(7), 498-507.
Marshall, M. (2005, Sept/Oct). Discipline without Stress, Punishments, or Rewards. Retrieved from The Clearing House: http://www.drradloff.com/documents/discipline-without-stress-punishment-or-reward.pdf
Marshall, M. (n.d.). The Raise Responibility System. Retrieved from Marvin Marshall: http://www.marvimarshall.com/discipline/the-raise-resposibility-systemoveriew-of-the-system-2/
Packer, L. (2010). Is Behavior Modification Even Appropriate? Retrieved from Tourette Syndrome "Plus": http://www.tourettesyndrome.net/behaviors/is-behavior-modification-even-appropriate/
School-Wide Behavior Management
POSITIVE BEHAVIO SUPPOT ATICLE EVIEW
Positive Behavior Support: Article eview
Positive Behavior Support (PBS) is best conceived of as a framework that governs how schools consider and make choices about the discipline in their schools, rather than a particular behavioral management approach. The article suggests a four-step process for schools to better integrate PBS into their secondary and tertiary responses to the 20% of students who do not respond to the initial approach. The four step iterative approach consists of the following: (a) prediction -- not only identifying which students are most likely to misbehave, but what other factors work to create the situations in which they do; (b) high-probability interventions, using the information gathered in the prediction to intervene and avoid possible misbehavior; (c) consistency, using interventions correctly and consistency; and (d) assessment, looking to see what students are still struggling and what can be done…
Scott, T.M., Alter, P.J., Rosenberg, M., & Borgmeier, C. (2010). Decision-making in Secondary and Tertiary Interventions of School-Wide Systems of Positive Behavior Support. Education & Treatment of Children, 33(4), 513-535. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Organizational Behavior and Management Coursework
The objective of this report is to describe the organizational changes in the context of strategy, structure and design as a result of the changes. The report also consists of recommendations on approaches to achieve organizational effectiveness for the organization identified.
With reference to a hypothetical organization example, the company which has been identified is ZingFresh Holdings Pte Ltd. As the subject organization of this report. The efficiency and effectiveness of their corporate structure will be the topic of discussion of the case study on how the organization uses its resources, controls coordination and motivation in order to achieve the organization's goals.
Introduction of the Organization:
ZingFresh Holdings Pte Ltd. is a producer of a variety of value brand and store brand foods like ready to eat meals, sauces and frozen pre-baked products. They are well-known for their 'ezymeal' 'ezyBBQ' and 'chef's choice' brand of…
Colombo, M. & Delmastro, M., 2004. Delegation of Authority in Business Organizations: An Empirical Test. The Journal of Industrial Economics, 52(1), 53-80.
Gronroos, C., 1994. From Scientific Management to Service Management: A Management Perspective for the Age of Service Competition. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 5(1), 5-20.
Hackman, J. & Oldham, G., 1976. Motivation through the design of the work: test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16(2), 250-279.
Harris, J., 1997. Scientific Management, Bureau-Professionalism, New Managerialism: The Labour Process of State Social Work. British Journal of Social Work, 28(6), 839-862.
Disobedience & Christian Classroom Management
A Critical Analysis of Charles Howell's "Is Disobedience Sin? Christian Perspectives on Problems of Classroom Management" Philosophy of Education.
In an article published in Philosophy of Education, Charles Howell sets out several perspectives and attitudes concerning the role and conception of classroom disobedience held by various vested interests in public education. Howell's examines points brought up in obert Kunzman's review of Nel Noddings book on religion in American public schools in order to reframe issues frequently seen as political divisive in a context searching for mutual agreements between Christian parents and secular educators. The author analyzes the root of what constitutes "disobedience" and thus what is appropriate classroom management in the secular and Christian concepts in an effort to acknowledge these core differences so that the focus might be put upon finding solutions that satisfy the needs of secular educators and Christian families.
Howell, Charles. (2006). "Is disobedience sin? Christian perspectives on problems of classroom management" Philosophy of Education. Pp. 465-473.
Effective diversity management, on the other hand, provides a means more than just the elimination of potential sources of revenue loss; it means actually increasing revenue through customer satisfaction that is known to generate increased patronage and brand loyalty (ussell-Whalling, 2008), especially in the restaurant services industry.
Organizational Dynamics and the ole of Managers in the etail Services Industry
The highly competitive nature of modern retail restaurant services makes traditional supervisory and management practices comparatively ineffective, especially in areas outside of direct operational dynamics. Traditional supervisor-subordinate relationships are sufficient to provide training in mechanical procedures and operations; they are comparatively ineffective at cultivating a commitment to becoming part of an organizational culture (George & Jones, 2008).
Especially with respect to inexperienced, part-time, non-career, and seasonal employees, it is preferable for organizational leaders (Bennis, 2009) and managers (Lencioni, 2009) to develop a more personal connection to their staff members. In fact,…
Armenakis a, Field H, and Harris S. "Making Change Permanent: A Model for Institutionalizing Change Interventions." Research in Organizational Change and Development. Vol. 12, (1999). Stanford: JAI Press.
Bennis W. "Acting the Part of a Leader." Business Week; September 14, 2009.
George JM. And Jones GR. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational
Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Managing the Cultural Values and Emotions of Employees
This essay is intended to explain the reasons that determine the use of employees' values management by certain companies and their effects. I consider that this method is not recommended as a strategy for improving the performance standards of employees in such companies. Certain contexts have revealed the fact that managing employees' cultural values and emotions can produce benefits, but this does not recommend the large use of this technique. The Corporate Culture section provides the arguments of several specialists in the field that explain the relationship between corporate culture, employees' values, and their performance. The Benefits of Managing the Cultural Values of Employees section addresses some of the benefits that can be observed in certain situations. The Managing Employees' Values and their Effects section addresses the reduced level of efficiency and other effects that such strategies have on the motivational standards…
5. Parker, M. (2000). Organizational Culture and Identity. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
6. Peters, T. & Waterman, R. (1982). In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best-Run Companies. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
7. Willmott, H. (1993). Strength is Ignorance, Slavery is Freedom: Managing Culture in Modern Organizations. Journal of Management Studies. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
Managing Behaviors & Teaching Social Skills
Antisocial behavior in schools in on the rise and has become a concern in school systems, from both a learning perspective and from a safety perspective, as well. Previously, schools have dealt with such behaviors using punitive measures such as expulsion, or even law enforcement measures to attempt to discourage youth from behaving in an undesirable manner. These programs have had little or no effect on curbing behavior problems in schools. Second Step and Boys Town are programs, which implement a positive approach to behavior management. These programs teach youth alternatives to violence and stress problem solving, coping, and conflict management. These programs have had considerably greater success than their predecessors. This research will qualitatively explore the theoretical issues behind the success of these two programs and take a critical look at them to explore ways in which they may be further improved for…
Butterworth, F. (1998, July 26). Why the South's murder rate is so high. The New York Times on the Web. ( http://www.nytimes.com )
Capra. F. (1996). The Web of Life. New York: Anchor Books.
Carlson, N.R. (1994). Physiology of behavior. Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Cohen, D., Nisbett, R.E., & Bowdle, B.F. (1996). Insult, aggression, and the southern culture of honor: an "experimental ethnography." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 945-960.
Managing the Modern Workforce
Date Here (Day, Month, Year)
When an organization expands its operations into international markets, it hires individuals from different nations and cultures. These individuals are culturally diverse and need to be managed effectively. Numerous researches have been conducted to elucidate this important issue of the business world; each of them has some application for the modern management practices. Although workforce diversity is more an issue of the 21st Century, but massive of researches have been conducted in the late 80's and 90's.
The literature has some limitations which entice the modern researches to work on this issue and broaden the basis of knowledge for the future studies. The biggest limitation is the unclear definition of workforce diversity. Every researcher has given his own definition for this concept; however the most common definition is explained in the context of 'culture'. Most of the…
Darmadi, S., 2010, Do Women in Top Management Affect Firm Performance? Evidence from Indonesia. Indonesian Capital Market and Financial Institution Supervisory Agency (Bapepam-LK), pp. 2-5 Available at
Ferro, N., 2004, Cross-Country Ethical Dilemmas in Business: A Descriptive Framework. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Working Paper No. 28, pp. 16-22. Available at
Guidroz, A., M., Kotrba, L., M., & Denison, D., R., 2009, Workplace Diversity: Is National or Organizational Culture Predominant? Linkage, Denison Consulting, LLC, pp. 1-5
Huckman, R., S., & B., R., Staats, 2010, Fluid Tasks and Fluid Teams: The Impact of Diversity in Experience and Team Familiarity on Team Performance, Harvard Business School Technology & Operations Management. Unit Working Paper No. 09-145, pp. 2-10. Available at
The success of leaders and managers is contingent on the following three key capabilities: positive intelligence, emotional intelligence, and cultural intelligence (Kaifi, 2013). Management and leadership modification focuses on leaders' capability of motivating subordinates to deliver extraordinary performance. Further, it relies on leaders' efficacy of creating opportunities capable of facilitating personnel transformation of problems into achievements, in difficult periods. Emergency management necessitates robust leadership which may spur enterprise growth, produce change, and thus reshape the firm's business operations as well as long- and short-term stakeholder perceptions regarding the firm (Fragouli & Ibidapo, 2015).
A successful leader can grasp the fact that he/she is best- equipped for decision making because of his/her thorough organizational knowledge. While specialists' narrow focus is necessary, it only supplements and doesn't replace a leader's thorough organizational knowledge. Change management constitutes a well- discussed subject in corporate efficacy and management literature. Among the most difficult…
Anderson, E. (2014, April 10). Manage or Lead? Do Both. Forbes.
Fragouli, E., & Ibidapo, B. (2015). Leading in Crisis - Leading Org Change and Business Development. International Journal of Information, Business and Management, 71 - 90.
Kaifi, B. (2013). Organizational Behavior: Managing and Leading Organizations. Llumina Press.
Stanfield, R. (2016). From Managing to Leading - Unlocking the Hidden Talent. BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care, 99 - 112.
Classroom Behavior Management
Developing a classroom that takes cultural diversity into account begins with understanding one's own ethnocentrism, that a lot of what we take for granted pertains specifically to our own cultural upbringing. Children who come from other cultures -- and their parents -- may well have different ideas and ideals. It is important to learn about the different cultures that are present in my classroom, as a starting point for understanding. A lot of developing an inclusive classroom involves listening to students and parents, so as to understand their cultures better, and how that pertains to the classroom. My plan would have specific Tier 1 rules, governing the basics of classroom behavior that are not subject to question on the basis of culture. But there will also need to be more of an individualized (Tier 2) approach, where some students from other cultures might receive special attention, or…
Scientific management can best be defined as a method for conducting business operations by implementing a scientific approach to a company's business practices. Scientific management is normally associated with the methodology used by manufacturing companies who employed assembly line workers on a large scale. The methodology emphasized the manner in which the employees were employed, especially concentrating on labor, time and measurement of performance of each employee. Early scientific management methods were also implemented in other areas (outside of manufacturing) such as; the railroads. One article states "that scientific management techniques were far more widespread in railroading than has been thought" (Aldrich, 2010, p. 503) and then went on to explain that "while most studies of scientific management in industry have emphasized incentive pay and time studies, in the railroads there were less important than standardization, production scheduling and routing, and assembly line repair methods" (Aldrich, p. 503).…
Aldrich, M.; (2010) On the track of efficiency: Scientific management comes to railroad shops, 1900 -- 1930, Business History Review, Vol. 84, Issue 3, pp. 501 -- 526
Koll, S.; (2009) Is bureaucracy compatible with democracy?, South African Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 28, Issue 2, pp. 134-145
MANAGING CONSUME BEHAVIOS & UNDESTANDING CONSUME PECEPTIONS
Understanding consumer behavior is a pursuit that answers why, when, how, and where people buy or do not buy products. Consumer behavior is an area that combines topics such as economics, media studies, sociology, and psychology. Predicting and understanding consumer behavior is a challenge for experts and novices alike. Perception can be a biological process by which a person's brain interprets and organizes stimuli so as to gain awareness and understanding of one's environment. Perception can also be psychological and social phenomena. The paper surveys literature that proves the correlations and implications between consumer perception and consumer behavior.
Managing Consumer Behaviors & Understanding Consumer Perceptions
Perception is a large determinant or factor apart of behavior. Therefore, gaining understanding of consumer perceptions can illuminate the reasons behind certain types of consumer behaviors. With accurate data reflecting the connection between consumer behaviors and…
Christandl, F., & Garlin, T. (2011) The Accuracy of Consumers' Perception of Future Inflation Prices. Journal of Psychology, 219(4), 209 -- 216.
Schneider, B. (1973) The Perception of Organizational Climate: The Customer's View. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57(3), 248 -- 256.
Schneider, B., & Bowen, D.E. (1985) Employee and Customer Perceptions of Service in Banks: Replication and Extension. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70(3), 423 -- 433.
Schneider, B., Hanges, P.J., Goldstein, H.W., & Braverman, E.P. (1994) Do Customer Service Perceptions Generalize? The Case of Student and Chair Ratings of Faculty Effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(5), 685 -- 690.
Behavior Management Theories and Applications
The Theory of Planned Behavior & Theory of easoned Action
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is one of the most commonly mentioned and used behavior management theories. It is one of a carefully interrelated family of concepts, which follows a cognitive strategy to describing behavior, which centers on individuals' behavior and values. The TPB progressed from the Theory of easoned Action, which posited intention to act as the best forecaster of behavior. The intention is itself a result of the mixture of attitudes towards behavior (Dunlap, 2012). That is a good or bad assessment of the behavior and its predicted results, and very subjective standards, which are the social pressures used on a person as a result of their views of what others think they should do and their tendency to adhere to these. The TPB included a third set of aspects…
Dunlap, L.L. (2012). What all children need: Theory and application. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
Ellis, S. & Tod, J. (2013). Behaviour for Learning: Proactive Approaches to Behaviour Management. New York: Routledge.
Florian, L., & Hegarty, J. (2007). ICT and Special Educational Needs. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill International (UK) Ltd.
Henley, M. (2010). Classroom management: A proactive approach. Boston: Pearson.
Managing Diversity and Equal Opportunity
With the turn of the 21st century, a dramatic increase is being witnessed in the international flow of labor with repercussion for domestic labor supply and management. The native, racial and emigre mixture of the employees is predominantly important for the workplace. The importance of this domestic cultural multiplicity in the labor force, highlighted by worldwide influences and necessities, has lately encouraged the researchers to focus on the companies' and managers' response to diversity, be it of any form (Watson, Spoonley, & Fitzgerald, 2009).
If the workforce of the present times is compared with the one that was found 20 years ago, it will be easy to observe that there are "more white women, people of color, disabled persons, new and recent immigrants, gays and lesbians, and intergenerational mixes (i.e., baby boomers, Generation Xers, and Generation Nexters)" (iccucci, 2002) today. This situation has given birth…
Hemphills, H., & Hayne, R. (1997). Discrimination, Harassment, and the Failure of Diversity Training: What to Do Now. Westport, CT: Quorum Book. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/23366693/discrimination-harassment-and-the-failure-of-diversity
King, A.S. (1995, December). Capacity for Empathy: Confronting Discrimination in Managing Multicultural WorkForce Diversity. Business Communication Quarterly, 58(4), 46+. Retrieved December 14, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-18023663/capacity-for-empathy-confronting-discrimination-in
Ollapally, A., & Bhatnagar, J. The Holistic Approach to Diversity Management: HR Implications. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 44(3), 454+. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-210224380/the-holistic-approach-to-diversity-management-hr
Riccucci, N.M. (2002). Managing Diversity in Public Sector Workforces. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Retrieved December 14, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/100875091/managing-diversity-in-public-sector-workforces
Managing Human esources
Change and conflict are some of the manager's current challenges. This thesis tries to inquire into the change processes and managers response to conflicts that arise as a result of change resistance. The manifestation of conflict and the impact of conflict are also discussed. The thesis also looks into the different theories formulated to explain change process and their relationship to conflict management. Also covered is the way decision makers can mitigate conflict and bring sanity in their organizations.
Today's managers are faced with the trade off between change and conflict. Change has become an irresistible part of organization and managers must therefore come up withy strategies and policies of managing change in an order to reduce conflict that may hinder the performance and also to reduce performance gap.
Conflict is bound to occur when different individuals have different perception, opinion, ideas and thought. Change and…
Knudsen T.(2003).Human Capital Management: New Possibilities in People Management. Journal of Business Ethics, 21(2),42-45.
Humphreys, M. (2005). Natural Resources, Conflict, and Conflict Resolution: Uncovering the Mechanisms. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49 (4), 23-36.
Kindler, H.S. (2005). Conflict Management: Resolving Disagreements in the Workplace. London: Thomson/Course Technology.
Kotter, J. (1995, march-april). Leading Change:Why Transformation Efforts Fail. Havard Business School Review, 59-67.
In other words, he expects for his efforts to be accordingly remunerated or rewarded with a promotion, a full time job offer for a trainee and so on (Stuart-Kotze, 2008).
In implementing these individual needs, organizational managers have developed numerous incentive plans, such as the offering of increased wages, premiums, bonuses or promotions.
The four above presented theories are relevant in the context of driving the individual, which is then capable to influence the organizational behavior of his employing company. The responses generated by the economic entities relative to the motivational factors vary in terms of intensity, ability to implement or resources possessed, but fact remains that all organizations have attempted to integrate stimuli that increase the performances of the workers. The ultimate goal of each organization offering incentive plans to its staff members is that of best benefiting from their intense efforts.
Aside the offering of a pleasant, yet…
Fabozzi, F.J., Peterson, P.P., 2003, Financial Management and Analysis, 2nd Edition, John Willey and Sons Inc.
Hariss, J.O., Hartman, S.J., 2001, Organizational Behavior, 1st Edition, Taylor & Francis Inc.
Stuart-Kotze, R., 2008, Motivation Theory, http://www.goal-setting-guide.com/motivation-theory.htmllast accessed on September 15, 2008
2008, Official Website of the Microsoft Corporation, http://www.microsoft.com/en/us/default.aspxlast accessed on September 15, 2008
He wished to build the happiest place on the planet and this message continues to be handed over to the new recruits who join the organization presently also. Disney exists to give a guarantee to the Americans that are there for real. Disneyland is not just unreal, rather it is hyper-real. As a result it is possible to express of the corporate culture of Disney as being created. ("eading Organizations from behavior and experience to representation and experience," n. d.)
4) Explain how the four functions of management support the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture
The four functions of management support the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture as it leads to planning, organizing, leading and coordinating of resources and it is these 4 activities which recur across the institution and are extremely unified. Present features relating to management cover claims leading are distinct from…
Arnold, Paul. V. (2002) "Fixing manufacturing" MRO Today Magazine, Retrieved at http://www.progressivedistributor.com/mro/archives/mro%20coach/Lynch/FixingJJ02.htm
Bryman, Alan. (1995) "Disney and His World"
N.A. (2007) "Disney Institute Homepage" Retrieved at http://www.disneyinstitute.com/index.cfm
This can come in a number of forms, including rules, "best practices" and job descriptions. Output controls place the focus squarely on the output, with significantly less attention on the behaviors that lead to the output. For example, when a sales person has a quota, that is an output control because the behavior is driven entirely by the end result. Input controls works by placing constraints on process inputs as a means of exerting control. An example might be setting a strict budget for a project. This focuses the manager on sticking to that budget, a process that the organization feels will result in the goals being achieved.
Benchmarking is useful for most firms. The exception would be firms that for one reason or another are not in a competitive environment. For those firms that are in a competitive environment, they can benefit from benchmarking because the benchmark sets the…
McNamara, Carter. (2008). Basics of Action Planning. Free Management Library. Retrieved May 9, 2009 from http://managementhelp.org/plan_dec/str_plan/actions.htm
No author. (2009). Create an Entrepreneurial Culture Among Your Employees. Score. Retrieved May 9, 2009 from http://www.score.org/culture_employees.html
Wheelen, T.L., and Hunger D.J.,(2008). Strategic Management and Business
Policy, (11th ed) Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall
Should the outcomes perform well against the goals, then the performance appraisal process must undergo a re-evaluation. Theories about the underperformance of key outcomes can be matched against feedback from the appraisers and the employees. From that point, a course of action can be developed that will alter the appraisal process to better align it with its objectives. The final step in the control mechanism is the adjustment process. The new ideas must be incorporated into the existing appraisal system. These new ideas must then be tested to determine if they have been as effective as intended, or if they have even moved the outcomes further from the objectives. At this point, the manager is engaged in a feedback loop that exists to continuously improve the performance appraisal process.
Performance appraisals are often conducted poorly, and this has led to considerable criticism of the tool. There are three fundamental…
Heskett, Jim (2006). What's to be Done About Performance Reviews? Harvard Business School. Retrieved November 26, 2008 at http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/5563.html
No author. (2008). Performance Reviews. Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved November 26, 2008 at http://www.cmu.edu/hr/hr_services/performance/reviews.html
Culbert, Samuel a. (2008) Get Rid of the Performance Review! MIT Sloan Management Review. Retrieved November 26, 2008 at http://sloanreview.mit.edu/wsj/insight/hr/2008/10/20/
No author. (2004) Performance Appraisal Handbook. United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved November 26, 2008 at http://www.doi.gov/hrm/guidance/370dm430hndbk.pdf
Inducements motivate employees and can also distribute power effectively. A third recommendation would be for Green to admit that he was wrong, take the consequences and work to improve.
The disproportionate use of power conflicted in a bad relationship between two colleagues. Each person sought advice from outside group members. Thomas Green and Frank Davis' issues developed into a great conflict. Power strategies are effectual when properly used, and people of lower status can hold a great amount of power upon higher status employees. Organizational issues influence a person's political performance as well as the amount of power that they hold. Power and political disparity should always be kept within the concerned group.
Secondary tension is the tension that occurs as group members struggle for influence, develop roles, and norms, and explore differences in approaching the group task (Jenkin, 2010). This concept is a summary of what was happening between…
Jenkin, Kate. (2010). Workplace Stress. Retreived August 3, 2010, from docstoc Web site:
McShane, Stephen L. And Von Glinow, Mary Ann. (2010). Organizational Behavior, 5th ed.
Boston: McGraw Hill Irwin
"The most important issues which have to be addressed here are precise monitoring (diagnosis) of current results and their comparison with what has been planned. Effective managerial control must always be followed by feedback for correcting initial plans " (http://www.bashedu.ru/konkurs/ibatullina/eng/function.htm).
The observation of the way in which people within an organization behave is of extreme importance. ut leaders and managers obtain feedback not just from observations, but directly from people. This provides them with a better understanding of the relation between the actions performed by the individuals and the beliefs which guide their behaviour. An efficacious control upon these factors implies the contribution to the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture.
There are various strategies that an organization can choose to implement in order to make sure it preserves a healthy organizational culture. Among them we can mention the adoption of various principles, such as the following: a…
Baker, Kathryn (2002), Organizational Culture, 19 May, 2007, <
Four Management Functions, 19 May, 2007, http://www.bashedu.ru/konkurs/ibatullina/eng/function.htm
Schein, Edgar, H (1992), Organizational Culture and Leadership, San Francisco: Jossey -Bass Publishers
When all the needs or expectations of the stakeholders are met, the business will continue to thrive.
Core Human esource Functions
Involuntary turnover is rampant among employees of high talent. These employees form then crucial asset that determine the overall success of the organization. Involuntary turnover occurs due to issues such as frequent absences, premature termination of contracts, sexual harassment or by the mere fact that an employee becomes overqualified for a particular job. Supposing I were a top H manager in my firm I would hire people who are qualified to fill any vacant positions taking keen attention to exclude overqualified persons so as top avoid the occurrence of involuntary turnover in the future (Taylor, 2005).
Additionally, I would introduce strategies that seek to retain employees in the organization. One of the strategies would be to introduce teambuilding activities such as retreats and workshops. I would also ensure that…
Svensson, G., & Wood, G. (2003). The dynamics of business ethics: a function of time and culture -- cases and models. Management Decision, 41(4), p350.
Taylor, S. (2005). People resourcing. London: Chartered Inst. Of Personnel and Development.
If one takes the broad generalization of the mega-environment (general environment); one finds the conditions and trends that make up the organizational culture or even the society in which one operates. This term actually encompasses a number of similar and disparate factors. The technological part of the environment tends to focus on knowledge; the economic element the means of production, distribution and consumption of wealth; the legal-political element focuses on the governmental or rule-based systems to organize the society; the international element the external relationships, and the socio-cultural environment the attitudes, values, norms, believes and behaviors of a particular group or organization (Organizational Environment and Culture, 2008). All these forces are a sum total of how organizations act and react -- whether regionally or internationally.
The legal-political element of the environment is the systems that organize that environment, the rules that are enforced, and the overall manner in…
Organizational Environment and Culture. (2008). Zainbooks.com. Retrieved from:
Bendell, T. (2005). Structuring Business Process Improvement Methodologies. Total Quality Management, 16(8-9): 969-78.
Brown, L.M. And B.Z. Posner. (2001). "Exploring the Relationship Between Learning and Leadership," Leadership and Organizational Development. May, 2001: 274-80.
In my opinion, valuable organizational change is a process. It is nothing that comes from one day to the other. It requires the combined efforts of the organization as a whole: Skilled managers and the commitment of an organization's workforce alike.
Discussion of the paper's results: What are the key findings? What does it add to the body of knowledge?
The key findings of the paper are threefold.
First, the current management of organizational change tends to be reactive in its response to the pace of change that has never been greater than today. Second, successful management of change within organizations is a highly required skill. Third, further research into the nature of change management needs to be conducted and a new and pragmatic framework for change management is needed as a critical success factor for the management of change. It adds to the body of knowledge, that managerial skills…
Historical records show that people always organized themselves in order to work together towards a common objective and they coordinated their efforts to achieve this objective (Accel-Team 2004). It was not until the latter part of the 19th century that the concept of scientific management entered history during the Industrial evolution, but management skills existed long before the 19th century. Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, ancient Chinese erected the Great Wall of China, the Mesopotamians irrigated their lands and walled their cities and the omans of old put up their roads, aqueducts and notably Hadrian's Wall not without established and superb management standards of their leaders (Accel-Team) and massive obedience and coordination among the followers. The pyramids of Egypt, wonders of the world, each measure 75,600 square feet at the base, 480 feet high and consists of more than two million blocks of stone, each weighing 2.5 tons.…
1. Accel-Team. (2004). Developments from Ancient History. Accel-Team.com. http://www.accel-team/scientific
2. Allen, G. (1998). Management History. Supervision. http://allie.dcccd.edu.mgnmt1374
3. Geocities. (2004). Human Behavior. http://www.geocities.com/the sydication/hr.html
4. McNamara, C. (1999). Very Brief History of Management Theories. http://www.mapnp.org/library/mgmnt/history.htm
(Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce)
Agencies are required to develop a good understanding of their individual strengths and weaknesses so as to plan their programs to their best advantage. An agency acquires this information by evaluating the views of the employees on diversity issues. Analysis of the trends and projections of the workforce in determination of the skills gaps and necessitates and devising successive planning strategies are crucial moves for agency strategic and business planning. Such efforts facilitate the managers with the required facts so as to be aware of the assignment of resources and the making the necessary planning for the future work of the organization and the points of concentration of their energy to produce a high performance organization. (Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce)
The successful managers understand the necessary skills for producing a successful diverse workforce. Firstly they should be aware of the discrimination and…
Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce" (25 June 2000) Retrieved at http://www.opm.gov/Diversity/diversity-3.htm . Accessed on 15 January, 2005
Creating a Diverse Workforce" Retrieved from Retrieved at http://www.businessweek.com/adsections/diversity/diversework.htm . Accessed on 15 January, 2005
Recruiting and Managing a Diverse Workforce" Retrieved at http://www.vault.com/nr/newsmain.jsp?nr_page=3&ch_id=402&article_id=19018&cat_id=1102Accessed on 15 January, 2005
Green, Kelli A; L. pez, Mayra; Wysocki, Allen; Kepner, Karl. "Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges, and the Required Managerial Tools" University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved at http://www.minoritygraduate.com/feature27.asp. Accessed on 15 January, 2005
Management of Work-elated Stress
Who is responsible for the management of work-related stress? While there are those who are convinced that the responsibility of managing work-related stress lies primarily with the management of an organization, others are of the opinion that individual employees have the primary responsibility for managing work-related stress. In this text, I not only state but also substantiate my position on these divergent points-of-view.
The Management of Work elated Stress
In basic terms, "stress is the experience of opportunities or threats that people perceive as important and also perceive they might not be able to handle or deal with effectively" (George & Jones, 2010, p. 245). It is important to note from the onset that although stress related to work is somewhat normal, excessive stress on this front could be counterproductive. This is more so the case in those instances where it affects both the emotional and…
George, J.M. & Jones, G.R. (2010). Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior (6th ed.). New York: PH Professional Business.
Hawkins, L. (Ed.). (2003). Tolley's Guide to Managing Employee Health. Ohio: LexisNexis Group.
Management Approach That Offers the Best Outcomes
for Knowledge Development
Understanding business, and what that process contains, is extremely complex. It takes years of study and focus to gain even a rudimentary idea of all a company has to do to remain viable. A company has to have employees who understand their jobs, clear work goals for all concerned in the business, accounting practices that tell the actual financial workings of the company and keep government agencies happy, along with many other processes among the strata. Threads run through all of the working practices of an organization which tend to bind it together. These can be tangible communication channels (email, phone lines, other forms of information technology), or they can be intangible. These intangible communication lines are another layer of complexity which the organizations managers have to control and mold. How people deal with one another is the way an…
Cohen, Debra J. "Knowledge Development -- Future Focus: Emerging Issues -- in Human Resource Management." HR Magazine (2003). Web.
de Dreu, Carsten K.W., and Evert van de Vliert. Using Conflict in Organizations. New York: Sage Publications, 1997. Print.
Fischler, Michael L. "From Crisis to Growth…Race, Culture, Ethnicity, Conflict and Change." Education 124.2 (2003): 396-398. Print.
"Knowledge." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2011.
When employees are managed for their potential in addition to their contribution, their willingness to openly share and contribute information significantly increases. esistance to change and fear are minimized and employees perceive their role as contributor and knowledge expert over time, not as an employee who is being automated out of a job for example. The critical factors that lead to a learning organization are put into motion by transformational leaders who seek to define a culture inside their organizations of professional growth for subordinates. The focus on autonomy, mastery and purpose is critically important for organizations to grow entrepreneurs (El Tarabishy, 2006) while at the same time overcoming resistance to change as employees don't see the need to hoard information but to add rapidly to it to master their field and be an acknowledged expert or guru in their fields. The difference in behaviors is mastery over one's position…
Li Yueh Chen, & F. Barry Barnes. (2006). Leadership Behaviors and Knowledge Sharing in Professional Service Firms Engaged in Strategic Alliances. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 11(2), 51-69.
Karina Skovvang Christensen. (2005). Enabling intrapreneurship: the case of a knowledge-intensive industrial company. European Journal of Innovation Management, 8(3), 305-322.
El Tarabishy, Ayman (2006). An exploratory study investigating the relationship between the CEO's leadership and the organization's entrepreneurial orientation. Ed.D. dissertation, The George Washington University, United States -- District of Columbia.
Ling, Y., Simsek, Z., Lubatkin, M., & Veiga, J.. (2008). Transformational leadership's role in promoting corporate entrepreneurship: Examining the CEO and Top Management Team Interface. Academy of Management Journal, 51(3), 557.
5. Concerns Associated with the System
The legal concerns associated with the system are relatively reduced and are included in the same category as all the legal concerns faced by companies all over the world. In other words, the system must focus on being objective and fair; otherwise, the company stands the risks of being sued for discrimination and unfair treatment of the staff members.
The objectivity and fairness of the system is not only a matter for legal concerns, but also for ethical ones. If the employees come into contact with information of biased evaluations, they will lose their trust in the entity. This will lead to reduced performances, low employee morale or even high employee turnover rates, generating additional expenditure. Foremost, all these will negatively impact the company's image and perception on the market.
6. Possible Challenges in a Multicultural Workforce
Generally speaking, the appraisal system is objective…
Bowman, J.S., 1999, Performance Appraisal: Verisimilitude Trumps Veracity, Public Personnel Management, Vol. 28
Kovach, R.C., 1994, Matching Assumptions to Environment in the Transfer of Management Practices: Performance Appraisal in Hungary, International Studies of Management and Organization, Vol. 24
Lonsdale, a., 1998, Performance Appraisal, Performance Management and Quality in Higher Education: Contradictions, Issues and Guiding Principles for the Future, Australian Journal of Education, Vol. 42
Managing Risks Associated With Stress
Describe how to maintain life balance and manage risks associated with stress
Maintaining life balance requires happiness. Even during stress, an individual should not allow all the stressors to take a toll on him/her. Avoiding stressors is the most appropriate way of managing stress. Developing new habits could help remove and distract an individual from stressful situations, pressures and stressors, which is essential in managing stress permanently. In this modern world, individuals must learn to change and minimize their exposure to stressful situations. While this technique does not change the situations causing stress, it enables an individual to change his/her relationship and reaction to the stressful situations hence maintaining a life balance.
Early Warning Systems are often used to identify officers at risks of family violence. Describe how to use an early warning system to identify officers at risk of using excessive force.
Management esponsibility and Accountability
Define Accountability and esponsibility
The positions assumed by workers imply a responsibility to complete particular functions associated with those positions. A number of studies have described the term responsibility, when employed in company affairs, as referring to an area of obligation or perhaps duty designated to an individual because of the dynamics of the individual's position, function, or perhaps job. esponsibility might therefore be viewed as being a package of commitments associated with employment or operation. Narrowly outlined, role explains employment classification, which, subsequently, includes, although is not necessarily limited to, functionality (Pimpa, 2010).
Accountability is actually a notion with numerous meanings. It is almost always utilized synonymously through the use of these ideas as responsibility, answerability, as well as administration. However what specifically can this idea imply? Within the most literal meaning, the term accountability indicates simply the "ability" or perhaps the "possibility" that a…
Ackerman, J. (2004). Co-Governance for accountability: Beyond exit and voice, World Development, 32 (3), pp.447-463.
Bazerman, M.H., & Banaji, M.R. (2004). The social psychology of ordinary ethical failures. Social Justice Research, 17(2), 111 -- 115.
Clegg, S., Kornberger, M., & Rhodes, C. (2007). Business ethics as practice. British Journal of Management, 17, 1 -- 16.
Fisscher, O., Nijhof, A., & Steensma, H. (2003). Dynamics in responsible behavior. In search of mechanisms for coping with responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 44(2 -- 3), 209 -- 224.
If these managers are unfit at achieving such objectives, the change process will not be effective.
Establish the vision and the strategy
Any change management process must start by building a vision that the new organization will be based on. Same as all companies are built on a vision of their founders, so should the new organization that will result after the change management process, be built on a vision.
Although the manager will create the vision of the new organization, he should make sure that all the stakeholders in included in the process. The vision should not only be directed at how the museum will look like from an artistic point-of-view, but it should also be directed towards its employees and how they will participate in the change management process and in the new organization, and towards the new image that the Louvre will present in comparison with similar…
1. Change Management for Shared Services and BPO (2010). SourcingMag. Retrieved August 22, 2010 from http://www.google.ro/imgres?imgurl=http://www.sourcingmag.com/library/graphics/Framework_for_change_management.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.sourcingmag.com/content/c070618a.asp&h=454&w=445&sz=40&tbnid=d5hnQISSPQ2oRM:&tbnh=128&tbnw=125&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dchange%2Bmanagement&zoom=1&hl=ro&usg=__6JeBM0DmBEEc0EVToXVilzkpzrI=&sa=X&ei=fupwTOLODIPN4AbxnuzSCQ&ved=0CDcQ9QEwAw .
2. Kotter, J. (1995). John P. Kotter's eight steps to successful change. Retrieved August 23, 2010 from http://www.businessballs.com/changemanagement.htm .
3. Cellars, T. (2007). Change Management Models. Retrieved August 23, 2010 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/237685/change_management_models_a_look_at.html .
4. ADKAR -- A model for change management (2007). Change Management Learning Center. Retrieved August 23, 2010 from http://www.change-management.com/tutorial-adkar-overview.htm .
Empowerment and Performance of Middle Management
The empowerment of middle managers is a paradox that is not easily solved. As this strata or level of management is often given responsibility for making sure goals are achieved yet often they have little actual authority to demand results or use legitimate power (French, aven, 1960). Empowerment from senior management is one potential approach to augmenting the effectiveness of this level of management yet the context of empowerment is just as critical as the support given (Bartunek, Spreitzer, 2006). This paper will analyze the approaches for middle managers to be more effective in their roles, with empowerment being an enabler, not the foundation, of long-term change. For middle managers to achieve that, they must also continually improve and transform themselves from supporters of the status quo (as managers often do) to being transformational leaders in their own right (Jackson, 1991).
Jean M. Bartunek, and Gretchen M. Spreitzer. 2006. The Interdisciplinary Career of a Popular Construct Used in Management: Empowerment in the Late 20th Century. Journal of Management Inquiry 15, no. 3, (September 1): 255-273.
David Collins. 1996. Whither democracy? Lost debates in management empowerment. Empowerment in Organizations 4, no. 1, (January 1): 12-24.
Eisenbeiss, S., and S. Boerner. 2010. Transformational Leadership and R&D Innovation: Taking a Curvilinear Approach. Creativity and Innovation Management 19, no. 4, (December 1): 364-372.
French, J.P.R. Jr., and Raven, B. (1960). The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright and A. Zander (eds.), Group dynamics (pp. 607-623). New York: Harper and Row.
As organizations become larger in both scope and scale, the need for both management and leadership compounds. Many organization problems today, correlate heavily to a lack of true management. Aspects such as fraud, high employee turnover, product recalls, and strikes, all have origins with management. To better combat many of these negative influences, companies must hire, attract and retain talented management. In order to do so, many companies use the administrative management theory of management. This theory emphasizes the use of planned procedures, job specialization, and merit pay to help facilitate business objectives. I believe this theory to be the most useful in regards to managing an organization. For one, specialization of labor helps increase operational efficiencies with a business. In addition, planned procedures allow both employees and management to have clearly defined goals and job expectations. Finally pay based on merit provides incentive for employee and management to…
1) Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries The Dark Side of Leadership - Business Strategy Review 14(3), Autumn Page 26 (2003).
2) Stroh, L.K., Northcraft, G.B., & Neale, M.A. (2002). Organizational behavior: A management challenge. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
3) Paul C. Dinsmore et al. (2005) The right projects done right! John Wiley and Sons, 2005. ISBN 0-7879-7113-8. p.35-42
4) Lewis R. Ireland (2006) Project Management. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. ISBN 0-07-147160-X p.110- 116
A second problem can be seen in the differences in cultures. This is especially apparent when looking at management styles. What might be considered acceptable in the United States might often be a cultural nightmare in another country. Trying to manage personnel in other parts of the world also brings about issues with communication. The ways in which people communicate is very different around the world. Again, something that would be perfectly acceptable here may often be seen as offensive in another part of the world.
A leader and manager must evaluate organizational competencies and intellectual capital and create and integrate models in order to establish a framework for application of duties to the employees so as to create a good healthy working condition. This will help to motivate all the employees to do their best at the work that they perform. An organization has to focus on determining different…
Globalization. (2010). Retrieved from Answers.com Web site:
Leadership vs. Management. (2010). Retrieved February 28, 2010, from Changing Minds Web
g. In U.K.), organizations are tempted to use positive discrimination for corresponding to contemporary requirements. This implies hiring disadvantaged applicants regardless of their professional competency. For instance, last year, UK's Gloucestershire Police and Avon and Somerset police confessed to have rejected white men for hiring women and ethnic minorities in order to meet Government requirements (http://www.workplacelaw.net/display.php?resource_id=8292&keywords).This is an extremely negative phenomenon as it succeeds in increasing the gap among different groups. Therefore, when encouraging such a strategy, authorities should pinpoint the rationale behind it and should organize conferences and workshops debating this issue.
Piturro, Marlene. 2007. Recruiting and Managing a Diverse Workforce. http://www.vault.com/nr/newsmain.jsp?nr_page=3&ch_id=402&article_id=19018&listelement=3&cat_id=1102 (Accessed March 8, 2007).
Price Eboni, Gozu Aysegul, Kern David, Powe Neil, Wand Gary, Golden Sherita, and Cooper Lisa. 2005. The Role of Cultural Diversity Climate in Recruitment, Promotion, and Retention of Faculty in Academic Medicine. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1490155#N0x914e898.0x9306d20 (Accessed March 8, 2007).
usinesses doubt the benefits of…
Piturro, Marlene. 2007. Recruiting and Managing a Diverse Workforce. http://www.vault.com/nr/newsmain.jsp?nr_page=3&ch_id=402&article_id=19018&listelement=3&cat_id=1102 (Accessed March 8, 2007).
Price Eboni, Gozu Aysegul, Kern David, Powe Neil, Wand Gary, Golden Sherita, and Cooper Lisa. 2005. The Role of Cultural Diversity Climate in Recruitment, Promotion, and Retention of Faculty in Academic Medicine. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1490155#N0x914e898.0x9306d20 (Accessed March 8, 2007).
Businesses doubt the benefits of an ethnically diverse workforce. 2007. http://www.workplacelaw.net/display.php?resource_id=8292&keywords (Accessed March 8, 2007).
Cendant embraces diversity as a corporate way of life: Company aims to achieve a workforce that reflects its customers and markets. 2003. Human Resource Management International Digest 11: 12-15.
Evaluate the impact of globalization and management across borders
After its retrenchment in the U.S., Starbucks is still considering expanding its operations China. "Despite its long presence in the Chinese market -- Starbucks opened its first shop in Beijing in 1999 -- the Seattle coffee giant only has 376 stores on the China mainland, compared with 878 in Japan" (Sanchanta 2011). Starbucks has tried to learn from some of its mistakes domestically in the U.S., such as its super-saturation of certain marketplaces, while incorporating many of the successful lessons of its other ventures, such as its ability to tailor product offerings to local needs. "Cracking the code in China for any company is not an easy task -- there will be a number of winners and lots of losers of people who go there and rush to judgment and don't succeed…The thing I am most interested in when I go…
Clark, Taylor. (2008). How Starbucks colonized the world. The Sunday Times. Retrieved July
21, 2011 at http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/leisure/article3381092.ece
Leadership and management. (2011). Team Technology. Retrieved July 21, 2011 at Retrieved July 21, 2011 at http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/leadership-basics.html
Sanchanta, Mariko (2011). Starbucks plans major China expansion. The Wall Street Journal.
Leadership styles: Switching from authoritarian to participatory leadership
Leadership styles: Switching from authoritarian to participatory leadership
There is no singular style of leadership that is appropriate for all situations. The type of leadership that is required to command soldiers in the field of battle is very different than the type of leadership demanded at an advertising agency. The latter situation requires soliciting creative input from all employees, not reflexive obedience like a wartime scenario. At the organization in question, the manager is deploying an authoritarian style of leadership at a company where individuals believe they can make a positive contribution to the organization's growth and development. ather than effectively keeping people in line, the manager's style is merely causing anger and resentment. Also, through manipulating the staff, the manager is 'playing' certain staff members 'off' against one another, rather than creating an effective and united team dynamic. This…
Bartle, Phil. (2007, May 17). Participatory management. CMC (Community Empowerment
Collective). Retrieved December 23, 2010 at http://www.scn.org/cmp/modules/pm-pm.htm
This is also conducive, the realization of a 'higher' but clear objective in the command of someone with clear accountability to keep about company order, or principle ten. For social order to prevail there must be an appointed place for every employee and every employee must be in his appointed place.
Ethical violations are interesting to compare in light of the previous questions principle of eleven, of equity. For all personnel to be encouraged to carry out their duties with devotion and loyalty to the organization and its ideals and specific goals, people must be treated with kindliness. A sense of equity results from combination of kindness and justice. Equity excludes neither "forcefulness nor sternness," merely fairness. This can be seen with a common organizational problem of 'time theft' where individuals use work hours for personal matters without making note of this on their time sheets. If the management…
A Comparison of Management and Leadership
Management and leadership are often mistakenly considered to be the same thing. In truth, management and leadership are different processes and involve different activities. This means that a good leader is not necessarily a good manager, and that a good manager is not necessarily a good manager. This will now be discussed in more detail by comparing leadership and management and by comparing the traits of a leader and the traits of a manager.
Management can be broadly defined as the ability to manage resources to achieve goals. In practice, this refers to controlling both material resources and people to achieve the goals of the organization. Management can be further divided into the tasks of organizing, planning, controlling, and directing. The manager's role is to manage tasks and people on a consistent basis to ensure that goals are met.
Leadership is defined as…
Robbins, S.P. (2001). Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc.
Management Aptitude Analysis
The results of the management aptitude questionnaire were fairly conclusive and useful in regards to my propensity for this particular application in organizational behavior. My scores point out both my strengths as well as those areas in which I can use improvement. Additionally, this information is valuable to see what exact management skills I would be best suited to employ to help a contemporary organization progress.
The most encouraging part of this questionnaire was my score in conceptual skills, in which I achieved 25 points out of 30. In some ways, conceptual skills are the most important for a manager to possess, although human skills are becoming increasingly valuable as well (Daft, 2011, p. 11). However, conceptual skills are those in which a manager is cognizant of how the specific parts of an organization coalesce and work together. More importantly, conceptual skills are those which enable a…
Daft, R.L. (2011). Management. Mason: South-Western, Cengage Learning.
Assessing the Many Management Challenges George Faces
Having stepped into Stevenson Company transportation department as its new supervisor, George is quickly overwhelmed by a department in disarray, chaotically operating without any leadership or guidance. The major management issues George faces is predicated on the lack of clarity regarding roles, authority and organization structure and clarity of performance expectations. In short, the management issues George faces are what happens when senior management abdicates leadership of a given area of a business, allowing personal agendas and resentment to ester instead of implementing clear performance expectations. The lack of willingness to change and improve is more attributable the managers of dysfunctional teams than the teams themselves (James, Wooten, Dushek, 2011).
The first and most significant management issue is getting the transportation department integrated back into the company. The many symptoms of its malaise and dysfunctional nature can be attributed to its lack…
James, E.H., Wooten, L.P., & Dushek, K. (2011). Crisis management: Informing a new leadership research agenda. The Academy of Management Annals, 5(1), 455.
Jaques, T. (2012). Crisis leadership: A view from the executive suite. Journal of Public Affairs, 12(4), 366.
Kovjanic, S., Schuh, S.C., & Jonas, K. (2013). Transformational leadership and performance: An experimental investigation of the mediating effects of basic needs satisfaction and work engagement. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86(4), 543.
Mathis, R.L., & Jackson, J.H. (2011). Human Resource Management (13th ed.). Cengage Learning.)
The World ank model centers on a five-person team called the Performance Advisory Service or PAS (Yandrick 1995). PAS trains supervisors to analyze work performance and personality problems. The supervisor first determines if a skill deficiency is involved or there are personal and environmental factors. He does this by reviewing the employee's records in search of troubled behavioral patterns; consulting with work team leaders, colleagues and support staff in investigating possible problems within the organization; and/or directly exploring the employee's work performance and conduct.
In the last option, the supervisor may ask or remind the employee about the consequence of poor performance; if he or she is being rewarded for poor or nonperformance; if performance matters to him or her; if there are health or stress factors conducing to his or her poor or low-level performance; or if there are external stimuli behind it. Armed now with the different angles…
Brown, J. (1992). How Would You Handle These Prickly Management Problems? Medical Laboratory Observer: Nelson Publishing. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3230/is_n11_v24/ai_13806643
Business Wire. (1999) a.M. Best Company Says Technology Can Solve Insurance Management Problems. Gale Group 2000. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3MKT/is_n78_v97/ai_56542486
Day, CM. (1987). Three Diagnostic Clues to Management Problems. Medical Laboratory Observer: Nelson Publishing. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3230/is_v19/ai_5118836
Heisler, DL. (1989). The Wrong Response to Today's Problems. American Metal Market. Reed Business Information. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3MKT/is_n78_v97/ai_7565287
Managing Across Cultures
Internationalization of the economy has influenced companies to operate their business globally. The global operation has impact managers with several challenges. Market, product, and production plans must be coordinated on a worldwide basis. The global operation necessitates organization structure to balance centralized home-office control with adequate local autonomy. As companies have started their business operation on the international front, the number of their employees has increased. Increase in the employee's abroad management is faced with new global challenges. The three broad international business management challenges were identified by the management gurus as follows (obert, Kossek & Ozeki, 1998):
a) Deployment: To get the right skills where it is required in an organization regardless of the geographical location.
b) Knowledge and creativity distribution: Spreading the knowledge and practices throughout the organization regardless of where they have actually originated.
c) Talent identification and development on global basis: To identify…
Drucker, P. (1988) The Coming of the New Organization. Harvard Business Review issue
Fadel, J. & Petti, M (1997). International HR policy basics.
Global workforce issue April 1997, pp. 29-30
Abraham H. Maslow and Douglas M. McGregor both believed that in order for people to work to their full potential, they're basic needs have to be satisfied. (Herzberg, 1964) Douglas McGregor also put forth the concept that people's management-behavior is dependent upon their view of human beings and work. (McGregor, 1960) rganizational design concepts have been constantly evolving since the last fifty years. Change is good and should be used as a strategy for organizations to achieve their goals and objectives. (McNamara, 2003)
This thesis will be based on primary as well as secondary research. Initially an extensive secondary exploratory research will be conducted on the topic of management styles used globally, the culture and values of the Middle East and management styles that were used in the past and those that are currently used. This phase of the thesis is expected to take about a month and…
Osterman, Paul. "Supervision, Discretion, and Work Organization." The American Economic Review 84.2 (1994): 380-84.
Porter, Michael E. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: Free Press, 1990.
Tannenbaum, Scott I, and Lisa M. Dupuree-Bruno. "The Relationship between Organizational and Environmental Factors and the Use of Innovative Human Resource Practices." Group & Organization Management 19.2 (1994): 171-202.
Management, Science, and Technology
Who Is a Manager?
A manager is someone who knows how to take charge, organize, direct, and be accountable for individuals and groups of people operating under his guidance. Anyone who shows leadership skills can be a manager. A manager's goal is to work towards the common good. This means keeping persons on pace to meet their objectives, budgeting time wisely, and instilling in his inferiors a desire to care.
Top management impacts ethics within an organization by setting the tone and the standard for ethical practice. Superiors shape inferiors, not the other way around. Therefore, if top management encourages unethical activity through its own unethical behavior, an organization will, ultimately, be comprised of several unethical attitudes. A great example of this is Enron Corp. Top management of Enron encouraged poor ethical practices by practicing in a disingenuous manner themselves. They hoodwinked investors…
Holmes, C. (2007). The Ultimate Sales Machine. NY: Penguin.
McLean, B., Elkind, P. (2013). The Smartest Guys in the Room. NY: Penguin.
Therefore, it is important that they understand the influence of violence on their behavior.
The most important objectives of this campaign are represented by:
Increasing awareness on this issue
Improving the activity of authorities in such situations
Changing violent behaviors
The resources that the campaign is based on are represented by supporters, reputation from other campaigns, and the help of authorities. It is important that the campaign benefits from an increased number of supports. This is because they can help promote the campaign and its objectives. The reputation from other campaigns is intended to attract a higher number of sponsors. The success of this campaign relies on the relationship between the ed Cross and the authorities in these countries.
The targets of this campaign are represented by:
People that observe violent behavior in others
People that practice such violent behaviors
There are several messages addressed by the campaign. The…
1. Annual Report (2010). ICRC. Retrieved March 9, 2012.
2. Kimbarovsky, R. (2009). 10 Small Business Social Media Marketing Tips. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from http://mashable.com/2009/10/28/small-business-marketing/ .
3. Guion, M. (2008). Internet Usage Gaps in Developing Countries: Challenges and Solutions. InfoTech. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from http://it.tmcnet.com/topics/it/articles/36595-internet-usage-gaps-developing-countries-challenges-solutions.htm .