Management and Leadership Essay

Excerpt from Essay :

Management and Leadership DIscussion

For decades, school management processes have been popular among schools around the nation. School management processes put more responsibility on the local teacher and administrator basis in order to influence more positive results. The success of student learning depends heavily on "community participation, decentralization or teacher empowerment" (Wohlstetter & Mohrmon, 1994). This allows principals to step up and take a managerial approach to implementing individual and strategies unique to the needs of their schools. Ultimately, there are then variations within leadership processes. Thus, "some school districts dictate that structure, as in San Diego; others leave it up to the schools themselves, but hold the principal accountable for ensuring that all parties are given the opportunity to contribute, such as in Prince William County" (Wohlstetter & Mohrmon, 1994). The principal is thus a facilitator of change and an innovator that works to motivate individual teachers and administrators through motivational techniques.

On the other hand, there is accountability practice. This is a method which is based more on the defined level of accountability created by larger school districts. According to the research, "as state governments and local school districts define standards and mobilize accountability mechanisms, while leaving schools to figure out how best to reach these standards, the mediating role of school leaders becomes increasingly salient" (Spillane et al., 2013). Ultimately, the standards are much more defined than seen in a school management approach, but the necessary means for reaching those standards can have their own unique variations based on the unique needs of the school.

Question 2

In this volatile environment of change, schools are witnessing the restructuring of standardized testing and curriculum through Common Core initiatives. School districts and campuses now have…

Sources Used in Document:


Murray, Martin. (2012). Total Quality Management. Manufacturing. Web.

Spillane, James P., Diamond, John B., Burch, Patricia, Hallett, Tim, Jita, Loyiso, & Zoltners, Jennifer. (2013). Managing in the middle: School leaders and the enactment of accountability policy. Northwestern University. Web.

Wohlstetter, Priscilla & Mohrman, Susan A. (1994). School-based management: Promise and process. Issues and Research in Educational Finance. Web.

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