Maori Culture Primary Mode of Subsistence of Essay
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Primary mode of subsistence of the Maori culture, for example pastoralists, emerging agriculturalists, industrialists, agrarians states, horticulturalists and foragers has impact on different aspects of cultures. In New Zealand settlers were the cause of the primary mode of subsistence. New Zealand Maori's cultural identity tends to be varied and the census of 1991 showed that Maori are identifying themselves in diverse ways. The revelation of the census was that 511,947 were some ancestry of "Maori," there was claim by 433,080 to be "New Zealand Maori' ethnic group as well as ethnic group which has the smallest population of 321,396 saying to be from the "New Zealand Maori" ethnic group. The population of New Zealand Maori is 4 million. In this population, quite loose approximately number tend to be: 1 in 7 possesses Maori blood, 2 in 7 are Scots, 2 to 7 have English origin, 2 in 7 are Irish, and the rest are from Pacific Islander, Asian and often other European. A section possesses mixed origins and the entire Maori possesses some European ancestry at some point from their lineage due to the inter-marriage. Therefore in using of the word Maori for identification of oneself always has the possibility of another race exists.
The entire issue of biology is full of contradiction and complexity, d'Ardenne and Mahtani (1994). His summary is that suitable definition of race has to be accompanied by cultural, social and political factors. Sometimes there could be no firm difference between an individual's race and culture, which take us to the question of nature and nurture. It is capable of overlapping and may be an individual could be misjudged by being mistaken to be from a given racial character, yet they have been raised in an environment where their race was scarce. Therefore, they can define themselves by their relationship to within a society, but not their own race. This may rely on whether ways of tradition are being reinforced or not within the family, more so when an individual has a Maori parents and 'pakeha' one.
Nevertheless, they can still be strongly identified with Maori in any case they are connected to a 'marae' having associated expectations. In any case a Maori possesses the blood of 'pakeha', they can as well align with either side of them which they have a good relationship with. When they tend to be not in touch with people with their entire racial heritage, they may never have a feeling of being complete. However, the appearance of a person is capable of showing a single aspect more, which can be diverse be it with sisters or brothers in the same family, finally the way a person feels indicate the way they cope with life. A developed metaphor which is capable of establishing cultural identity is present, not just for Maori with 'Pakeha' blood but to get the understanding of the way Maori tend to adjust to the society of New Zealand as a whole, though expressing their personal identity in it. However, the racial class was evident where the settlers saw themselves as another race hence practicing racial discrimination.
According to Durie (2004) going to 'marae' is not a fully experience which can be predicted, this is due to the fact that whatever takes place on 'morae' do not equate with one Maori psychology, and the manner of carrying out things slightly differs across the country. Nevertheless, the likely of frequently connecting with one for Maori has the capability of contributing to health as well-being, through reinforcing traditional Maori cultural norms and social behavior. Such may at times assist in any case ones Maori identity has not fitted into typical pattern of New Zealander or Maori due to the inconsistency in communicating or relating with one another.
The argument of Durie (2004) is that 'marae' giving opportunity to Maori for a secure identity is good for spiritual health. This has been shown by research that there is an awesome desire for Maori to maintain Maori, as compared to 'Pakeha' ways. Being alienated from Maori society and mainstream society is all a cause as well as effect of disadvantage. His argument continues that Maori values and principles can be acquired from various opportunities to feel and think as per the tradition. At 'marae' they have got little opportunity of not being understood for example, through indirect thinking, which according to 'Pakeha' can be interpreted as disorder, however, to Maori such is obvious in
that they tend to be commonly more abstract thinkers, for they always think outwards, compartmentalized thinking and away from details. Maori always see their identity in connection to others, and their relation to their homes, the earth as well as relation to God, though all these were interfered with where many a times the practice were being neglected and being assumed.
Maori tend to have ideals within the areas that 'paheka' do not have worth speaking of, for example, the manner in which they treat natural materials. The word 'mauri' is embodying the concepts of dynamic life force as well as interacting network relationship that comes about between something and another thing. According to Maori, there is no thing which is dead, be it river, rock, person or tree. Their field of life lives on the past human eye's vision. The concept of 'mauri' is being taken into consideration at time of valuing anything and brands its identity and uniqueness. Some research states that in any case Maori use materials traditionally, they center on retaining the harmony engendered by their contact with it, like when a flax has been taken from a plant care, this is not taken not to destroy the full plant, during taking off leaves. Nevertheless, this rich culture of the Maori which was protecting them came under interference after the arrival of the European settlers. Due to assimilation and forced neglecting of this culture, the value of this culture depreciated. The way of life did not give room for practice of this rich culture.
Things are never utilized for solely practical reasons or immediate gratification. Its outcome is supposed to be thought about as an effect in connection to the rest of parts. In order for Maori to live and somebody to have a feeling of inner harmony, it is advisable to have a positive relationship with the environment, and if there is respect to the nature, it may have a positive impact on the soul. However, the settlers did not give respect to the environment as required by Maori. They misused the precious environment doing their activities which saw Maori feel that their consideration was neglected. People of Maori tend to be spiritual. A lot of caution was taken never to offend the gods. 'Noa' and 'tapa' are supposed to invoke in order for the right to be done. Such care made up the Maori structure of regulation as well as control to the living. All things were separated events, places and people into either grouping for identifying if individual could approach it or avoid it or not at that moment. Their spiritual way was interfered with since the missionaries and other visitors did not recognize these gods and introduced another way of spiritual activities (believed in presence of God).
Throughout the history, the society of Maori was never egalitarian because the system of ranking was foremost from the chief up to the individuals of low birth. Contrary, New Zealand Paheka commonly had a believe that achievement of an individual is capable to be got best through undertaking training opportunities, making their stand in two feet and working for their rank within the society. Even though the operation of British class system in Britain as the emigrants settled in New Zealand, it was immediately thrown away, more so to the one having women being the first to acquire the rights of voting in approximately 1892, almost 50 years after the arrival of Europeans.
At the turn of the 20th century, there was loosing of land by Maori, through being swindled into selling, as well as their language, and went through confinement to low jobs. Maori was not always to being classed as subservient. However, this failure to get a chance to be whatever was ideal traits of a Maori nobleman, the effect of pre-settlement gave Maori low esteem generally and incapability of placing their roles in society.
The traditional character traits of Maori were: ability to fight, giving the gift of victory fearless and firm mind, magnanimous, contempt of death, skills and diligence 'ion' acquiring food, liberty, honor of promises and agreement, the way to love and honor people, having a few words, kindness, being weighty in speech, subtle and steady in dance as well as movements. The character traits which were ideal were not the same as Aristotles; therefore, it was a huge loss Maori to lose nearly all things that they valued. About twenty years after signing the treaty, after arrival of different settlers who…
Sources Used in Documents:
d'Ardenne, P. & Mahtani, A. (1994). Transcultural Counselling in Action. London: Sage Publications Ltd.
Durie, M. (2004). Mauri Ora. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press
Lange. R. (1999). May The People Live. Auckland, N.Z.: Auckland University Press.
Orange, C. (1997). The Treaty of Waitangi. Wellington, N.Z. Bridget Williams Books Limited.
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