Marbury v. Madison was a case between William Marbury and James Madison in 1803, which sparked one of the most important decisions made in American history. The case itself has actually enabled the Supreme Court to declare an act of law unconstitutional. Marbury v. Madison also further established the idea of judicial review within the United States, allowing the courts some power in nullifying the decisions of one branch of government. It allowed for the U.S. form of "checks and balances" in the government.
Battle of Saratoga
The battle that took place in Saratoga at 1777 was a major patriotic victory during the American Revolutionary War. Commander John Burgoyne surrendered in October 17, 1777, after having been surrounded by General Horatio Gates. This was not only a British defeat, but it also indicated the general setbacks for the Iroquois leaders who sided with the British army. The Iroquois Confederacy was divided, losing most of their people to a war that they were supposedly neutral over.
3. The Second Great Awakening
Evangelization grew once more in 1800, creating the Second Great Awakening. By 1801, a revival of religious fervor took place, in which evangelist ministers held a camp meeting that lasted days, with an attendance of almost 25,000. The message of the Secong Great Awakening was one of Christian beliefs, wherein people should reject ideas that threatened classical beliefs of God and religion. This revivalism also created new roles for women, who far outnumbered male converts
4. The War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a conflict between the British and the Americans, where the Americans declared war upon the British, mainly due to territorial disputes and the desire for the American manifest destiny. Many variables affected the turning point of war prior to 1812, some of which were possible land acquisitions such as Florida. The "War Hawks" became influential when it came time for Congress to meet, particularly John Calhoun and Henry Clay. Once more, Britain went to war with the United States.
5. Panic of 1819
The Panic of 1819 would be the Unites States' first major financial crisis, taking place during the time period called the "Era of Good Feelings." It was a direct result of numerous events happening before; the Embargo Act and the War of 1812 major variables. This panic ended economic expansion following the War of 1812, and caused heavy unemployment bank failures, and low manufacturing and agriculture.
Part Two: Opposing Viewpoints Essay
The Alien and Sedition Acts passed in 1798 sparked a firestorm of controversy due to the nature of the four bills passed by the United States government. It had only been a few decades since the American colonials won their freedom from the monarchy of the British Empire, and yet the laws imposed upon the civilians provided enough fuel to spark debate. This debate would question the very freedom that the Americans fought for, and whether these laws confined them just as readily as the British monarchy had merely twenty years before.
There Alien and Sedition Acts encompassed a total of four acts passed by Congress. June 18, 1798 dawned the passing of the Naturalization Act, which increased citizenship from the minimum five years of residency to a walloping 14 years. Many critics have said that the Naturalization Act "was a Federalist ploy to undermine the Democractic-Republican Party," a party that hinged on the immigrant vote (Naturalization Act). On June 25, 1798, the Alien Friends Act was also passed, which gave the government the power to deport any foreign party that posed as a threat to the U.S. government. The law spoke of ordering "such aliens as [the President] shall judge dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States" out of the territory (Alien Friends Act). Subsequently, the Alien Enemies Act was passed on July 6, 1798, enabling the President to "arrest, imprison, and deport any resident of an enemy nation residing within the U.S. borders" at a time of war (Alien Enemies Act). The Sedition Act was passed -- narrowly -- by Congress on July 14, 1798. Due to a Federalist-ruled Congress, this Act was passed, though with major sacrifices on the Republican end of the government. What the Act did was proclaim the crimes found in "uttering or publishing any false, scandalous and malicious writing or writings against the government of the United States" (Sedition Act).
"[The] U.S. was barely a nation in 1798" (Bodenner). This is perhaps one of the major reasons that the Alien and Sedition Acts were so prominent and controversial. The United States just emerged from the creation of its own nation, free from the rule of monarchic Britain. In the same vein, the Constitution was only just realized a decade before the acts were passed (Brinkley). Even as the new government was put in place, there was a direct dissension between the Federalists and the "Antifederalists," or the Democractic-Republican party. The largely Federalist government had called upon the passing of these laws mostly due to the Quasi-War with France, where the U.S. government claimed that the French government had "repeatedly violated" the treaties between the two nations (Quasi-War Act).
Needless to say the Alien and Sedition Acts were highly controversial within the states themselves. While Virginia and Kentucky heavily condemned the acts, Massachusetts was resolved to support it. Virginia and Kentucky pronounced the laws to be unconstitutional as stated in the 10th Amendment, arguing that the states had a voice and thus had the power to repeal the acts as stated. Massachusetts, on the other hand, responded as proponents to the acts, defending the rights of the government in accordance to the safety of the country as stated in the Constitution. The problem here, then, is the limited freedom of speech that the government imposed upon passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Naturalized U.S. immigrants would be persecuted through these laws, even when the country that they originated from had nothing to do with their livelihoods in the United States.
"Alien Enemies Act (primary document)." Issues & Controversies in American History. Facts On File News Services, n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2011. .
"Alien Friends Act (primary document)." Issues & Controversies in American History. Facts On File News Services, n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2011. .
"Naturalization Act (primary document)." Issues & Controversies in American History. Facts On File News Services, n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2011. .
"Quasi-War' Act Rescinding Treaties with France (primary document)." Issues & Controversies in American History. Facts On File News Services, n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2011. .
"Sedition Act (primary document)." Issues & Controversies in American History. Facts On File News Services, n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2011. .
Bodenner, Chris. "Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798." Issues & Controversies in American History. Facts On File News Services, 2 Mar. 2006. Web. 15 Mar. 2011. .
Brinkley, Alan. American History. A Survey. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2009.
1. According to the 1945 Missouri Constitution, which of the following holds all legislative power?
b. The General Assembly.
2. The Missouri Compromise of 1820:
d. Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state and Maine as a free state.
3. The Missouri Compromise line:
c. Forbade slavery in ALL territory north of the 36-30 latitude with the exception of Missouri.
4. The 1820 Missouri Constitution required all slave owners to treaty their slaves humanely and to abstain from harming them physically.
5. List four of the rights guaranteed to Missouri citizens under the 1945 Missouri Constitution:
a. Religious freedom
b. Freedom of speech
c. Rights of peaceable assembly and petition
d. Habeas corpus
6. List two ways in which those who supported making Missouri a slave state in 1820 defended their position:
a. The addition of Missouri as a slave state would increase the voting rights of…