Nursing Timeline Week 2 & 8226; Create a Essay

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Nursing Timeline Week 2 • Create a 700- 1,050-word timeline paper historical development nursing science, starting Florence Nightingale continuing present. • Format timeline, word count assignment requirements met

Historical development of nursing timeline

The foundation of modern nursing. Before, nursing was largely the profession of disreputable people and not exclusively female. Based on her experiences during the Crimean War, Florence Nightingale strove to make it a respectable profession with uniform, professional standards. Her approach reduced the death toll in hospitals by 2/3rds during the Crimean War (Florence Nightingale, 2012, Biography: 1). She established the Nightingale Training School and wrote her foundational Notes on Nursing (Florence Nightingale, 2012, Biography: 2-3). Nightingale's canons of nursing compromised everything from an emphasis on proper sanitation to how the nurse should socially interact with the patient.

1880: Famed Civil War nurse Clara Barton founds the American Red Cross.

1909. Hildegard Peplau is born. Heavily influenced by her studies of psychology. Peplau went on to create one of the most influential early theories of modern nursing, the Interpersonal Theory of Nursing. Her Seven Nursing Roles suggests that nurses are more than simply helpmeets to doctors or caregivers. Nurses fulfill many roles, including "the stranger role, in which the nurse receives the patient the way a stranger is met in other situations...the resource role, in which the nurse answers questions, interprets data, and gives information; the teaching role, in which the nurse gives instructions and provides training; the counseling role, in which the nurse helps the patient understand the meaning of current circumstances....the surrogate role, in which the nurse acts as an advocate on behalf of the patient; the active leadership role, in which the nurse helps the patient take responsibility for meeting treatment goals; and the technical expert role, in which the nurse provides physical care for the
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patient and operates equipment" (Hildegard Peplau, 2012, Nursing Theory.org). Peplau's theory was critical in encouraging people to see nursing as a technical profession, while still preserving its caritas functions.

1919: Fay Glenn Abdellah is born. Abdellah's definition of 'Twenty One Nursing Problems' was highly influential in how nursing education was approached. Abdellah identified nursing as a scientific and problem-centered activity and developed a structured way of approaching nursing education. She divided presenting problems based upon the "physical, sociological, and emotional needs of clients" and was the first modern nursing theorist to refer to patients rather than clients or consumer (Fay Glenn Abdellah, 2012, Current Nursing). She also provided guidance about "nursing diagnosis during a time when nurses were taught that diagnosis was not a nurses' prerogative" (Fay Glenn Abdellah, 2012, Current Nursing).

1953: Theorist Virginia Henderson becomes a research associate at Yale University School of Nursing. Henderson is often called 'The Nightingale of Modern Nursing.' Her Need Theory of nursing is physiological in its emphasis, in a manner similar to Nightingale's, although also like Nightingale, it does contain a substantive discussion on how psychological health can impact the patient's perception of bodily health. "She described the nurse's role as substitutive (doing for the person), supplementary (helping the person), complementary (working with the person), with the goal of helping the person become as independent as possible" (Virginia Henderson's need theory, 2012, Current Nursing). Nurses were there to 'step in' when patients could not fulfill their own needs.

1954: The University of Pittsburgh offers the first PhD in nursing (Doctor of Philosophy, 2012, The University of Pittsburgh).

1971: Dorothea Orem publishes Nursing: Concepts of Practice in 1971, about her theory of self-care deficit (Dorothea Orem, 2012, Current Nursing). Orem's theory builds upon Virginia Henderson's concept of nursing satisfying unmet needs. Orem's concept of nursing was that "nursing --…

Sources Used in Documents:

References

Betty Neuman's Systems Theory, 2012, Current Nursing. Retrieved:

http://www.currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Neuman.html

Clara Barton. (2012). The Civil War. Retrieved: http://www.civilwarhome.com/bartonbio.htm

Doctor of Philosophy. (2012). School of Nursing. Retrieved:

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