Operations of International Law and Organizations
Reason MNCs have become important in International Relations and Law
International law is defined as a set of rules and customs governing the relationships among nation-states. Traditionally, nation-states are considered the principal actors of international law, however, there are an increasing number of other actors that influence the conduct of international relations. MNCs (multinational corporations), international organizations, domestic actors and individuals are increasingly influencing the conduct of international relations. Along with nation-states, MNCs are very important actors in international relations because their activities can influence the international affairs. A multinational corporation is a business entity that has sales operations and productions in several countries. In the contemporary business environment, many MNCs have immense financial resources, which are more than the annual budgets of many countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. With their huge financial resources, they have the power to influence a conduct of nation-states by sponsoring a candidate for an election and to the extent of toppling an incumbent government. An underlying conduct of MNCs in the international systems makes multinational corporations be identified as an important actor in international relations.
The MNCs are referred as a legal person because some of their conducts can affect the international peace and security. Henderson (2009) argues that MNCs have a legal personality in the international law, and the international law stipulates that all actors operating in the international systems must comply with rules laid down by the international law or face sanctions. The European countries always confer a legal personality on MNCs stating that they should be held responsible for their conducts. The compliance of MNCs is expected with respect of international CRS. Several international treaties directly impose liabilities upon the multinational corporations. The Vienna Convention for Nuclear Damage of 1963 and The International Convention for Oil Pollution Damage impose liability for a breach of these treaties and may hold MNCs responsible for various human rights abuses, which oblige MNCs to protect international environments.
2. Treaty Law as the most Important Source of International Law
A scholarly research on international law is not complete without exploring the sources of international law that regulate the states' conducts and other actors of international relations. Conventional sources of international law include international customs, judicial decisions, treaties, and scholarly writing. While many international scholars refer the court precedents and cases as the sources of international law, however, court cases and precedents are not the important sources of international law because judicial decisions have no binding forces on the subjects of international law unless the parties decide to respect them in a particular case. There is also been a great controversy about precedents, however, precedents are not formal sources of international law.
Unlike court cases and precedents that have no legal bindings on parties, treaties are the major formal sources of international law. Typically, the treaties are the international agreements, conventions, declarations, covenant, and charters that have binding force on parties. Typically, treaties are very crucial in international law because they are binding on the signatories. The Article 38 of the ICJ (International Court of Justice) accords a special importance to treaties as crucial sources of international law especially when the treaties are expressly recognized by the signatory states. In international relations, different countries have entered into bilateral or multilateral treaties to regulate a certain aspect of the conducts in international systems. Henderson…
It has given a clear signal to unscrupulous tyrants and murderous dictators around the world that they have no place to hide. Earlier, they could escape prosecution for their crimes by brow-beating or manipulating the judicial system in their own country; the expanding reach of international law has now made it possible for them to be answerable for such universally unacceptable crimes (Kenneth Roth). The benefits of international law are
S. Congress 2006). Under a military commission's procedures and rules of evidence, the accused may present evidence, cross examine witnesses against him, and respond to evidence presented against him; attend all the sessions of the trial; and have the rights to counsel and self-representation. The bill does not grant him the right to see all the evidence against him to establish his guilt or innocence. It authorizes the Secretary to
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International Law The objective of this work in writing is to examine what it means to 'keep the peace' in the present age and the world facing challenges and threats of unprecedented scope, scale and complexity. The question addressed in this research is that which asks where in such endeavors are the existence of international institutions and legal doctrines likely to suffice and where are international institutions and legal doctrines likely
The United States and the rest of the coalition members all argue that there was enough authority in the resolutions that already existed from the Security Council to justify using force for the invasion of Iraq. On the 10th of November of 2002, Secretary of State Colin Powell indicated that the United States believed that there were material breaches in the past, as well as new and current material
The new law has prosecuted 426 traffickers in 203 cases. These traffickers had 844 victims in that year alone. This law imposes penalties from 10 years imprisonment to life imprisonment (Kyodo). Myanmar: Effective or Not? The capacity of the national government in fighting the problem of human trafficking has been limited (UNODC 2007). It is particularly limited in implementing policy changes in remote areas where traffickers operate. Anti-trafficking groups are looking