Organizational Change of Northrop Grumann Corporation
Analysis of Change
Northrop Grumman: Interview in relation to Program
Mergers & Acquisitions
Looking to the Future
Organizational Change of Northrop Grumann Corporation
Although acquisitions did not prove to improve the performance of firms the activities of acquisition persists and government policy toward the industry of defense has approved consolidation for the purpose of cost savings that are nominal at best. Mergers and acquisitions are events that greatly modify the dynamics of competition within the affected industries and merging firm's combination of additional capacity and resources make the position in the market and profitability of the firms remaining quite unstable.
Acquisition of technological advances may be often the motivating factor behind acquisitions. Diversification within the firms(s) involved in the acquisition or merger and particularly in terms of subsequent performance. The size of the firm attempting to assimilate a potential target firm may very well be relevant. Acquisition experience at the organizational level may lead to facilitation processes for identification and integration of target firm resources that in improving post acquisition performance may be required. (Haspelagh & Jamison, 1991, as cited by Driessnack, 2003) The form an acquisition is accomplished utilizing may be either through a tender offer or a merger. (Berkovitch & Khanna, 1991, as cited by Driessnack, 2003)
The Infrastructure of Northrop Grumman IT is one that provides delivery of professional and technical services in area of computing that are key as well as offering partner-specific and technology-specific pre-sales assistance. The Key technology disciplines are those of Enterprise storage systems, Mid-range and high-end servers, and Enterprise management applications. Services and solutions provided are listed as being that of architecture, asset discovery, design, staging and configuration, implementation, and end-user and administrator knowledge transfer. Partners of Northrop Grumman include: ActivCard, APC, BEA, BMC Software, Cisco, Citrix, Cognos, EMC, Enterasys, General Dynamics, Hewlett Packard, Hitachi, IBM, ISS, Marconi, Micromuse, Network Appliance, Network associates, Oracle, Peregrine, Quantum, Remedy, Sun Microsystems, StoratgeTek, Sybase, Synmantec, Tandberg, and Vertitas. Northrop Grumman has positioned itself to assist its customers in the implementation of RFID within their supply chains and for nearly two years has performed as a systems integrator of AIT, Automatic Information Technology including solutions of RFID implementations.
Northrop Grumman having achieved successful acquisitions and mergers has been awarded future contracts with Homeland Security and with the RFID Contracts for the Government Human Resources initiatives.
Organizational Change of Northrop Grumann Corporation
The objective of this work is to examine an example of organizational change derived from and supported by organizational theory, specifically the case of the mergers and acquisitions of the Company Northrop Grumman. A sound theoretical model of the change or 'mergers and acquisitions' will be developed as well as an interview format of objective and deductive questions as those to be posed to a manager or executive responsible for a recently completed or ongoing change program. The strategic, organizational design or process purposes that the organization is attempting to achieve through the organizational change process will be focused upon. This work seeks to explain current theoretical models, trends, applications and outcomes of the change program as to mergers and acquisitions explored during the interview phase and will compare the applications as implemented or conducted by the interviewed organization to the original literature findings. Therefore the model will be developed, tested in a 'real' organizational setting and the findings compared to the original theoretical model.
The Information Technological sector of Northrop Grumman is a "Premier provider of advanced information technology solutions, engineering and business services for government and commercial clients." The IT sector supports information technology services in such things as "battle management, mission planning, modeling and simulation, information assurance, software engineering, intelligence, surveillance, space systems, base and range support. IT services are provided for government, commercial as well as international customers. This sector of the technology information market provides services to the Department of Defense (DOD) and is in fact the leading provider to the DOD.
Further stated is that:
"The sector is a...
The Information Technology sector also provides technical services, such as operations and support services or government facilities including NASA's Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral Air Station and Patrick Air Force Base, and is one of the largest suppliers of software enterprise licenses to the DOD. As a leader in hardware/software sales, solutions and services to government customers, the sector has earned a place on several major indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity contract vehicles such as ANSWER, Millennia, NIH CIO-SP2, Smart Access Common ID Card, Safeguard and I-Assure."
I. Background and History
A 1996 report stated that, "Since 1989, real-dollar Pentagon purchases from the private sector have shrunk more than 30%." This is illustrated in the 1-million private-sector defense jobs that disappeared between 1989 and 1996. The report states that there has been "remarkable diversity in conversion performance among both large and small firms." Rockwell International, Hughes Aircraft and TRW, all large prime contractors have committed both earnings and organization resources to shift aerospace and communications technologies toward the civilian product sector while lowering the military sales dependence to less than forty percent. However, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman and other are nudging for positioning in military markets that are shrinking by using cash reserves in gaining competitors through mergers and acquisitions. With investment bankers maneuvering mergers companies such as Rockwell and TRW are forced to "divest their defense divisions for the short-term profits that pure play defense firms provide." Markusen & Oiden (1996).
II. Analysis of Change
The partnership of Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman are on many defense-related contracts with Lockheed building the military fighter aircraft said to the state-of-the-art and Northrop Grumman providing highly sophisticated radars and electronics for the Lockheed fighter planes. Both companies search relentlessly for innovation in cost reduction and value addition to their products with many smaller companies involved by contributions to the finished products. Cultural change was key to success in this initiative and an extremely knowledgeable team of educators and facilitators were brought together for assisting the resolution of differences in approaches in manufacturing among the companies and in establishing common processes and working vocabularies.. Some stated keys to the success of the joint projects of Lockheed and Northrop are:
Team members left respective company badges at the door to focus on needs of the aircraft program instead of benefits to their specific company.
Adoption of an "open kimono" and "no-blame information exchange approach" ensured openness and sharing of information
Corporate egos were dropped and it was agreed upon to develop implementation plans, to implement those plans and project results to "multiple aircraft programs."
Involved was dealing with those department that were distanced from engineering and manufacturing
Required within the process was negotiation and executive involvement. Lean Manufacturing Collaboration (2003)
Stated as lessons learned were the following:
Executive leadership, support and buy-in are crucial.
Clear, open and honest communications are required
Careful coordination is required with organizations outside the project team in effecting change.
Changing a strategy for a new product is far easier than to change a product's strategy that is already in production
Drawing ownership is a factor
Cultural changes are slow
Knowledgeable outside educators/facilitators and not consultants are vital. (Lean Manufacturing Collaboration, 2003)
II. Mergers & Acquisitions
Mergers and acquisitions include the 1997 acquisition of Logicon. This was part of a long-term technological focus in the area of "advanced sensors, electronics and Information technology which also included enhancements of existing capabilities in both manned and unmanned vehicles. The Logicon name was retained which is stated to have "fortified the IT enterprise adding nearly $4billion in sales." McGovern et al. (2004) During 2002 12 more additional companies were acquired and the integration of the applications into Logicon were as follows:
Northrop Grumann Information Technology: Inter-National Research Institute (INRI) (1998)
DPC Technologies (1998)
Co Federal Systems (2000)
Sterling's Software Federal Systems Group (2000)
Litton TASL (20010
Litton PRC (2001)
TRW (2002) (McGovern, et al. 2004)
Three high-level integrational operational goals were designed for managing limited resources with focus on the business priorities of:
Realignment-day Readiness: ensuring a seamless transition and focus on the requirements for realignment.
Maintaining business momentum, Initial Focus on what is critical to run the base business and sustain sales and profits.
During the year 2000 an initiative of consolidation of the systems of past/future acquisition into one system was launched. According to the report, "The initiative was part of the sectors overall effort to maximize the synergies from its' acquisitions, improve business productivity, realize operational effectiveness and costs savings based on percentages of sales spent on IT and strengthen shareholder value for Northrop Grumann Corporation." McGovern, et al. (2004) The Sector's ERP Systems increase was from 4 in 1998 to a 2000 total of 13. Accounting shops increases were from 6 in 1996 to a 2000 total of 13. Processes in the business were "maintained through manual time-consuming processes.
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