Pathophysiology Of Congestive Heart Failure Research Paper

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Moreover, increasing releases of aldosterone can also cause the body to retain fluid and sodium which can lead to endothelial dysfunction and organ fibrosis (Hobbs & Boyle, 2010). Other Systems

Along with other systems, there is an impact on the thyroid as well when examining the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure. According to the research, the "thyroid hormone (TH) has a fundamental role in cardiovascular homeostasis" from a pathophysiological perspective (Galli et al., 2012, p 155). When there are conditions ripe for congestive heart failure, there are notable reactions seen in the thyroid. In fact, Galli et al. (2010) assert that there is a "well-known but not yet well-understood relationship" between the thyroid and congestive heart failure (Galli et al., 2012, p 155). Continuing studies and research have aimed to help uncover this relationship in order to better provide for clinical practice. What is known is that "TH influences diastolic and systolic function both directly and indirectly" (Galli et al., 2012, p 157). Thus, low serum T3 levels can be a significant marker for the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure.

Some patients may even show signs of tissue hypothyroidism. Evidently, "an altered thyroid metabolism is already evident in the very early phases of left ventricular dysfunction and the decrease in serum T3 is proportional to the severity of heart disease and symptoms" (Galli et al., 2012, p 156). As such, TH deficiencies are often noted by the presence of a severe impairment in blood flow out of the heart.

Managing Patients after Congestive Heart Failure

In order to care for patients suffering from congestive heart failure of various severities, there are a number of management strategies that are popular within clinical practice today. Health care strategies often employ nitroprusside infusion (Aucoin, 2011). There is also the use of dietary sodium and restrictions on fluids. Due to the fact that the body retains fluid in such cases of congestive...

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This may often include "limiting patients to 2 g/day of dietary sodium and 2 L / day of fluid will lessen congestion and decrease the need for diuretics" (Hobbs & Boyle, 2010). The pathophysiological symptoms of congestive heart failure can cause enormous stress on the heart, leading to the importance of effective implementations of such strategies early on in the diagnosis of the condition.
Conclusion: Future Recommendations for Clinical Practice Based on Pathophysiology

With so many suffering from the devastating affects of congestive heart failure, better understanding of its pathophysiology can help increase management strategies. Today, despite all the research and break through which have been achieved, there is still between a 5%-20% mortality rate annually (Hobbs & Boyle, 2010). Unfortunately, "despite recent therapeutic advances, congestive HF is associated with high morbidity and mortality" (Li et al., 2012, p 7). There needs to be greater attention and emphasis placed on preventing congestive heart failure through the adaption of avoiding major risk factors.

Sources Used in Documents:

References

Aucoin, a. (2011). Management of a Patient with Congestive Heart Failure and Acute Pulmonary Edema -- a Case Study. Canadian Journal of Respiratory Therapy, 47(1), 12-14.

Borlaug, B.A., & Paulus, W.J. (2011). Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. European heart journal, 32(6), 670-679.

Galli, E., Pingitore, a., & Iervasi, G. (2010). The role of thyroid hormone in the pathophysiology of heart failure: clinical evidence. Heart failure reviews, 15(2), 155-169.

Hobbs, Robert & Boyle, Andrew. (2010). Heart failure. Disease Management Project. Cleveland Clinic. Web. http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/cardiology/heart-failure/


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