Pender the Founder of the Term Paper

Excerpt from Term Paper :

(Pender, 2003, "Biographical Sketch") Thus Pender's early nursing concerns, reflected in her HPM, have become more and more relevant to such contemporary health concerns.

Identification of the central focus and major principal of theory

Pender's Health Promotion Model incorporates nursing and behavioral science perspectives. ("Assumptions and Theoretical Propositions of the Health Promotion Model (HPM)" 2003, Source: Pender, 2002) it assumes a positive view of humanity, and states that while individuals attempt to achieve a personally acceptable balance between change and stability, persons also seek to create new conditions for healthy living through which they can express their unique potential. Patients are seen as being self-aware and in charge of their own health, and are capable of actively regulating their own behavior, and transforming their own environment as well as being capable of transformation themselves. Health professionals are responsible for exerting a positive influence to facilitate these changes. ("Assumptions and Theoretical Propositions of the Health Promotion Model (HPM)" 2003, Source: Pender, 2002)

The theoretical propositions of the HPM are based in the idea that prior behaviors, along with inherited and acquired characteristics all conspire to influence current health-promoting beliefs and actions. However, persons can commit to engaging in new behaviors that they perceive to be beneficial, although perceived barriers can constrain commitments to action. Perceived competence or self-efficacy to execute a given behavior increases the likelihood of commitment to action and actual performance of a positive behavior. By increasing the patient's sense of self-efficacy, there are also fewer perceived barriers to achieving a desirable health behavior, effect, and achieving the positive emotions that result from such behaviors. Such a change must come from changes in the family and lifestyle; the individual must not assume the entire burden of change. The situational environment, families, peers, and health care providers are all sources of interpersonal influence that can increase or decrease commitment to and engagement in health-promoting behavior. ("Assumptions and Theoretical Propositions of the Health Promotion Model (HPM)" 2003, Source: Pender, 2002)

Application of the theory to nursing practice, education and research

It is not very hard to anticipate the use of this model in nursing practice. Imagine a woman coming to a clinic for advice from a nurse practitioner. The woman is overweight and having difficulty coping with her child's health problems. The child is also overweight and has been recently diagnosed with Type II Diabetes. The mother says she cannot do anything to improve her health, everyone in her family is big, and she works late and can't exercise. Plus, much of family togetherness revolves around consuming the high-fat, high-sugar foods

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The theoretical propositions of the HPM are based in the idea that prior behaviors, along with inherited and acquired characteristics all conspire to influence current health-promoting beliefs and actions. However, persons can commit to engaging in new behaviors that they perceive to be beneficial, although perceived barriers can constrain commitments to action. Perceived competence or self-efficacy to execute a given behavior increases the likelihood of commitment to action and actual performance of a positive behavior. By increasing the patient's sense of self-efficacy, there are also fewer perceived barriers to achieving a desirable health behavior, effect, and achieving the positive emotions that result from such behaviors. Such a change must come from changes in the family and lifestyle; the individual must not assume the entire burden of change. The situational environment, families, peers, and health care providers are all sources of interpersonal influence that can increase or decrease commitment to and engagement in health-promoting behavior. ("Assumptions and Theoretical Propositions of the Health Promotion Model (HPM)" 2003, Source: Pender, 2002)

Application of the theory to nursing practice, education and research

It is not very hard to anticipate the use of this model in nursing practice. Imagine a woman coming to a clinic for advice from a nurse practitioner. The woman is overweight and having difficulty coping with her child's health problems. The child is also overweight and has been recently diagnosed with Type II Diabetes. The mother says she cannot do anything to improve her health, everyone in her family is big, and she works late and can't exercise. Plus, much of family togetherness revolves around consuming the high-fat, high-sugar foods

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