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Nursing Metaparadigms and Practice-Specific Concepts
Since Florence Nightingale, there have been a number of so-called grand theories of nursing advanced, and these grand theories have been used by other nursing theorists to conceptualize metaparadigms of practice that continue to influence clinical practice today. In addition, the central concepts of nursing are person, nursing, environment and health have formed the basis for other nursing theorists such as Jean Watson's Philosophy and Science of Caring and Madeleine Leininger and her Cultural Diversity and Universality Theory. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning these issues, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning nursing metaparadigms and practice-specific concepts in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
My background in nursing is in long-term and home care. In these capacities, I have had a number of opportunities to apply the four metaparadigms of nursing as discussed further below.…… [Read More]
Wit: Susie’s Nursing Metaparadigm
One of the pivotal characters in the movie Wit (2001) is that of Susie Monahan. Susie a nurse who has little knowledge of the poetry of John Donne so dear to the protagonist Vivian Bearing. Yet Susie shows expert mastery of the role of a healthcare provider in relation to her patients. Regarding the nursing paradigm of patient, environment, health, and nursing, Susie again and again demonstrates that she regards the patient as central in the ethical responsibilities of the nurse (Nikfarid, et al., 2018). Other characters, particularly the physicians and researchers handling Vivian’s case, place their own research needs above the needs of the patient. Vivian, although highly educated, admits she knows little of cancer research and does not fully understand she is being used as a test subject for research from which she is unlikely to benefit. For Susie, the patient is always first…… [Read More]
Personal Nursing Philosophy
My Nursing Autobiography
I have dreamt of being a nurse all my life. My mother and older cousins tell me stories of how I loved to line up my dolls and animals, place bandages over them to nurse their 'injuries' and stick branches in their armpits to have a feel of their temperature. Well, I believe these stories because to this day, these are the very things that keep my life going; I derive so much satisfaction from just being able to help people when they are in no position to help themselves. I took an elective nursing course in high school, where I was supposed to report at the local facility at least once every week to assist in the administration of basic care to patients. This marked the beginning of my career in nursing, and since then, I have logged almost 15 years of experience…… [Read More]
autobiography of the author of this report. The remainder of the report will mostly focus on the four meta-paradigms of nursing. Of course, those meta-paradigms are patient, nurse, health and environment. The author will also offer two practice-specific concepts from the scholarly literature that can be applied to the career and environment of the author of this report. Next up will be a list of propositions that will number five in total. As suggested and required by the assignment, the paper will integrate these discrete elements and in a way that connects to the concepts described. While analysis of the nursing professional can get a little silly and/or delve too much into a bit of navel-gazing, the profession is indeed noble and deep and is thus worthy of the proper full analysis.
The author of this report started as an electrocardiogram (EKG) technician and nursing assistant while the author…… [Read More]
Nursing is one of those professions that provides the opportunity not only to further oneself on a professional level, but also on a personal level. It provides the individual with the opportunity to connect with others by providing a platform of health care, while also providing a helping hand that promotes not only short-term healing, but also long-term well-being. This makes nursing one of the most caring professions, as it provides the nurse with the opportunity to use his or her skills, and also to lend a hand above the duties of simple physical health care. In this way, nursing extends to caring for the whole person rather than the physical being alone. This is one of the major factors that has attracted me to the profession throughout my life.
According to Limon (2001), there are four central concepts that are central to the metaparadigm of nursing, including the person…… [Read More]
Nurses may feel as if they do not have anyone who understands them: even their non-nursing partners may not seem to truly comprehend what they deal with on a regular basis, day in and day out at the hospital. Nurses may be isolated from one another in the hospital, too busy to 'talk shop' in a positive way with like-minded colleagues, or deal with doctors who are not sympathetic to the unique demands of nursing. Nurses may also find it difficult to have an appropriate work and life balance, as increasingly they are pressured to do more and more at work, to make up for declining numbers of caregivers at the facilities where they work. They may be called upon to perform many additional duties traditionally performed by doctors and physician's assistants that strain at the traditional definitions of nursing.
Nurses may feel as if their unique insights as nurses…… [Read More]
Concept Synthesis on Personal Nursing Philosophy
My interest in nursing peaked at an early age when I attended Clara Barton High School for health professions in Brooklyn NY and graduated in 1991. I first worked as a nurse's aide and home health aide for about two years and found this position to be quite rewarding. I subsequently moved to North Carolina where I took the CNA course in 1995 and began working as a CNA at various nursing homes and hospitals in the regional area. My experience as a CNA certainly helped me in my journey and provided the foundation for the later developments in my career.
Later I moved to Las Vegas in 1997 where I got married in 1998. After forming this union I went back to school for my BSN in 2002 while working as a CNA. I finished my BSN from Nevada…… [Read More]
A person's health is an ever-changing state of being resulting from the interaction with the environment. Optimum health is the actualization of both innate and obtained human potential gained through rewarding relationships with others, obtaining goals and maintaining expert personal care. Adaptations can be made as required to maintain stability and structural integrity. A person's state of health can vary from wellness to illness, disease, or dysfunction. Professional nursing is founded on the need to promote wellness practices, the attentive treatment of persons who are acutely or chronically ill or dying, and restorative care of patients during convalescence and rehabilitation. It also includes the education and measurement of those who perform or are learning to perform nursing responsibilities, the support and communication of research to enhance knowledge and practice, and the management of nursing in healthcare delivery systems. Nursing practice centers on the application of a body of knowledge in…… [Read More]
The nurse is often expected to act and react only with empirical information, however personal knowledge is considered equally as important by many nurse educators and researchers (Chinn & Kramer 2004). This also helps to explain why "health" and "environment" are considered distinct major components in the metastudy of nursing; both can be understood on highly subjective terms, with the concept of "good health" changing from patient to patient, or "person" to "person." Environment, too, has a major effect on the practice of nursing and the growth of the nursing body of knowledge.
My personal philosophy of nursing centers on the belief that each individual person under my care deserves full attention and the unique application of my knowledge in addressing their immediate and long-term needs and concerns. That is, each person should benefit as much as possible from the full extent of my nursing knowledge, while still being…… [Read More]
One of the complexities of 21st century medicine is the evolution of nursing care theories in combination with a changing need and expectation of the stakeholder population. Nurses must be advocates and communicators, but must balance these along with an overall philosophy of ethics while still remaining mindful of budgets and the need for the medical institution to be profitable. It seems as if these issues comprise a three-part template for nursing: respect for patient value & individuality, education of patients, and cognition and respect for the realities of contemporary medicine. In many ways, too, modern technology has advanced further than societal wisdom, especially when confronting the issue of death. The modern nurse's role is to create a nurse-patient culture that encourages the individual to take responsibility for their healthcare and, in partnership with the nurse, to be involved in their recovery. The modern complexities of…… [Read More]
The nursing practice is a profession that is based on conceptual and theoretical models that help in guiding patient safety and quality initiatives. The use of conceptual and theoretical models is an important part in nursing practice that is applied across the various disciplines in this profession. As a clinical nurse specialist, nursing conceptual and theoretical models play a crucial role in achieving the specific goal of identifying, recognizing, treating, and monitoring illnesses or diseases. The process of using nursing conceptual and theoretical models involves developing practice-specific concepts relating to the specific professional practice and creating a personal philosophy and practice guideline. The practice-specific concepts should incorporate the four basic metaparadigms of nursing theory and be supported by research and concepts.
Overview of My Professional Practice and Four Metaparadigms
A clinical nurse specialist is a nurse professional or practitioner who provides a crucial link with regards to detecting,…… [Read More]
One of the major theoretical models for healthcare delivery is the Parse theory of human becoming, created by Rosemarie Rizzo Parse—originally titled the man-living-health theory (2011). This theory focuses on healthcare and the human through the lens of quality of life. This theoretical premise for delivering and receiving healthcare was able to gain steam as a result of its alternative to the more standard bio-medical method and the biological-psychological-social and spiritual method contained in the bulk of other theories of nursing. This theory has enjoyed much attention and use when delivering healthcare as a result of the fact that it views quality of life as all relative to a person’s viewpoint.
Main assumptions of Human Becoming Theory
Human becoming allows one to select specific meaning in situations within the realm of human experience. Reality is the culmination of lived experiences. A sometimes nebulous process of co-creation occurs via…… [Read More]
Nursing History, Theories and Conceptual Model
The three trends in nursing practice that become evident to me from viewing the Nuring Timeline of Historical Events are: first, the rise of formal education and training for nurses—especially in the latter half of the 20th century when more and more doctors were leaving primary care for special practice and APRNs were being trained to fill the gap in primary care (O’Brien, 2003). Second, there is the rise of advocacy in terms of improving the quality of care provided to patients. This resulted in a push for the application of more evidence-based practice (EBP). In my own perspective on Nursing Practice, I view this focus on EBP as one of the most important developments in the history of nursing, as it ensures that patients are receiving care that is based on scientific and empirical proof rather than just on whatever one feels might…… [Read More]
Nursing Theory -- oy Adaptation Model
The oy Adaptation Model is one of the most commonly cited and used options when it comes to nursing theories. It has been in existence since 1976, and has had a number of years to be adjusted and changed to work with the adjustments that have occurred in the field of nursing over time (Alligood, 2011). Being able to adapt and change is a very important part of nursing, because all patients are different. Additionally, treatments and medications change rapidly, and that can be difficult to keep up with if a nurse is not focused on adapting his or her style and beliefs to the changing nature of medicine. Here, the importance of nursing theory will be explored, along with the key points that are used in the oy Adaptation Model. The views and ideas that the model provides when it comes to nursing…… [Read More]
Theoretical Foundations of Nursing:
Nursing can be described as a science and practice that enlarges adaptive capabilities and improves the transformation of an individual and the environment. This profession focuses on promoting health, improving the quality of life, and facilitating dying with dignity. The nursing profession has certain theoretical foundations that govern the nurses in promoting adaptation for individuals and groups. These theoretical foundations include theories, theory integration, reflection, research and practice, and assimilation.
Grand Nursing Theory:
There are several grand nursing theories that were developed by various theorists including the Science of Unitary Human Beings by Martha ogers, Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model, and Systems Model by Betty Neuman. Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model is based on the consideration of the human being as an open system. She argues that the system reacts to environmental stimuli via cognator and regulator coping techniques for individuals. On the other hand, the…… [Read More]
diverse population nurses must attend to, the concept of 'transcultural' nursing is important to understand. Instead of viewing health as a universal concept, transcultural nursing attempts to understand the conceptual building blocks of the nursing profession as cultural products that are socially-constructed. It strives to understand the similarities and differences between different health attitudes and practices (Leininger 1991). First developed by Madeline Leininger, transcultural nursing is founded upon the idea that the "health care providers need to be flexible in the design of programs, policies, and services to meet the needs and concerns of the culturally diverse population, groups that are likely to be encountered" (Transcultural nursing, 2012, Current Nursing).
Nurses must be culturally astute and adapt their practices to patient's cultural needs as well as to physical needs. This concept has been somewhat controversial within the nursing profession given that Western medicine's emphasis on preserving life and optimizing treatment…… [Read More]
Leadership -- nursing
Discover and/or create an image, poem, quote, or selection of music that symbolizes, or speaks to you of, what it means to be a caring nurse in the organizational context. Describe why you have selected this symbol. Link your personal understanding gained by reflecting on your authentic "piece" to course literature to reveal resonance, differences and new insights.
According to Bonnie Raingruber in "Meanings in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Nursing" from the Jan-Mar 2004 edition of The Journal of Child and Adolescent Psycatric Nursing by familiarizing the nurse or patient reader and nurse and patient writer with new worlds of experience, poetry increases one's capacity to tolerate pain, understand oneself, and other people. Poetry is "dialogical: it seeks in the listener an ally whose empathy will take the form of sharing the survivor's anguish and struggle" (Kaminsky, 1998, p. 408). In light of this insight, poetry…… [Read More]
future development of nursing needs to address. However, it is possible to stratify these issues into ones which are the most pressing at this particular point in time -- to effectively coalesce some of the minor issues and align them with larger ones so that the most salient ones are addressed first. Perhaps the most eminent of these for quite some time is the shortage of nursing. This issue has only become exacerbated in the wake of the actualization of the Affordable Care Act, in which there is a shortage of all health care professionals. Another nursing issue that appears equally important is the facilitation of the environment in rendering the most effective care. This particular issue relates to the general shift going on in the health care model effected within the United States, in which it is advisable and more efficacious to utilize approaches that emphasize wellness in a…… [Read More]
components contemporary nursing knowledge. The article include: • Concept triangulation • Metaparadigms • Philosophies • Conceptual models theory.
Nursing concept: The relational theory of nursing
According to the article "A theory of the relational work of nurses" by Daniela Terrizzi DeFrino from esearch and Theory for Nursing Practice, because nursing has always been conceptualized as a 'caring' profession in a demeaning fashion, quite often some nurses are apt to deemphasize this aspect of their work. This is particularly true in the modern, time and cost-conscious healthcare environment, where the relational aspects of healthcare treatment are discounted. "The relational work exists but is, as a general rule, taken for granted as 'nice' and not valued as the skillful and effective process that it is. It is valued neither by nurses explicitly nor by management in general" (DeFrino 2010: 294). This article asks an important question: in the new world of healthcare,…… [Read More]
Middle ange Nursing Theorist: ozzano Locsin
Dr. ozzano Locsin attained a PhD in nursing at the University of the Philippines in 1988. He is currently a tenured Professor of Nursing at Florida Atlantic University. Locsin has extensive experience in nursing research in a variety of nations: "Through the Fulbright Scholar Award, he developed the first Masters program in Nursing in Uganda while researching the phenomenon 'waiting-to-know' and the lived experiences of persons exposed to patients who died of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever" (ozzano Locsin, 2011, Pro-Libraries). His current research interests focus on themes of technology and caring in nursing and "life transitions in human health" (ozzano Locsin, 2011, Pro-Libraries). Locsin calls his mid-range theory the "technological competency as caring model."
Theory development: How the theorist came about to develop his/her theory
Locsin's theory arose because of the frustrations he perceived in nurses when they were coping…… [Read More]
" (Health Care System, Canada, 2007)
V. THEORETICAL ASIS of OREM'S SELF-CARE MODEL
Social Learning Theory was developed by andura (1987, 1986) who held that behavior results from the individual's personal and environmental factors. It was stated in findings of a study reported by Hyndman et al. (1993) that there is a need to change the individual's environment in order to encourage positive health behavior and that there is a need to correct misperceptions about health. Training and development of skills is necessary in creation of new behaviors and in approaching solutions as well as are role models and self-efficacy. In Orem's conceptualization of health "the concept of wholeness, soundness and well-being are closely integrated." (Health Care Canada, 2007) Orem's definition of health includes "...psychological, interpersonal and social aspects of living as well as the commonly emphasized physical aspects." (Health Care Canada, 2007) Well-being has been associated with health in…… [Read More]
Clinical Problem: Diabetes Mellitus in Rural Settings
Mid-range nursing theories can be extremely useful in understanding specific clinical issues. These theories are less broad and all-encompassing than so-called grand theories of nursing such as Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring and seek to offer a more technical and practical approach to applying theory in daily practice (Alligood, 2018). This paper will specifically examine the application of Kristen Swanson’s Theory of Caring to the treatment of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus living in rural settings without adequate access to healthcare. Virtually all nursing theories are composed of four essential core definitions, that of person, environment, health, and nursing itself. Swanson’s theory, however, specifically focuses on nursing, which Swanson defines as a very specific type of caring.
Although obesity is increasing across the nation, obesity is often particularly rife in rural settings with limited access to healthcare and healthy foods.…… [Read More]
ut if they can manage to terminate the temporary relationship, they will become more emotionally balanced and mature persons (Young).
Why Choose the Peplau Model
oth its interpersonal theory and nursing process have a concrete sequence of use and focus on the therapeutic relationship (Current Nursing, 2012). oth utilize appropriate problem-solving techniques, which aim in common at filling the client's needs. oth use observation and communication as well as recording as basic tools, which are already used in nursing care. The four phases inter-relate and inter-weave the varying components of each phase. The Theory or model is applicable to endeavors, which follow the concepts of client, health, environment and nursing. It proceeds in a logical and systematic manner in viewing and processing nursing situations. Its generalizability rests in its simplicity in the logical progression of the partnership. It has produced testable hypotheses. It can be used in psychiatric patients. It…… [Read More]
Patterns of Knowing
This nurse's experience does provide evidence of the fundamental patterns of knowing. There are overarching patterns in knowing: empiric (through the senses), ethics (obligation), personal, aesthetics (relating to the art of nursing), and emancipatory knowing (Chinn & Kramer, 2008). There are five dimensions to the knowledge process: critical questions, creative processes, formal practice of knowledge and knowing, integrative practice of knowledge and knowing, and authentication processes (Chinn & Kramer, 2008). To some degree, all of the overarching patterns in knowing and their related dimensions were in evidence in the nurse's story.
One element from the reading that seemed extremely relevant to the nurse's story was the idea that "as the scientific worldview gained dominance, so did the idea that human progress would be achieved by harnessing science to create technology for the achievement of human ends" (McEwen & Willis, 2007). The nurse in question wanted to go…… [Read More]
When most people are asked 'what do nurses do," there is a strong likelihood that the word 'caring' will arise in the conversation. Many nurses, particularly new nurses, identify caring as one of the personal qualities that attracted them to the profession. However, caring can be a very nebulous concept, as even non-nurses give 'care' to others and non-nurses can be 'caring' people. Nursing, in an effort to create an empirical and academic basis for itself as a discipline has fought against the idea that nursing is just about caring. However, it cannot 'ignore' the idea of caring, given that one of the concepts that distinguishes nursing from other forms of medical care is its patient-centric and individualistic perspective.
I have chosen caring as the concept I will focus on in this paper, with a specific focus on Jean Watson's Theory of Caring, given that it is one of…… [Read More]
In reaction, diabetes research looks into pharmacological options and changes in lifestyle to contain the trend. Recent findings point to the need for healthcare professionals to empower diabetes sufferers to take recourse in self-management as the best option at the moment (Kumar).
The purposefulness of a plan and its implementation in assisting a client with diabetes helped fill in her self-care deficit (Kumar 2007). The interpersonal relationship between a nurse and her client minimizes the stress experienced by the latter and her family. This enables the client or patient and her family to act more responsibly in health matters. An assessment and plan of care may use Orem's client-related concepts -- of self-care, self-care agency, therapeutic self-care demand and self-care deficit --, the concepts of nursing agency and nursing system and the basic conditioning factors. Integrating these concepts into other theories on health promotion and family systems may guide effective…… [Read More]
Newman's theory of HEC
The main purpose of nursing theories is to improve the nursing practice, hence improving the health as well as quality of life of people, families or the community at large (Parker & Smith, 2010). Nursing theories usually provide logical methods of approaching and viewing the care of people in their own environment. Through the use of the theoretical model in care organization, the nursing focus on quality care strengthens significantly (Parker & Smith, 2010). In addition, there is consistency in communication as well as related activities in the nursing care. The development of nursing theories together with theory-guided practice models significantly improves the discipline and the professional practice of nursing (Parker & Smith, 2010).
One of the most key issues facing the nursing discipline is the artificial isolation of nursing theory and practice (Parker & Smith, 2010). Practicing nurses have the responsibility of studying and valuing…… [Read More]
MID ANGE THEOY OF SPIITUAL WELL BEING
Middle ange Theory of Spiritual Well Being in Illness
Nurse meta-theorists have recently been very much concerned about the different seasons of the patient's life, which has supported and promoted the development of middle range theories in the field of nursing. This is due to the reason that these theories focus on the specific health and illness issues instead of discussing the general issues. These specific health and illness issues focused in the mid range theories are extremely important for the practicing nurses as they spotlight on the particular problem and its solution.
History of Theory Development in Nursing
The practicing nurses started incorporating the nursing theories into their research and practically applying them to real situations during 1970s and 1980s. Majority of the early nursing theories fall in the category of grand theories of nursing because the concepts that described…… [Read More]
The holistic view of the human being (i.e. The patient) and the environment is in some ways an echo of the holistic nature of the theory itself, which quite consciously and explicitly attempted to develop a theory appropriate to all aspects and situations of nursing. Because the Science of Unitary Human Beings was developed essentially from the ground up in such a conscious and comprehensive manner, it would be practically impossible for internal inconsistencies to exist.
Just as the scope of ogers' Science of Unitary Human Beings is difficult to overstate, it is equally difficult to overestimate the impact that this theory has had on the field of nursing. Its contributions to both nursing practice and scholarship have been enormous, and as the theory continues to evolve and develop under the guidance of new scholars and practitioners its significance only grows (Butcher 2008). ogers was not the first…… [Read More]
oy Adaptation Theory
Callista oy: Adaptation Theory
Not every idea is perfect and neither is any person, so the propagation of theoretical stances proliferate. In the field of nursing it makes sense that there would be theories which were designed to advance the fields of care, patient psychology and of medicine's effect on the body, but care, the essence of nursing seems the most crucial. Care theories have been advanced providing guidance for every facet of the practice, and the concept of the oy adaptive model is just one of the many. This essay will examine the oy adaptive theory from every angle in an attempt to recognize its place in nursing.
"Sister Callista oy was born in 1939 in Los Angeles, CA" (Masters, 2011). This seems to be where all of the discussions of Ms. oy begin, and it tells the researcher three crucial items about the…… [Read More]
Sister Callista oy Theory
At the age of 14 years old, Callista oy had already started working in large general hospital where she moved from being a pantry, to maid to the nurse's maid. After considerations, Callista decided to join the Sisters of Saint Joseph Carondelet where she became a member for more that 40 years of her entire life. She joined college and pursued liberal arts program where she successfully completed a program in Bachelor of Arts majoring in nursing at Mount St. Mary's College in Los Angeles (The Trustees of Boston College, 2013).
She further pursed successfully her masters in Sociology and a doctorate in sociology as well both at University of California (Jones & Barlett, 2013). It was at this point that oy wanted to fuse both sociological approach and nursing approach to the nursing care of the patients. She is accredited for coming up with and…… [Read More]
Madeleine Leininger's place of birth was Sutton, Nebraska. She earned her Ph.D. in social and cultural anthropology in 1965, from Washington University, Seattle. In her initial years of working, she was a nurse. This was where she gained insight on how important it is to care. Frequent appreciative statements from care patients inspired her to center her attention on care; she realized that 'caring' is a fundamental part of nursing. In the 50s, she worked in a guidance home for children. Madeline discovered that the recurrent habits among children seemed to have been inspired by culture. She stated that nurses had no knowledge about care and culture, and this led to their ignorance on the numerous components needed in caring for patients to support healing, wellness and compliance. This knowledge led to the introduction of transcultural nursing; a phenomenon and construct based on nursing care, in the 50s.…… [Read More]
Mixed Method, Systematic Reviews, Integrated Reviews, Review of the Literature, Expert Opinions, Informative Articles are not appropriate for this assignment.)
Record your responses in the space provided. he boxes will expand as you type.
Your responses should be your own words and written in complete sentences. No "yes" or "no" answers. You should provide an explanation/rationale for each response.
Did the authors specifically indicate that the human rights of the subjects were protected? Did they specifically identify Institutional Review Board approval/Ethics Committee approval for this study? Did they indicate that they obtained informed consent for the study from the sample/participants? State what page numbers this information was found.
he participants gave informed consents and the procedures were performed in accordance with standards from the Committee of Human Experimentation of the University Institutional Review Board (Pieper, B., et al., 2010, p. 19).
15b: Does the study indicate that the subjects/participants received…… [Read More]
Myra's case is just one instance of many that a mental health nurse encounters on a regular schedule.
Nursing is best practiced when it follows the intentions of its founder Florence Nightingale who urged that nursing should be a practice that should literally provide for and care for the patient. Nursing, in other words, should be purely patient-centered. This caring extends to all aspects not just to the illness so that one treats the patient in a holistic way, considering all components of the patient such as the family, his or her social needs, hobbies, desires, spiritual inclinations and so forth. When done in this way, nursing extends itself from an automatic, robotic procedure to something that can motivate the nurse and uplift the patient (Watson, 1998). 'Nursing', in other words, extends to caring for the patient as a whole.
An effective nurse will strive to accomplish her best in…… [Read More]
KATHAINE KOLCABA'S COMFOT THEOY
Evaluation of K. Kolcaba's Comfort Theory
Are the concepts in the theory explicitly and/or implicitly described in the theory?
(including the four concepts of the metaparadigm of nursing; nurse/nursing; person/patient; health; environment)? The descriptions of the theoretical concepts of comfort theory are provided below:
Nurse/nursing: According to Kolcaba (2003), "The term [nursing] can mean the discipline (noun) or what nursing does (the verb)" (p. 68);
Person/patient: Likewise, Kolcaba (2003) notes that "the concept [person] has been utilized as client, patient, family, community, region, or nation" (p. 68).
Health: "Health Care Needs" include those identified by the patient/family in a particular practice setting (Kolcaba, 2016, para. 3);
Environment: Generally, Kolcaba (2003) describes this concept as "where ever nurses practice" (p. 68).
b. Are the relationships of the theory concept relationships explicitly and/or implicitly described in the theory? According to Kolaba (2003), her definition characterizes comfort "as…… [Read More]
(Pender, 2003, "Biographical Sketch") hus Pender's early nursing concerns, reflected in her HPM, have become more and more relevant to such contemporary health concerns.
Identification of the central focus and major principal of theory
Pender's Health Promotion Model incorporates nursing and behavioral science perspectives. ("Assumptions and heoretical Propositions of the Health Promotion Model (HPM)" 2003, Source: Pender, 2002) it assumes a positive view of humanity, and states that while individuals attempt to achieve a personally acceptable balance between change and stability, persons also seek to create new conditions for healthy living through which they can express their unique potential. Patients are seen as being self-aware and in charge of their own health, and are capable of actively regulating their own behavior, and transforming their own environment as well as being capable of transformation themselves. Health professionals are responsible for exerting a positive influence to facilitate these changes. ("Assumptions and heoretical…… [Read More]