178). Jung espoused the belief that the 'ego' of man was brought together through the experiences, both consciously and unconsciously that the individual experienced. Ultimately these experiences would lead the individual to an enhanced and complete life, leading to exaltation and a 'complete' man.
Phenomenology as a discipline is distinct from but related to other key disciplines in philosophy, such as ontology, epistemology, logic, and ethics. Phenomenology has been practiced in various guises for centuries, but it came into its own in the early 20th century in the works of Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty and others" (Smith, 2005).
This philosophy was much like the philosophy practiced by alchemists in earlier centuries. Alchemy, before modern times was considered to be the search for turning metal into gold. According to some sources alchemy was a title given to those men who worked gold. "They called gold-working al-kimiya - 'the art of the land of Khem' - and so, according to one account, the word 'alchemy' was born" (Mysteries, 1992). Gold working, or the transmutation of metal into gold is the most common usage for alchemy, but many experts now believe that alchemists often used that particular usage as a guise to protect themselves against the Catholic church during mideivel times. The experts believe that alchemists could have, and probably did mean that they were living this life to savor and experience each event, mixing all experiences together to create an ultimate being, or an ultimate self. These experiences are much like the archetypes that Jung professed led to a more complete life. Another consideration in this aspect would be the 'philosopher's stone' that many alchemists believed would assist them in turning metal into gold and some even believed that it would make them younger. Most philosophers espousing a phenomenological point-of-view believed that alchemists may have had the right idea, and that there certainly could be external factors that would always influence mankind's actions, but that a philosophers stone was in actuality a compilation of experiences from an individual's life, coupled with presuppositions and concious choices, complemented by archetypes and prior experiences that all influenced the individual.
Being able to collate all these factors and experiences into a life that results in a higher 'spiritual being' is conducive to this particular study, even if the participants have no idea that they are the subjects of such speculation. Observing the methods employed by the individuals to come to a conclusion concerning their individual experiences will result in valuable data regarding the experiences themselves, as well as intuition, spiritualness and completeness of being. There is such a wide variety of philosophies and theories that coincide with phenomenology that keeping the main ideas in mind will be helpful in determining the most comprehensive results from the study itself.
A finding from a recent study could likely be considered the perfect example of phenomenology and its complementary theories. The study states, "no incentive system based solely on extrinsic rewards can motivate persons properly" (Rosanas, Velilla, 2005, p. 84). Keeping this thought in mind, phenomenology allows the researcher to understand that there are a variety of external and internal forces working on the human psyche and that each human being is influenced in different ways, by different events.
As stated above, much of the human psyche is influenced by perceptions, presuppositions and prior experiences. "Phenomenology as a discipline is distinct from but related to other key disciplines in philosophy, such as ontology, epistemology, logic, and ethics. Phenomenology has been practiced in various guises for centuries, but it came into its own in the early 20th century in the works of Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty and others" (Smith, 2005).
Knowing that phenomenology came into its own in the early 20th century, and at that time, women in society were not perceived in the same manner as they are currently perceived, it is not so unbelievable that today's feminists may perceive that certain philosophies do not take their gender into consideration, and that phenomenology is one of those that is biased towards men's feelings rather than those feelings, thoughts and emotions of women.
Many key scholars and philosophers throughout history have suggested that women's feelings and emotions were inconsequential and therefore have derived theories based solely on men's experiences. "Scholars agree that Hegel appears consistently to deny women the ability and the opportunity to achieve what he esteems as the highest expression of sex" (LaMothe, Kimerer, 2005, p. 122). That women are now attempting to affect a change regarding this common perception is understandable, and in fact, many feminists are considered radical in their efforts to do so. Many feminists espouse the belief that they are "prepared to question and possibly reject the underlying assumptions and values of philosophy." In particular, radical feminists challenge "philosophy's orientation around oneness, unity, or identity -- one truth, one method, one reality, one logic, and so on" (Simons, 1999, p. 162, 166). Hegel, in particular, was a philosopher who believed that women were of little consequence in men's journey to achieving the ultimate being.
LaMothe states of Hegel's beliefs that, "his vision for becoming a self-conscious subject -- or seeing (oneself as) "spirit" -- requires taking responsibility for the insight that every act of reason expresses an experience of sexual difference" (p. 123). Other studies have shown that women might be correct in their assertions that certain philosophies cannot be considered from their point-of-view. This is important in regards to this specific study because women are now integral to the workings of most modern day police forces, not only from the aspect of the physical job requirements, but the mental decisions that must be made on a daily basis. Women perceived events in a different manner than men, and it is therefore likely that the questions asked in this study will elicit different responses from women, than they would elicit from men.
One recent article contended that "men tend to view their own aggression as an instrumental act aimed at imposing control, whereas women tend to view theirs as an expressive act resulting from a loss of self-control" (Alexander, Allen, Brooks, 2004, p. 650). Espousing such radical differences in the way men and women perceive the same events could probably lead to a lack of understanding in regards to the philosophy being touted. Some individuals would probably not even adhere to any of the guidelines being presented by the philosophy, or would shun the thinking altogether. Already, "radical feminists see that there is no space for women's inclusion within most philosophical systems" (Green, 2002, p. 3).
Phenomenology seeks to include all experiences from all viewpoints, and therefore, as a methodology all responses should be considered as to their particular veracity when seeking to come to a fair conclusion. This can be done with a conscious choice by the researcher and it should be remembered that in regards to phenomenology "the same object appears differently in various situations or that different things viewed from a single vantage point appear the same is not an unusual but is rather a common fact of our everyday perceptual experience" (Junichi, 2005, p. 2). This fact is true whether the experience is viewed from a man's or a women's point-of-view. There are also differences in opinions from a religious point-of-view as well. Since much of phenomenology has to do with the spiritual or the mystical aspects of life, it is easy to understand the differences perceived by various philosophers in regards to how to apply the teachings and findings of phenomenology. It is also a simple matter to discern how other philosophers were able to mold and manipulate phenomenology into other similar philosophies and theories. Other cultures and countries have also had their own brand of phenomenology, the Asian culture in particular is able to point to a variety of philosophies as comparing to it.
Yogacara and Yoga are essentially the same thing and both seek to establish a connection between the physical and metaphysical aspects of life.
Yogacara allows the practitioner to become more in tune with the forces of life and it seeks to have a calming effect on those individuals who practice it, allowing for more meditation on the events being experienced.
Standard introductions to Yogacara for several decades now have tended to explain vijA±apti-matra as either a Buddhist form of "idealism" or a Jungian psychologism wherein the store consciousness is equated with a collective unconscious...when we attempt to translate the discourse of a Buddhist tradition such as Yogacara, which is epistemological in character (and not…
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