Philosophers Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Philosopher Graphic Organizer Philosopher Plato

Words: 858 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33691202

Additionally, Aristotle furthered the field of educational philosophy by creating subjects and a logical inquiry process, insisting that education be moral or ethical, and defining it as intertwined with politics to such a great extent that the best and most necessary education is a state-sponsored education (Chambliss 2008).

Influence Toward My Educational Philosophy:

Practically, Aristotle's creation of subjects and his primitive research, which set the foundation for further research, influenced my educational philosophy by insisting the importance of a pragmatic education and establishing the tools for that education -- research. Aristotle's contribution, therefore, shaped my understanding of the purpose of education -- a means toward intellectual inquiry. Furthermore, Aristotle's combination of ethics with morality and politics has shaped the teacher's oath stating that he or she should do no harm, in addition to contributing to what I understand as the goal of education -- to further the goodwill of human…… [Read More]

References

Chambilss, J.J. (2008). Aristotle: Education for a Common End. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from State University.com's Education Encyclopedia

Web Site:  http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1763/Aristotle-384-322-B-C-E.html 

Dillon, Ariel. (2004). Education in Plato's Republic. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from Santa Clara University

Web Site: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/submitted/dillon/education_plato_republic.html
View Full Essay

Plato's Philosopher King Plato and the Philosopher-King

Words: 1348 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5164555

Plato's Philosopher King

Plato and the Philosopher-King

ith the Allegory of the Cave, Plato expresses the notion that the best thing a philosopher can do is lead the people and that, in turn, a leader (king) must be a philosopher. Plato emphasizes this idea by equating the unenlightened citizens of his Republic to prisoners in chains (they are, in effect, chained by their ignorance of reality and transcendental truth). The philosopher is he who is able to loose himself from the chains of ignorance and follow the light of knowledge and wisdom. Moving toward this light is an ordeal in and of itself, but Plato makes it very clear that embracing the light is only half of the battle: the philosopher must not be content merely with being enlightened, but must descend to the cave from whence he came and share the light with those still imprisoned in darkness. Because…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Plato. "Parmenides" in Greek Philosophy. (Ed. By Reginald Allen). NY: Free Press,

1991. Print.

Plato. The Republic: The Influential Classic. UK: Capstone Publishing Ltd., 2012.

Print.
View Full Essay

Eastern Philosopher Murasaki Shikibu Dear

Words: 809 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20877776

How the Noble Truths can be achieved through the Confucian virtues.

Of course, please note especially the last ingredient, a lifetime of spiritual enlightenment, and the cooking instructions, which required all these ingredients to be mixed by a "strong, feminist hand." The recipe ultimately allows individuals, particularly women, to achieve salvation. If you've read books on Eastern philosophy and religions, you would note that in Japan, the history of Zen Buddhism is inextricably linked also with the eventual "salvation" of women in the society, and I am proud to say that my philosophical writings have helped serve as a catalyst, not only in developing Zen philosophy, but also in promoting women's equality, be this equality socio-political in nature, or in terms of salvation.

Zen philosophy promoted right-mindedness in people because it paved the way for progressive thinking. That is, Zen philosophy opened people's minds that salvation can be achieved not…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Justice Political Philosopher John Rawls Looks at

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56843888

Justice, political philosopher John Rawls looks at the idea of social justice and the individual rights of the individual by redefining the last 200+ years of the American experience. In general, he looks at the manner in which the Founding Fathers were correct by basing their views on previous social contract theorists like Locke and Rousseau. For example, there is a clear linkage between John Locke and Rawls that validates the ideas of liberalism within American society. In fact, Rawls notes that the American Experience extended the concept of justice far beyond hat any of the Enlightenment philosophers ever hoped (Rawls, 1957).

Rawls (1921-2002), an American philosopher who focused on moral and political philosophy, believed that the principles of justice are the models that rational individuals who are free would choose as basic ways to cooperate within their society. He called this position the original position, in that it was…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kamm, F. (2007). Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities and Permissible Harm. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rawls, J. (1957). Justice as Fairness. Philosophical Review. 54 (22): 653-62.

Rawls, J. (1999). A Theory of Justice. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.

Rawls, J. (2001). A Theory of Justice. New York: Oxford University Press.
View Full Essay

18th Century French Philosopher Denis

Words: 684 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26792609

My ability to communicate and convey my passion to other people has sprouted through my work with LiNK.

Having worked closely with the Cornell University chapter, I witnessed the development of leadership skills within me, skills that were both derived and discovered by my peers. Being an active member of various NGO's and other organizations has opened social doors for me, enabling me to share why I am in LiNK and making connections that will help us manifest our common goals. And because of the new discoveries about myself as an innate leader, I was able to gather together the knowledge and materials needed to hold a public forum at my previous university: Syracuse, where discussions and debates took place concerning the issues of North Korea. My confidence level increased a great deal as a result of these experiences and my willingness to share my passion with others. I have…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Plato Philosopher Kings

Words: 1006 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62248783

Plato held that a just state would be run by philosopher guardians. Plato thinks that, given their education, talents, virtues and the way their lives would be controlled in his Republic, such people are the best possible rulers. Is he right about this?

One of the contradictions in Platonic philosophy is that its oligarchic structure of rule by philosopher kings who are 'the best' and 'most fit' to create a 'just' state embodies an antidemocratic and unjust philosophy. The idea that only those temperamentally fit to rule should rule has often been used to justify tyranny. Socrates, at the beginning of the Republic, calls for his listeners to strive to live a good life, not one that is merely pleasurable or self-serving. However, despite his calls for justice, a society which denies individual autonomy can never be just and dictatorships almost inevitably produce self-serving regimes.

At the beginning of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Korab-Karpowicz, W.J. Plato: Political Philosophy. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

2005. [31 May 2011]  http://www.iep.utm.edu/platopol/
View Full Essay

David Hume Philosopher Historian and

Words: 4488 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82226305

Once the reader gets past the language and time issues that have passed since Hume's lifetime, the ideas he presents become clear and make a great deal of sense.

Hume uses several main arguments and conclusions in his writing. The first two are the most important, as they seem to set the groundwork for the others. The first is that everyone has impression and ideas about things but that these must be examined closely because they are often false. This seems logical because many things that people do, when looked back on, are found to be not really the best or most logical choice after all.

The second thing that Hume points out is that there are two different kinds of reasoning. One deals with fact and the other with ideas. Facts deal with mathematically-based issues that can be proven, and the other deals with understandings that have been passed…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ashley, D. & Orenstein, D.M. (2000). Sociological Theory: Classical Statements (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Bongie, L.L. (1998) David Hume - Prophet of the Counter-Revolution. Liberty Fund, Indianapolis,

Comte's, a. (1855). View of the Nature and Importance of the Positive Philosophy [Electronic version]. Retrieved October 24, 2002, at  http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/faculty/hodgson/Courses/so11/frameworks/fpintro.html 

Durkheim, E. (1997). The Division of Labor in Society. New York, NY: Free Press.
View Full Essay

Protagoras the Sophist Philosopher Named Protagoras --

Words: 2660 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8101231

Protagoras

The Sophist philosopher named Protagoras -- ca 490-411 BCE, was a native of Thrace, in Greece, and was supposedly one of the first philosophers to have actually made use of his higher education to make money for himself, and this he did, successfully. As a matter of fact, it is reputed that Plato once stated that Protagoras was making more money through teaching his students that he was rivaling the money that Phidias, the sculptor who created the Parthenon, must have made, and ten times over, at that. The main contribution that this Greek philosopher made to the world in general was the principle that "man is the measure of all things, of the things that are, that they are, and of the things that are not, that they are not," in other words, that 'truth' as such, is relative to the individual who maintains it; and the knowledge…… [Read More]

References

Amoralism. Retrieved From

http://www.kul.lublin.pl/efk/angielski/hasla/a/amoralism.pdf

Accessed 10 September, 2005

Barnett, Daniel R. Skepticism's ancient origins (Part I). The North Texas Skeptic. Retrieved From  http://www.ntskeptics.org/2003/2003june/june2003.htm
View Full Essay

John Rawls Political Philosopher

Words: 1663 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31209592

Political Science: John awls

John awls: Political Philosopher

In the Preface to A Theory of Justice, the late philosopher John awls goes beyond what would normally be expected of an author in terms of laying out practical suggestions "to make things easier for the reader," such as noting that his "fundamental intuitive ideas of the theory of justice" are to be found on the first four pages of Chapter I. He also reports that in finishing the final three different versions of manuscript for the book, he passed those versions among "students and colleagues," and that he "benefited beyond estimation from the innumerable suggestions and criticisms" he received.

awls even went to the trouble of mentioning the names of colleagues who had contributed ideas, suggestions and criticisms; and he has delved into the specific changes that those individuals added to his final manuscript. This openness on his part would seem…… [Read More]

References

Kaufmann, Walter. On the Genealogy of Morals/Ecce homo. New York: Vintage Books,

1967.

Nozick, Robert. Anarchy, State, and Utopia. New York: Basic Books, 1974.

Rawls, John. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press, 1971.
View Full Essay

Heraclitus Was a Greek Philosopher of the

Words: 393 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31795521

Heraclitus was a Greek philosopher of the late 6th century BCE. His thoughts centered on criticizing his predecessors and contemporaries for their failure to see the unity in experience. His focus was on the idea of an everlasting Word (Logos) according to which all things are one, in some sense. Opposed to the Christian ideas of an everlasting God who represents the eternal truth, Heraclitus taught that opposites are necessary for life, and that the everlasting truth was a law of constant exchange between opposites, that the universe is unified in a system of balanced exchanges. The world itself consists of a law-like interchange of elements. Below are commentaries of come of his thoughts:

Immortal mortals, mortal immortals, one living the others death and dying the others life.

This idea tried to get a philosophical handle on the conflict which Greeks wrote into their mythology. The gods were constantly dragging…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Limited Government Oxford Philosopher Journalist

Words: 2362 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29366191

This is where incentives come in to play. agner quotes Rudolf Hickel who distinguishes between an entrepreneurial state and a tax state (our present state of affairs). Hickel and Schumpeter both see the tax state as acting outside the normal laws of contract and property to confiscate wealth. The entrepreneurial state is just the exact polar opposite of this. Corporatist principles that have been incorporated into this system. Corporate structures were in their infancy in 1787 when the U.S. Constitution was written, hence the lack of corporatist principles (ibid, 56-57). e must now incorporate the wisdom of two centuries of follow on experience.

These corporatist principles would turn a government entity like a city into a private corporation with stockholders that would provide services. In this view, government has created some markets. It is in the market already. Therefore, for us to bring the entrepreneurial state, we need to introduce…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barth, A. (1991, Feb ). The roots of limited government. Retrieved from http://www.fff.org/freedom/0291c.asp.

Domesticating the leviathan. (2007). Retrieved from http://homepage.mac.com/npayne/leviathan.html.

Johnson, K. (2011, November 9). Tsa's expansion is questioned. Retrieved from  http://www.joplinindependent.com/display_article.php/wildblue1320890017 .

Standt, N. (2010). Taxation without representation. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University School of Wagner, R.E. (1993). Parchment, guns and constitutional order. Northamton, MA: Edward Elgar Pub.
View Full Essay

Paraphila the Ancient Philosopher Plato Claimed That

Words: 1412 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16482628

Paraphila

The ancient philosopher Plato claimed that all immoral behavior was the result of some disorder in the soul (Gert and Culver, 2009, p. 489). Although very few people now hold this view, deviant sexual behavior is often considered symptomatic of a mental disorder. However, not all deviant behaviors fit the clinical definition. For example, if a heterosexual man becomes aroused by dressing in women's clothing, it is considered by most people to be abnormal behavior. However, his behavior may be ego-syntonic, meaning that the man is not troubled by either the impulses or by acting them out. Such an individual would not seek treatment. He is not a danger to himself or to anyone else and unless there were objections on the part of his wife or significant other, there is no compelling reason, in the man's mind, to manage his impulses or behavior. As Bhugra and McMullen (2010,…… [Read More]

References

Bhugra, D., Popelyuk, D., and McMullen, I. (2010). Paraphilas across cultures: Contexts and controversies. Journal of Sex Research 47(2-3), pp. 242-256.

Gert, B., and Culver, C.M. (2009). Sex, immorality, and mental disorders. Journal of Medicine & Philosophy 34(5), pp. 487-495.

Gordon, H. (2008). The treatment of paraphilias: An historical perspective. Criminal Behaviour & Mental Health 18(2), pp. 79-87.

Hall, Ryan C.W., and Hall, Richard C.W. (2007). A profile of pedophilia: Definition, characteristics of offenders, recidivism, treatment outcomes and forensic issues.
View Full Essay

John Locke 1632-1704 English Philosopher

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43114930

These rights are voluntarily given by the people to the government through a 'social contract' and governments exist only to protect such rights.

How Far is Locke's "Theory of Property" reflected in the U.S. Declaration of Independence?

The Declaration of Independence," a formal announcement of independence by the American colonists from British rule in the summer of 1776, is widely believed to be based on John Locke's theories of natural and property rights as well as the right (even obligation) of the people to rebel against a government that fails to honor the 'contract' between rulers and the ruled by failing to protect the rights of the people.

There is no doubt that Thomas Jefferson, the main author of the "Declaration of Independence" was deeply influenced by the Libertarian philosophy of John Locke and the wordings of the Declaration parallel the writings of Locke regarding "the inalienable rights of life,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Karl Marx German Philosopher Political

Words: 1046 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38464269



His Impact

The impact of Marx's theories was not as significant during his lifetime as in the 20th century after his death. Nevertheless, his ideas about class struggle were considered so dangerous by the governments dominated by the elite class that he was repeatedly prosecuted and exiled from major European countries such as France and Germany for propagating revolution. Besides his writings, he formed the Communist League and the First International to promote working class revolutions in the industrial countries, putting his own belief that "there is no point in gaining a deeper insight into the world unless it is a means of changing the world." ("Karl Marx: Man of Millenium.") After his death, however, with the growth of the labor movement in Europe, Marx's theories began to take on greater significance.

Various socialist movements around the world took up his analysis of capitalist economy, his theory of historical materialism,…… [Read More]

References

Karl Marx: Man of the Millennium." (n.d.) Retrieved on March 17, 2005 at http://www.swp.ie/resources/KARL%20MARX.htm

Kreis, S. (2004). "Karl Marx, 1818-1883." History Guide Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History. Last Revised May 13, 2004. Retrieved on March 17, 2005 at http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/marx.html

Marx, Karl." (2005). Article in Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia, 2005. Retrieved on March 17, 2005 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761555305/Karl_Marx.html

Samuels, W.J. (1993). "The Status of Marx after the Disintegration of the U.S.S.R." Challenge,
View Full Essay

Anselm's Ontological Argument Anselm 1033-1109 Philosopher Theologian

Words: 1210 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74777943

nselm's Ontological rgument

nselm (1033-1109), philosopher, theologian and church leader, has presented an argument for the existence of God that has been debated by philosophers and academicians for centuries. nselm presented this argument in the second chapter of his book Proslogium (Discourse) written in 1078, and it became known as the 'ontological argument' much later, in the 18th century. From the beginning, nselm's argument has met with criticism, appreciation and interest. Even in his lifetime a fellow monk, Gaunilo challenged his argument, as have some later philosophers, including Immanuel Kant. Other philosophers like Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz have indirectly supported nselm's view by presenting similar arguments for the existence of God. ny argument or thesis that has evoked so much interest over such a long period must have some merit and needs to be looked at with seriousness and an open mind. However, after a critical analysis of nselm's argument,…… [Read More]

As we have seen from our description and analysis of Anselm's ontological argument, the weaknesses in the argument are at times so glaringly apparent that one is constrained to wonder what the all fuss was about. But the argument is structured in such a way that when you look at the argument from another angle, it may look quite plausible. Is it a magical trick or was Anselm pulling a fast one on us when he put together his argument? We are never likely to know for sure but 'the saint' is probably smiling from 'up there' while he looks down on people still struggling with the 'predicates' and the 'premises' of the argument and getting nowhere.

Gijsbers, Victor. "Theistic Arguments: Anselm's Ontological Argument." Retrieved at http://www.positiveatheism.org/faq/anselm.htm

Philosophy
View Full Essay

Ethics the Nineteenth Century German Philosopher Immanuel

Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30864353

Ethics

The nineteenth century German philosopher Immanuel Kant presented an ethical code that assigned a strict "right" or "wrong" to every action. Called the categorical imperative, Kant believed that it does not matter what the consequences or outcome of actions are; there are certain things that are right and certain things that are wrong. These ethical categories of right and wrong are not negotiable. It can never be "sometimes" ok to tell a white lie, or to steal. Instead, Kant created easy to understand categories that apply theoretically to all cultures and all people at all times. Human beings are always morally obliged to do the right thing in any given situation, even if doing so leads to suffering. Therefore, it would be considered right to tell the truth to a murderer and subsequently die rather than to lie to the murderer and survive. Davis (n.d.). uses the example of…… [Read More]

References

Davis, S.P. (n.d.). Three-minute philosophy: Immanuel Kant. [video] Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwOCmJevigw

"Ethics." Retrieved online:  http://philosophy.lander.edu/ethics/kant.html 

Johnson, R. "Kant's Moral Philosophy," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), Retrieved online: .
View Full Essay

Mary Daly Radical Feminist Philosopher

Words: 1674 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92835067

" Patriarchy perpetuates its crimes through "denial, tokenism, obfuscation and reversal" and traps its victims (particularly the women) in the semantic web of lies which, in the words of Daly, "constitutes the reality of the Foreground, and obscures ultimate reality, which is the Background." She advises women to take a leap of faith to break free from the necrophilic embrace of patriarchy to dis-cover their true human potential and "reclaim their primordial power, their gynergy, in order to spin new, gynocentric and biophilic realities."

Utopian Society of the Future:

Another controversial theory advanced by Daly in her book, Quintessence, describes a utopian society of the future, on a continent populated entirely by women, where procreation occurs through parthenogenesis, without the participation of men. She further asserts, "If life is to survive on this planet, there must be a decontamination of the Earth. I think this will be accompanied by an…… [Read More]

Reference

Biography of Mary Daly." (n.d.) Radical Elemental Feminist. Retrieved on August 25, 2007 at http://www.marydaly.net/biography.html

Bridle, Susan. (1998). "No Man's Land." An Interview with Mary Daly: Enlightened Magazine. Retrieved on August 25, 2007 at http://www.wie.org/j16/daly.asp

Daly, Mary. (1985). Beyond God the Father: Toward a Philosophy of Women's Liberation. Beacon Press: Boston, 1985

1968). The Church and the Second Sex. Beacon Press: Boston, 1968.
View Full Essay

Happiness and the Experience Machine Harvard Philosopher

Words: 1634 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55841813

Happiness" and "The Experience Machine"

Harvard philosopher Rober Nozick made an interesting observation about happiness. Suppose one was to reflect on two different lives that contain the same amount of happiness. One life begins at a low point, and continues to get better with each passing moment. On the other hand, the second life begins on a high note, and continues to move downward towards an unhappy ending. The eternal question is, of course, which one would be preferable? Like the majority of people, I would choose the life that begins at a low point and slopes upward. Nozick believed that this says something fundamental about the human relationship with happiness. Humans, by nature, are seeking something more than the total happiness in their lives. Nozick refers to this as the "narrative direction" of happiness, and finds that we as humans seek structure in our positive experiences. Rather than hope…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"The Happiness Curve & The Experience Machine." Wet Paint. Web. 11 Dec. 2010.

.

Kazez, Jean. "More Happiness Please." Philosophy Now. 2007. Web. 11 Dec. 2010.

.
View Full Essay

Pessoa the Philosophies Embodied in

Words: 6419 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41477784

" (Gibbs 226) Alvardo de Campos is a naval engineer by profession and while his earlier writings are positive, his work develops characteristics of existential angst. Furthermore, what is intriguing is that all of these fictive authors created by Pessoa interact with one another and even translate each other's works. (Gibbs 226)

One critic notes that "Fernando Pessoa invented at least 72 fictive identities. "His jostling aliases...expressed his belief that the individual subject -- the core of European thought -- is an illusion." (Gray 52) This view goes to the heart of the matter, as will be discussed in the following sections of this paper; namely that the creation of these fictive identities emphasizes and highlights the modern crisis of identity and the existential and postmodern view that the self as a coherent and continuous entity is an illusion. The following extract emphasizes this central point and also allows for…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cravens, Gwyneth. "Past Present." The Nation 13 Nov. 1989: 574+. Questia. Web. 22 July 2012.

Cullenberg, Stephen, Jack Amariglio, and David F. Ruccio. Postmodernism, Economics and Knowledge. London: Routledge, 2001.

Gabriel, Markus. "The Art of Skepticism and the Skepticism of Art." Philosophy Today 53.1 (2009): 58+. Questia. Web. 22 July 2012.

Gibbs, Raymond W. Intentions in the Experience of Meaning. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
View Full Essay

Royal Patronage of 17th Century

Words: 1558 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91247298

While France relied on direct involvement of the royal power, either through the King or his ministers, ritain had a more formal royal patronage, that encouraged the activity, but did not sponsor or finance it. This also meant that in the former case, the activity was directed towards studies that could directly help the state, while in the latter case, the activity was much less directed by royal interest.

ibliography

1. Saunders, Stewart. Louis XIV: Patron of Science and Technology. From The Sun King: Louis XIV and the New World, edited by Steven G. Reinhardt, pp. 155-67. (New Orleans: Louisiana Museum Foundation, 1984.)

2. History of the Royal Society. On the Internet at http://royalsociety.org/History-of-the-Royal-Society/. Last retrieved on July 22, 2010

3. Findlen, Paula. Founding a Scientific Academy: Gender, Patronage and Knowledge in Early Eighteenth-Century Milan. Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 1,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Saunders, Stewart. Louis XIV: Patron of Science and Technology. From The Sun King: Louis XIV and the New World, edited by Steven G. Reinhardt, pp. 155-67. (New Orleans: Louisiana Museum Foundation, 1984.)

2. History of the Royal Society. On the Internet at http://royalsociety.org/History-of-the-Royal-Society/. Last retrieved on July 22, 2010

3. Findlen, Paula. Founding a Scientific Academy: Gender, Patronage and Knowledge in Early Eighteenth-Century Milan. Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 1, no. 1 (May 1, 2009)

4. Thomas Dereham to James Jurin. 22 June 1722, in Early Letters, Royal Society in London, D.2.12
View Full Essay

Plato's Cave Plato Wants the

Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35563837

He will be a servant to other servants. ithout humility, however, the "servant" will become vain and proud; his vision of truth will likely become distorted by hubris. He will be no good to himself or to others. He will fight with other warrior-kings but for power and influence rather than for truth, beauty and goodness. Humility, in a sense, will keep him honest and in the light (even while laboring in the cave of darkness).

As Plato says, it is the business of the Founders of the State to urge those citizens who are capable of learning towards the light of truth, that they may later labor alongside one another amongst the prisoners, accepting honors when they are bestowed, whether they like it or not (519b). In this manner, Plato means to effect happiness in the whole State. Education benefits those who partake of it, and those who partake…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Plato. The Republic. (translated by G.M.A. Grube, revised by C.D.C Reeve).

Indianopolis, IN: Hackett Publishing, 1992. Print.
View Full Essay

Karl Popper Is Arguably One of the

Words: 2263 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29453729

Karl Popper is arguably one of the greatest philosophers of the twentieth century because of his role as one of the pioneers of philosophy of science. Popper was a political and social philosopher of significant stature, a dedicated campaigner and strong defender of the Open Society, and a committed rival of all types of conventionalism, skepticism and relativism in human affairs and science (Thorton, n.d.). He considered one of the greatest philosophers of his time because of his remarkable extent of intellectual influence that contributed to his recognition by individuals within and outside the field of philosophy. In his early years, Popper displayed a wide range of interests including music and an inquiring mind that was characterized by examining the psychotherapeutic theories of Fred and Adler, participating in lectures by Einstein, and becoming a Marxist. The main motivation for Popper's scientific inquiry and discovery was the search for truth in…… [Read More]

References:

Chaffee, J. (2012). The philosopher's way: thinking critically about profound ideas (4th ed.).

London, Greater London: Pearson.

Ormerod, R.J. (2009). The History and Ideas of Critical Rationalism: The Philosophy of Karl

Popper and Its Implications for OR. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 2009(60), 441-460.
View Full Essay

Influential Minds in Western Philosophy

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57917871



Our key clue in this passage is the reference to Dionysia, the festival in honor of Dionysus, God of Wine and Pleasure. Instead of philosophical study, this festival is held in the Spring for 6 days of plays, tragedies, feats, and wine. Dionysus, as the inspirer of madness and ecstasy, is hardly a recommendation for a true philosopher/king' instead, the preoccupation focuses on the sensualist who, in their own type of wisdom, has but two positions -- on and charming, or off and degrading (Dalby, 2005).

Knowledge, on the other hand, is necessary for any action to become more than that action alone. Ignorance turns away from knowledge; opinion is express of knowledge based on cultural truths or undocumented hearsay. Opinion, though, attempts to conceal fact being mere stories or boast, rather than considered introspective thought. The dream state is falsehood, inspired by emotion and the idea of greed and…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Baird, F. And W. Kaufmann. (2008). From Plato to Derrida. Prentice Hall.

Dalby, a. (2005). The Story of Bacchus. British Museum Press.

Plato, a. Bloom, trans. (1991). The Republic. Basic Books.
View Full Essay

Plato Mencius and Hsun Tzu

Words: 2092 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3781012

This is very true because even in modern times students who desire to attain good grades will endeavor for that, but a student who has no desire will only go to school to pass time. This analogy can also be vice versa, a petty man can become a gentleman and a gentleman can also become a petty man Austin, Page 106.

The main reason they do not change places is because neither of them desires to become the other. This shows that although a person may desire to become something else it might not be possible for them to actually do it. According to Mencius arguments then this point does not exist at all. Considering that all human beings are born good and it is only the external forces which drive them to do evil. Then it can be misunderstood that the petty man was a gentleman, but due to…… [Read More]

References

Austin, M. Reading the World: Ideas That Matter. New York, New York 10110: W.W. Norton & Company, 2010. Print.

Bloom, Irene. "Human Nature and Biological Nature in Mencius." Philosophy East & West 47.1 (1997): 21. Print.

Chan, W.T. A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2008. Print.

Collins, R. The Sociology of Philosophies: A Global Theory of Intellectual Change. Boston, MA 02163: "The" Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1998. Print.
View Full Essay

Descartes Argues That the Mind and the

Words: 1636 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41814107

Descartes argues that the mind and the body must be two different things since he knows the mind exists but knows no such thing about the body. Spell out this argument. What's wrong with it, if anything? Give a counterexample to the principle implied here.

Are other philosophers that we have read drawing conclusions about what the mind must be like based on what we know about the mind or how we know it? Is that always a mistake? Can reasoning like this be defended? Maybe even Descartes's reasoning?

Descartes on the dualism of mind and body

Descartes insists that mind and body are each distinct from the other although 'living together' in one 'package. His reasoning for this includes the following:

Mind and body are two different organisms. You see this clearly from the way they are fashioned. Each looks and behaves so different to the other, therefore how…… [Read More]

References

Descartes, Rene, The Philosophical Writings of Descartes, 3 vols., trans. John Cottingham, Robert Stoothoff, Dugald Murdoch and Anthony Kenny, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984-1991

Interent Encyc. Of Phil. Rene Descartes: The Mind-Body Distinction

 http://www.iep.utm.edu/descmind/#H5 

Searle, J. Minds, Brains, and Science Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984
View Full Essay

Problems in Philosophy

Words: 1724 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27391738

Philosophy

The Greek philosopher Plato's concept of justice in "The Republic" demonstrates his belief in the path towards rationality of the individual and society. In his discourse, he talks about the rational individual as a just individual and is guided by the pursuit of the common good. The philosopher demonstrates this by justifying that in one's pursuit to achieve self-discovery and self-realization, it is inevitable that one should interact with his/her society. Once the individual realizes his/her fullest potential and demonstrates this by committing just acts, then society in effect becomes influenced by this act of justice. However, Plato also clarifies that a just and unjust individual may pursue different paths and goals in life, but in the end, both individuals contribute to the coherence and harmony in the society. The just individual showed what behavior is desirable because it is beneficial for the society, while the unjust individual becomes…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Hegel and Karl Marx

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30866140

Marx Hegel

German philosopher Hegel developed a philosophy that can be called phenomenology, or Philosophy and the Actual World. Whereas previous philosophers concerned themselves with abstractions, Hegel wanted to apply philosophical inquiry to the world that we can know directly. Hegel appears to be more concerned with effects than with causes. However, Hegel is a philosopher and as such he is eminently concerned with reason.

Like the ancient Greeks, Hegel appreciated the method of the dialectic. The dialectical tool is effective in philosophy because it phrases issues in a question and answer method. The reader places himself or herself in the role of the inquirer, and a knowledgeable philosopher can answer the probing philosophical questions. Using dialectic, Hegel was also able to "converse" with his predecessors in philosophical tradition such as Kant. The dialectic allowed Hegel to grapple with complex philosophical contradictions. Hegel could resolve those contradictions using the tool…… [Read More]