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Even with the fact that he is well aware of the futility of his struggle; the essay's protagonist does not give in and constantly stresses the importance of his mission. Sisyphus should nonetheless be considered to be happy, as Camus describes, considering that the character accepts his fate and proceeds to perform his pointless task.
Camus' essay demonstrates how the much hated absurdness of life can become less malicious when individuals realize that there is basically nothing to do in order to change the end. Sisyphus's dedication to live life to the fullest and his attempt to cheat death were unsuccessful, as his fate ultimately defeated him in the long run. Camus obviously wanted to prove that there is no point in trying to cheat what it is inevitable.
Camus, Albert. (1991). "The Myth of Sisyphus: And Other Essays." Vintage.
Hobbes, Thomas. (1950). "Leviathan, Part 1." Forgotten ooks.
Hume,…… [Read More]
Philosophers of Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece offers a plethora of great thinkers all of whom contributed greatly to understanding the mysteries of natural and unnatural phenomena. From the Pre-Socratic era to the Classical Age of thought, we come across various schools that painstakingly define the workings of the mind, soul, matter and the whole universe. This paper aims to outline the philosophical beliefs of the spearheads of Greek thought and compare their notions in a manner that shows the evolution of rational reason.
Greek thinkers of the pre-Socratic era, were the undoubtedly the first of many thinkers who delved into the mystics of nature and deemed it necessary to think along the lines of life and how it ought to be led. They presented a new rational line of thought whereby a lot of veneration was given to the intricate workings of the universe. These philosophers are singlehandedly responsible for…… [Read More]
Philosophers and Fingerprints
Gandhi and Fingerprinting
Today's environment has a lot more security measures that seem to border the notion of a police state. With the threat of terrorism constantly looming over the American public, there have been a lot more allowances in security measures. This, however, would be seen as a violation of rights and privacy by many philosophers, including Mahatma Gandhi.
Gandhi was a powerful force in the fight against oppression and public injustice during the English occupation of India. His philosophies captured the attention of the world and helped show that you don't always have to fight violence with violence to win. Gandhi preached the importance of self-discipline as a way to ensure good citizenship and behavior without coming into breaches with the law. According to his principles, "Brahamchraya means control of all the organs of sense. He who attempts to control only one organ, and allows…… [Read More]
Still he explored the possibility of imagination and unusual experience but he knew his theory limited his results.
Hegel and Marx
Both Hegel and Marx dwelled on the concept of historical development. They each have a different understanding of how these laws work with respect to history's role. Marx focused on the past and present history as it relates to society. He focused on class struggles throughout history. He believed out of struggle created values to define the present. He envisioned a society of heavy industry being over developed to a state of direct labor time. He believed society would evolve beyond Capitalism. He only considered class struggle and this limits his influence on history itself. Ironically, his idea of a better working society collapsed and Capitalism was put in its place.
Surprising Hegel's view is different. It does not focus on the physical human but rather the spirit. He…… [Read More]
In Book I of his Confessions, for example [Childhood], Augustine states:
for my sustenance and my delight I had woman's milk; yet it was not my mother or my nurses who stored their milk for me: it was Yourself, using them to give me the food of my infancy, according to Your ordinance and the riches set by You at every level of creation.
Since God is present within every human thought and action, suggests Augustine, if one looks deeply within, one will find the God in oneself.
Dante Alighieri medieval masterpiece the Divine Comedy is also the story of a spiritual awakening, although in this case an allegorical rather than personal one. It contains three separate works, the Inferno (Hell); the Purgatorio (Purgatory) and the Paradiso (Heaven). The Inferno, the first of the three, represents the first part of an elaborate metaphor for a spiritual journey, of the creative…… [Read More]
6. Now we will try to explain the Problem of Indiscernible Counterparts posed by Andy Warhol's "Brillo Boxes" (1964). What does this problem have to do with the question "What is art?" In addition we will try to understand how does Danto's appeal to "the art world" address this problem?
The Brillo Boxes are a piece of art which Warhol created in the sixties as part of his attempt to make a point about industrialization, the role of art in everyday life and the mechanisms through which art is rendered exactly what it is. Basically he created dozens of this type of boxes. Afterwards he created wooden replicas of the original pieces, painting them and silkscreening the images and the commercial texts. The final result had the second round of creations virtually indistinguishable from the first round ones. The question which Warhol was putting to people and society in general…… [Read More]
philosophers today. It is important to look at coherentism in epistemology and its isolation problem.
In Epistemology "an Internalist position which maintains that individual beliefs receive epistemic justification from their coherent relation to the larger set of beliefs of the cognizer. That is, if a belief is coherent with the rest of a cognizer's beliefs, or some coherent sub-set of beliefs, then it is epistemically justified as well (www.mc.maricopa.edu/~bfvaughan/test/lex/defs/coherentism.html)."
A Coherentist may have a problem with isolation since there is "no obvious way in which a coherent system relates to anything that might exist outside of it. Therefore, it may be possible to construct a coherent theory of the world, which does not correspond to what actually occurs in the world (www.xasa.com.es/wiki/en/wikipedia/c/co/coherentism.html)." A Coherentist may be able to create a completely coherent system which is completely false, resulting in isolation.
Coherentists have a different viewpoint about "the phrase…… [Read More]
178). Jung espoused the belief that the 'ego' of man was brought together through the experiences, both consciously and unconsciously that the individual experienced. Ultimately these experiences would lead the individual to an enhanced and complete life, leading to exaltation and a 'complete' man.
Phenomenology as a discipline is distinct from but related to other key disciplines in philosophy, such as ontology, epistemology, logic, and ethics. Phenomenology has been practiced in various guises for centuries, but it came into its own in the early 20th century in the works of Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty and others" (Smith, 2005).
This philosophy was much like the philosophy practiced by alchemists in earlier centuries. Alchemy, before modern times was considered to be the search for turning metal into gold. According to some sources alchemy was a title given to those men who worked gold. "They called gold-working al-kimiya - 'the art of the…… [Read More]
Knowledge, colloquially, denotes a familiarity with or an understanding of different ideas, events, objects, or ways to do things. Among the most ancient and venerated traditions regarding the concept of knowledge portrays knowledge in the form of "validated true belief." While all philosophers do not agree that this statement adequately expresses knowledge's nature, it is still the most prevalent notion regarding knowledge (Henriques, 2013). The history of philosophy's thoughts on knowledge is one of theories and theses, as also of concepts, questions, syntheses, taxonomies and distinctions (Stephen, n.d.).
Generally, knowledge is divided by philosophers into three domains: 1) Personal; relating to direct experience, autobiographical truths and idiosyncratic predilections; 2) Procedural; denoting knowledge on how something is to be done (e.g. riding a bike or playing basketball); and 3) Propositional; knowledge referring to universal facts regarding the world, as well as how we see it. A key difference between psychology and…… [Read More]
Plato, Censorship, Mill
In Book Four of Plato's Republic, the philosopher argued that the ideal city will have a tripartite structure in it - linked to Plato's argument that the ideal human soul is divided into three parts. Plato believed that the individual is connected to city and to community through the soul, and the most efficacious way to ensure that the individual will be connected to the city most effectively if the soul and the city have the same basic structure.
For the city, this tripartite structure consists primarily of three different classes. Each person belongs to the class to which his or her particular skills best suit: Those best suited to intellectual labor to one class, those best suited to manual labor another. (Not, one hopes at least, our current understanding of the nature of the democratic state.) Likewise is the soul divided into three -…… [Read More]
Philosophers and Great Leaders
Ancient Greek philosophers will always have a distinct place in human history by giving shape to Western philosophical thought (Fieser 2014). That philosophical thought moved away from myth to a method based on reason and evidence. Although these philosophers' ways of exploring the world were diverse, they nonetheless set the pace for a single search for the underlying principles of everything. The most influential among them were Socrates, Plato and Aristotle who focused more on the individual than the physical world (Fieser). Their philosophies are hereunder compared and contrasted with that of Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia.
The Philosophy of Socrates
Socrates was and still is better known for his unusual teaching methods than for his military career (Vlastos 1991, Waterfield 2009). He taught neither in a formal school nor required payment for his teaching services. He always debated against illogical reasoning and biases. Socrates…… [Read More]
I believe that Hume's statement regarding conformation to the "common sentiments of mankind" is outdated. With globalization and intercultural development and communication, there are so many diverse "sentiments" that it is difficult to identify what exactly is right, wrong, or indeed common to everybody. I therefore do not believe that this statement can still be regarded as true in today's society.
Kant's statement regarding the universal law again may hold for humanity in general, but only because it is so individual. A rule that I would make the universal law for example would not be agreeable to a person from a different culture or with a different background. While the statement may therefore apply to each individual, it does not hold in terms of the general truth that Kant apparently applies to it.
Bentham, Hegal and Dewey appear to focus on human evolution for their assessment of wise, moral, or…… [Read More]
Chinese philosopher's point-of-view on Confucius. It has 2 sources.
Shu-hsien Liu projects in his article titled "eflection on Methodology " an understanding of the rational behind Confucius and Chinese philosophy. According to Liu Chinese philosophy is relative in terms of its understanding of the Confucianism as a genre for philosophy or hermeneutical understanding. He first projects the premise that Confucianism cannot be really be a philosophy as it does not offer logical arguments and at the same time it is not a religion either as it does not offer absolute commitment of the individual and its terms are vague. Base on this understanding he presents five cases. The first one is the import of Confucius in which he tells of the principles upon which Confucius school of thoughts is based and why various Chinese philosophers prefer to follow Confucius rather than any other metaphysical thinkers or even western thinkers. Secondly…… [Read More]
Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle explored the concept of political philosophy (Trajkovic). In the process of exploring such concept, both came to the agreement that the best form of government was that which every man can act best and live happily. In considering how such a government might be organized Plato and Aristotle discussed the concept the rule of law. The rule of law is the principle that no one is exempt from the law even those in a position of power. In his last book, Plato summarized his stance on the rule of law: "here the law is subject to some other authority and has none of its own, the collapse of the state, in my view, is not far off; but if law is the master of the government and the government is its slave, then the situation is full of promise and men enjoy all the blessings…… [Read More]
One of the most important technological developments that occurred during the Industrial Revolution was the assembly line. Used in large factories so that more goods could be manufactured in a shorter period of time, assembly lines totally transformed the way people lived and worked. First, the assembly line created a plethora of new jobs, encouraging previously self-sufficient farmers to move to urban centers. Families were occasionally disrupted and old social codes were too. Women who had previously worked on their family farms found themselves toiling away in factories, and in some cases assembly line maximized the division between the genders. In other cases, women entered the workforce alongside of men and therefore minimized the gap between the genders. Second, the assembly line led to unhealthy working conditions in factories. With more regard for profit as a bottom line than humanity, companies neglected safety concerns. Workers started to form…… [Read More]
Our modern world has also shown us that human actions have much more far-reaching and complex effects than have been previously thought. We have become so aware of these complexities, in fact, that in our most rational moments we human beings can admit that we do not know the full range of effects that our actions are having on the world. Because of this, leading the good life must also entail trying to limit the unknown and potentially negative impacts of our actions both on the environment and through all of our use and expenditure of the resources we use. Achieving the highest possible level of self-sufficiency is the most effective way to achieve this, and thus finding ways to accomplish all necessary tasks with minimal dependence on other entities and resources is necessary.
The most complex goal that human beings must strive for in order to achieve the good…… [Read More]
Marx, however, took the reverse view of this approach to the topic of human reality. He held that human knowledge automatically begins from our experiences with the outside world -- from our sensations and perceptions -- consequently, interaction between man, the situation, and the material object is what conglomerates to form reality. Therefore, by contrast to Hegel, objective truth is not utterly attainable -- as with Hegel's synthesis of perspectives -- because these perspectives are so fundamentally unique to each individual. This premise leads Marx to the conclusion that previous philosophers were merely successful in describing the world, but the task implied by his materialistic views is that the setting in which human reality plays itself out needs to be changed if the goal is to improve life.
The relationship between the body and the soul, necessarily, is dependent upon the mind vs. body debate and the free will vs.…… [Read More]
Man and the Right Government
Plato's work has been much criticized as class bound, as many thought it reflected the moral and aesthetic standards of an elite in a civilization were slavery was a natural thing for many. Plato tries to depict the advantages of the rule of society by a high-minded minority.
After describing the first political utopia of the western world, Plato starts analyzing the types of government that existed at the time. The most preferable, according to him, is the kingly government, which is unfortunately, impracticable; oligarchies do not provide harmony in the state, because the society becomes divided as a consequence of the rule of the few and the pursuit of wealth Democracy has definite advantages for the poor, but a new class of people, the demagogues begin distributing "a peculiar kind of equality to equals and unequals impartially," The leaders practice high taxes for the…… [Read More]
Explain one of Descartes' arguments in Meditation VI for substance dualism. Critically discuss one possible objection to the argument.
Descartes was not a nihilist or solipsist who truly doubted the existence of anything outside his own mind, and only used skepticism to arrive at clear and distinct ideas. He has already proved his own existence as a thinking being, and that God exists, along with his physical body and objects in the material world that his senses perceived. These ideas and sensations must come from a source outside of his mind, either from God or physical bodies and objects. Descartes could have made exactly the same arguments about the existence of minds and bodies without introducing God into the discussion at all. Of course, this was the 17th Century, when religious wars were still going on and the Inquisition was still active. Indeed, Descartes knew that Galileo…… [Read More]
Self-Interest and Fear
Philosophers and psychologists have argued endlessly about the forces that motivate a person most since the earliest time of recorded history. There are many theories about this issue, but one assertion that has always been made is that "there are essentially two forces that motivate people: self-interest and fear."
Personally, I agree with this opinion as I believe that being motivated by self-interest and fear is part of human nature. In this essay I will explain why I believe so.
While agreeing with the opinion, I would like to say that I do not believe that self-interest and fear ought to be the forces that should guide our actions. It is my observation and experience that this is how people behave and it is simply a fact of life. Whether or not it is the best or most ethical way of behavior is an arguable point. Hence,…… [Read More]
Philosophers and thinkers have proposed many theories of justice and while some of them appear to be based on sound premise, there are others that completely denounced logic. In his book, The epublic, Plato has introduced us to various viewpoints on justice concluding with Socrates' philosophy of the same. The one prevalent view of justice in Plato's days was introduced by Cephalus. He believed that justice meant always telling the truth and repaying what is given. epaying what is given is a highly ambiguous view and one that needs to be analyzed closely. If one always repaid what he/she was given would that mean he is being just. For example, if a friend does me a favor and I repay it, then that is certainly a just act. Similarly if a friend hurts me or stabs me in the back, repaying the same would also constitute justice. So…… [Read More]
Additionally, Aristotle furthered the field of educational philosophy by creating subjects and a logical inquiry process, insisting that education be moral or ethical, and defining it as intertwined with politics to such a great extent that the best and most necessary education is a state-sponsored education (Chambliss 2008).
Influence Toward My Educational Philosophy:
Practically, Aristotle's creation of subjects and his primitive research, which set the foundation for further research, influenced my educational philosophy by insisting the importance of a pragmatic education and establishing the tools for that education -- research. Aristotle's contribution, therefore, shaped my understanding of the purpose of education -- a means toward intellectual inquiry. Furthermore, Aristotle's combination of ethics with morality and politics has shaped the teacher's oath stating that he or she should do no harm, in addition to contributing to what I understand as the goal of education -- to further the goodwill of human…… [Read More]
In addition to this, the epistemic area of concern dealing with how knowledge is formed will be another arena to explore. By understanding this area, I will be better able to determine how certain groups were able to portray stereotypes as knowledge. In addition, I will be able to explore whether the process of forming knowledge is different for members of different cultures and groups, which might explain how these stereotypes were able to be marketed as knowledge. Finally, the area of epistemic concern regarding whether humans can, indeed, have knowledge is unrelated to my study. Obviously, my area of interest comes with a presupposition that humans can, indeed, have knowledge. To discuss whether or not humans can, indeed, have knowledge will not be relevant to my study because if it is held that they cannot, my study is irrelevant.
Thus, epistemology, or the study of knowledge, is an important…… [Read More]
How the Noble Truths can be achieved through the Confucian virtues.
Of course, please note especially the last ingredient, a lifetime of spiritual enlightenment, and the cooking instructions, which required all these ingredients to be mixed by a "strong, feminist hand." The recipe ultimately allows individuals, particularly women, to achieve salvation. If you've read books on Eastern philosophy and religions, you would note that in Japan, the history of Zen Buddhism is inextricably linked also with the eventual "salvation" of women in the society, and I am proud to say that my philosophical writings have helped serve as a catalyst, not only in developing Zen philosophy, but also in promoting women's equality, be this equality socio-political in nature, or in terms of salvation.
Zen philosophy promoted right-mindedness in people because it paved the way for progressive thinking. That is, Zen philosophy opened people's minds that salvation can be achieved not…… [Read More]
Justice, political philosopher John Rawls looks at the idea of social justice and the individual rights of the individual by redefining the last 200+ years of the American experience. In general, he looks at the manner in which the Founding Fathers were correct by basing their views on previous social contract theorists like Locke and Rousseau. For example, there is a clear linkage between John Locke and Rawls that validates the ideas of liberalism within American society. In fact, Rawls notes that the American Experience extended the concept of justice far beyond hat any of the Enlightenment philosophers ever hoped (Rawls, 1957).
Rawls (1921-2002), an American philosopher who focused on moral and political philosophy, believed that the principles of justice are the models that rational individuals who are free would choose as basic ways to cooperate within their society. He called this position the original position, in that it was…… [Read More]
My ability to communicate and convey my passion to other people has sprouted through my work with LiNK.
Having worked closely with the Cornell University chapter, I witnessed the development of leadership skills within me, skills that were both derived and discovered by my peers. Being an active member of various NGO's and other organizations has opened social doors for me, enabling me to share why I am in LiNK and making connections that will help us manifest our common goals. And because of the new discoveries about myself as an innate leader, I was able to gather together the knowledge and materials needed to hold a public forum at my previous university: Syracuse, where discussions and debates took place concerning the issues of North Korea. My confidence level increased a great deal as a result of these experiences and my willingness to share my passion with others. I have…… [Read More]
Plato held that a just state would be run by philosopher guardians. Plato thinks that, given their education, talents, virtues and the way their lives would be controlled in his Republic, such people are the best possible rulers. Is he right about this?
One of the contradictions in Platonic philosophy is that its oligarchic structure of rule by philosopher kings who are 'the best' and 'most fit' to create a 'just' state embodies an antidemocratic and unjust philosophy. The idea that only those temperamentally fit to rule should rule has often been used to justify tyranny. Socrates, at the beginning of the Republic, calls for his listeners to strive to live a good life, not one that is merely pleasurable or self-serving. However, despite his calls for justice, a society which denies individual autonomy can never be just and dictatorships almost inevitably produce self-serving regimes.
At the beginning of the…… [Read More]
The Sophist philosopher named Protagoras -- ca 490-411 BCE, was a native of Thrace, in Greece, and was supposedly one of the first philosophers to have actually made use of his higher education to make money for himself, and this he did, successfully. As a matter of fact, it is reputed that Plato once stated that Protagoras was making more money through teaching his students that he was rivaling the money that Phidias, the sculptor who created the Parthenon, must have made, and ten times over, at that. The main contribution that this Greek philosopher made to the world in general was the principle that "man is the measure of all things, of the things that are, that they are, and of the things that are not, that they are not," in other words, that 'truth' as such, is relative to the individual who maintains it; and the knowledge…… [Read More]
Ibn Sina (or Abu Ali al-Husain ibn Abadllah and also known as Avicenna) of Hamadan, Persia (now Iran) believed himself to be a master of all the sciences, i.e., logic, the natural sciences and mathematics, and that all the gates of knowledge were opened to him (p 1 par 4). He is said to have mastered the Qu'ran at 10 and all the sciences at 18. His one all-consuming life obsession was learning and mastering knowledge: "I ... warned my father that I should not engage in any other occupation but learning." (p 1 par 2). The most important things in his life were, consequently, learning and reading on which it depended.
A precocious learner at an early age, it naturally disturbed him badly when he could not comprehend the Greek philosopher Aristotle's "Metaphysics." When he finally did after reading Abu Nasr al-Farabi's "On the Objects of Metaphysics" (which he…… [Read More]
Political Science: John awls
John awls: Political Philosopher
In the Preface to A Theory of Justice, the late philosopher John awls goes beyond what would normally be expected of an author in terms of laying out practical suggestions "to make things easier for the reader," such as noting that his "fundamental intuitive ideas of the theory of justice" are to be found on the first four pages of Chapter I. He also reports that in finishing the final three different versions of manuscript for the book, he passed those versions among "students and colleagues," and that he "benefited beyond estimation from the innumerable suggestions and criticisms" he received.
awls even went to the trouble of mentioning the names of colleagues who had contributed ideas, suggestions and criticisms; and he has delved into the specific changes that those individuals added to his final manuscript. This openness on his part would seem…… [Read More]
Heraclitus was a Greek philosopher of the late 6th century BCE. His thoughts centered on criticizing his predecessors and contemporaries for their failure to see the unity in experience. His focus was on the idea of an everlasting Word (Logos) according to which all things are one, in some sense. Opposed to the Christian ideas of an everlasting God who represents the eternal truth, Heraclitus taught that opposites are necessary for life, and that the everlasting truth was a law of constant exchange between opposites, that the universe is unified in a system of balanced exchanges. The world itself consists of a law-like interchange of elements. Below are commentaries of come of his thoughts:
Immortal mortals, mortal immortals, one living the others death and dying the others life.
This idea tried to get a philosophical handle on the conflict which Greeks wrote into their mythology. The gods were constantly dragging…… [Read More]
This is where incentives come in to play. agner quotes Rudolf Hickel who distinguishes between an entrepreneurial state and a tax state (our present state of affairs). Hickel and Schumpeter both see the tax state as acting outside the normal laws of contract and property to confiscate wealth. The entrepreneurial state is just the exact polar opposite of this. Corporatist principles that have been incorporated into this system. Corporate structures were in their infancy in 1787 when the U.S. Constitution was written, hence the lack of corporatist principles (ibid, 56-57). e must now incorporate the wisdom of two centuries of follow on experience.
These corporatist principles would turn a government entity like a city into a private corporation with stockholders that would provide services. In this view, government has created some markets. It is in the market already. Therefore, for us to bring the entrepreneurial state, we need to introduce…… [Read More]
The ancient philosopher Plato claimed that all immoral behavior was the result of some disorder in the soul (Gert and Culver, 2009, p. 489). Although very few people now hold this view, deviant sexual behavior is often considered symptomatic of a mental disorder. However, not all deviant behaviors fit the clinical definition. For example, if a heterosexual man becomes aroused by dressing in women's clothing, it is considered by most people to be abnormal behavior. However, his behavior may be ego-syntonic, meaning that the man is not troubled by either the impulses or by acting them out. Such an individual would not seek treatment. He is not a danger to himself or to anyone else and unless there were objections on the part of his wife or significant other, there is no compelling reason, in the man's mind, to manage his impulses or behavior. As Bhugra and McMullen (2010,…… [Read More]
These rights are voluntarily given by the people to the government through a 'social contract' and governments exist only to protect such rights.
How Far is Locke's "Theory of Property" reflected in the U.S. Declaration of Independence?
The Declaration of Independence," a formal announcement of independence by the American colonists from British rule in the summer of 1776, is widely believed to be based on John Locke's theories of natural and property rights as well as the right (even obligation) of the people to rebel against a government that fails to honor the 'contract' between rulers and the ruled by failing to protect the rights of the people.
There is no doubt that Thomas Jefferson, the main author of the "Declaration of Independence" was deeply influenced by the Libertarian philosophy of John Locke and the wordings of the Declaration parallel the writings of Locke regarding "the inalienable rights of life,…… [Read More]
The impact of Marx's theories was not as significant during his lifetime as in the 20th century after his death. Nevertheless, his ideas about class struggle were considered so dangerous by the governments dominated by the elite class that he was repeatedly prosecuted and exiled from major European countries such as France and Germany for propagating revolution. Besides his writings, he formed the Communist League and the First International to promote working class revolutions in the industrial countries, putting his own belief that "there is no point in gaining a deeper insight into the world unless it is a means of changing the world." ("Karl Marx: Man of Millenium.") After his death, however, with the growth of the labor movement in Europe, Marx's theories began to take on greater significance.
Various socialist movements around the world took up his analysis of capitalist economy, his theory of historical materialism,…… [Read More]
Ultimately, his system seems to the best for a number of reasons, including ease of understanding. Aristotle is clearly trying to define happiness while still noting how to live happily, while Epicurus is simply giving advice on how to live a happy life. Happiness certainly means different things to different people, as these two men show, but Epicurus seems to have a deeper understanding of it, while Aristotle is still struggling to define it, before he can live it. As a reader of both philosophies, it seems Epicurus was a just man who wanted happiness for everyone, while Aristotle was a snob, who felt the "masses" did not understand the true nature of happiness. They were shallow, and could not possibly lead fulfilled and happy lives. That alone makes Epicurus' beliefs more appealing and more equitable for all, rather than the "superior" beings Aristotle believes can only find happiness. Aristotle…… [Read More]
Amartya Sen, a noted scholar in the world of philosophical discussions and interpretations, is presenting counter arguments to John Rawls' approach to a theory of justice. In the process, Sen is also trying to cement his own approach to a theory of justice. He argues that asking, "hat is a just society?" is wasteful and rather, serious thinkers should "concentrate on comparative questions of justice" (Sen, 236). The philosopher thus opens the door to a discussion of what should bright, thinking people expect and desire from a theory of justice, which is likely what Sen intended, beyond tooting his own philosophical horn. Sen begins his article by referencing what he finds difficult to accept within iconic philosopher Rawls' view of justice.
The nuts and bolts of what Sen is arguing comes down to his departure from Rawls' theory of justice, not only the "substantive contend of the Rawlsian theory of…… [Read More]
nselm's Ontological rgument
nselm (1033-1109), philosopher, theologian and church leader, has presented an argument for the existence of God that has been debated by philosophers and academicians for centuries. nselm presented this argument in the second chapter of his book Proslogium (Discourse) written in 1078, and it became known as the 'ontological argument' much later, in the 18th century. From the beginning, nselm's argument has met with criticism, appreciation and interest. Even in his lifetime a fellow monk, Gaunilo challenged his argument, as have some later philosophers, including Immanuel Kant. Other philosophers like Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz have indirectly supported nselm's view by presenting similar arguments for the existence of God. ny argument or thesis that has evoked so much interest over such a long period must have some merit and needs to be looked at with seriousness and an open mind. However, after a critical analysis of nselm's argument,…… [Read More]
Jean-Francois Lyotard (the Postmodern condition: A Knowledge eport 1979) describes postmodernism in the context of nature of social bond. He argues that due to the advent of the technology and with the invention of computer, information has been more restricted in the form of procedures and program. According to him some one must have access to all the information to check whether the decisions are madder correctly. He discuss in this paper about the language games which are gaining importance day by day as the communication is becoming so prominent and efficient. We can see the connecting point between Lyotard and Kuhn as well as Popper which also agree that truth is language dependent and textual interpretation vary from person to person so whole truth of knowledge is not absolutely conveyed.
PESONAL EACTION and CITIQUE:
Postmodernism seems to be overwhelmingly push everything into vagueness. The only thing according to postmodernism…… [Read More]
Such a lifestyle is unrealistic and one that is not plausible for most members of society. Instead, what is necessary is a life where one acquires the social and emotional skills necessary to allow one to recognize what is morally right and then to live one's life in accordance with such recognition. This process does not require a constant introspective vigilance like the one that Socrates proposes. Most men are not philosophers like Socrates and are busy with their day-to-day lives. They do not have the time or inclination to spend their days contemplating their existence. As long as they live a good life, their lives are no less meaningful. In the end, Socrates would likely agree.
The importance of Socrates' statement is that he remained true to his beliefs to the very end. He had spent his life questioning everything including those in authority and, in the process, he…… [Read More]
The nineteenth century German philosopher Immanuel Kant presented an ethical code that assigned a strict "right" or "wrong" to every action. Called the categorical imperative, Kant believed that it does not matter what the consequences or outcome of actions are; there are certain things that are right and certain things that are wrong. These ethical categories of right and wrong are not negotiable. It can never be "sometimes" ok to tell a white lie, or to steal. Instead, Kant created easy to understand categories that apply theoretically to all cultures and all people at all times. Human beings are always morally obliged to do the right thing in any given situation, even if doing so leads to suffering. Therefore, it would be considered right to tell the truth to a murderer and subsequently die rather than to lie to the murderer and survive. Davis (n.d.). uses the example of…… [Read More]
The three authors presented above and their works were considering the different ways science and the results of scientific knowledge translated in the advance of technology influence human lives. Hawthorne saw technology positively influencing the lives of those taking advantage of it and helping them get out of the darkness of unknown; Dick was imagining a much more gloomy outcome of the combination between human nature and technology, while Taylor was presenting the importance of addressing the issues of prosperity in an industrial society benefitting the advantages of technology solely from the point-of-view of science.
Dick, P.K.(1968) Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep. Ballantine Books.
Hawthorne, N.(1898) the House of the Seven Gables. etreived: Oct. 15, 2008. Available at http://books.google.com/books?id=wxYPsGsZOQQC&dq=the+house+of+the+seven+gables&pg=PP1&ots=tJCsK0U_GC&sig=Ez5dxVgBzgzPk9DZNOvMO4PrdY&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result
Taylor, F.W. (1911) the Principles of Scientific Management. Harper. Originally from Harvard University. etrieved: Oct. 15, 2008. Available at http://books.google.com/books?id=5ek4cYPdndYC&dq=the+principles+of+scientific+management&pg=PP1&ots=jZtS7Qkgc5&sig=_AhmBEtfZQZbjyjJwq4crGqmc0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result… [Read More]
" Patriarchy perpetuates its crimes through "denial, tokenism, obfuscation and reversal" and traps its victims (particularly the women) in the semantic web of lies which, in the words of Daly, "constitutes the reality of the Foreground, and obscures ultimate reality, which is the Background." She advises women to take a leap of faith to break free from the necrophilic embrace of patriarchy to dis-cover their true human potential and "reclaim their primordial power, their gynergy, in order to spin new, gynocentric and biophilic realities."
Utopian Society of the Future:
Another controversial theory advanced by Daly in her book, Quintessence, describes a utopian society of the future, on a continent populated entirely by women, where procreation occurs through parthenogenesis, without the participation of men. She further asserts, "If life is to survive on this planet, there must be a decontamination of the Earth. I think this will be accompanied by an…… [Read More]
Looking at one of Kulkarni's pieces, a Peasant in the City, oil on canvas done sometime in the 1960s, we see a trend in modern Indian art in which the protagonist is featured as a part of an abstract background. Literally, the piece is a snapshot of a man and a beast, at night in a large urban area. The man is downcast, downtrodden, with no discernible ethnicity or age. He is a mixture of gray, and his elongated facial features suggest that he is, or has been, weeping. The single animal by his side could be a dog, a cow, or a representation of simply an "animal." The animal's front leg is extended, ostensibly onto the fence in which the man is leaning. The houses are abstract, made up of geometric lines and some color, designed it seems to indicate that they are lit. The moon is full, but…… [Read More]
Happiness" and "The Experience Machine"
Harvard philosopher Rober Nozick made an interesting observation about happiness. Suppose one was to reflect on two different lives that contain the same amount of happiness. One life begins at a low point, and continues to get better with each passing moment. On the other hand, the second life begins on a high note, and continues to move downward towards an unhappy ending. The eternal question is, of course, which one would be preferable? Like the majority of people, I would choose the life that begins at a low point and slopes upward. Nozick believed that this says something fundamental about the human relationship with happiness. Humans, by nature, are seeking something more than the total happiness in their lives. Nozick refers to this as the "narrative direction" of happiness, and finds that we as humans seek structure in our positive experiences. Rather than hope…… [Read More]
Euthyphro, Socrates meets his friend Euthyphro outside the court of justice and explains how he (Socrates) has been called there to answer charges brought by Meletus. The discussion turns to the question of piety, and Euthyphro, who is considered an educated man and wise in the field of religion, states that piety is what is loved by the gods. Socrates seeks his assistance in defining piety so he can use what he learns from Euthyphro when he goes to court. The issue throughout is whether the gods love something because it is pious, or is a thing pious because the gods love that thing? Euthyphro's original position is that whatever pleases the gods is pious, but Socrates points out that the gods often disagree on what pleases them, which makes their opinion difficult to cite for proof of piety. The two discuss the matter until they approach an answer, finding…… [Read More]
Orgon and Candide
The Enlightenment philosophers believed that God created the world, and as God is the most benevolent, capable mind possible, then the world must be the best possible world. Humans are incapable of understanding the role of evil in the world because they do not understand how the force that God set in place to govern the world. Therefore, when humans see bad things happening, they are unable to comprehend that every bad thing occurs for a greater good. This philosophy is grounded in a strong sense of cause and effect, the pursuit of which leads humans to misperceptions and, ultimately, to misplaced faith.
Orgon's misperceptions are so acute, that it leaves one wondering if his gullibility was native. Orgon's search for salvation brings him to set aside the cautions and warnings of his friends and fall completely for Tartuffe's flattery and trickery. Orgon's blind faith is driven…… [Read More]
Information is an element that can make an astounding difference in terms of succeeding, or attaining a profit, and failure, or attaining a loss in the realm of business. According to obinson (2003), when a trade secret is stolen, it can either level the playing field, or worse, tip it in favor of the competitor. This aspect is even more intricate as trade secrets are sought after not just by rivaling companies but also by foreign countries as well (obinson, 2003). This is done with the hope that the embezzled corporate data and information can be employed to enhance the competitive advantage of that country in the international marketplace (obinson, 2003). Even though plenty of information collection is attained by scrutinizing and going over public records such as filings and databases, the paramount way of getting proper information is simply by taking it (obinson, 2003).
Industrial espionage as…… [Read More]
pious is what all the gods love, the opposite, what all the gods hate, is the impious." How does Socrates react to this definition? Why is this not an adequate definition, and why does it fail to reveal the form?
Socrates is not satisfied with Euthyphro's definition of pious because Euthyphro's definition fails to reveal the form of pious. Socrates believes that forms are perfect models of reality. They are independent and universal. So when Socrates asks Euthyphro to explain what pious means, he expects Euthyphro to provide him with the form of pious. In other words, something Socrates can use and refer to in the future as what it means for something or someone to be pious.
Euthyphro has been engaged in this dialogue because he has claimed to know many things about the gods, what is divine and consequently what is pious. At first, Euthyphro offers his own…… [Read More]
" (Gibbs 226) Alvardo de Campos is a naval engineer by profession and while his earlier writings are positive, his work develops characteristics of existential angst. Furthermore, what is intriguing is that all of these fictive authors created by Pessoa interact with one another and even translate each other's works. (Gibbs 226)
One critic notes that "Fernando Pessoa invented at least 72 fictive identities. "His jostling aliases...expressed his belief that the individual subject -- the core of European thought -- is an illusion." (Gray 52) This view goes to the heart of the matter, as will be discussed in the following sections of this paper; namely that the creation of these fictive identities emphasizes and highlights the modern crisis of identity and the existential and postmodern view that the self as a coherent and continuous entity is an illusion. The following extract emphasizes this central point and also allows for…… [Read More]
While France relied on direct involvement of the royal power, either through the King or his ministers, ritain had a more formal royal patronage, that encouraged the activity, but did not sponsor or finance it. This also meant that in the former case, the activity was directed towards studies that could directly help the state, while in the latter case, the activity was much less directed by royal interest.
1. Saunders, Stewart. Louis XIV: Patron of Science and Technology. From The Sun King: Louis XIV and the New World, edited by Steven G. Reinhardt, pp. 155-67. (New Orleans: Louisiana Museum Foundation, 1984.)
2. History of the Royal Society. On the Internet at http://royalsociety.org/History-of-the-Royal-Society/. Last retrieved on July 22, 2010
3. Findlen, Paula. Founding a Scientific Academy: Gender, Patronage and Knowledge in Early Eighteenth-Century Milan. Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 1,…… [Read More]
Karl Popper is arguably one of the greatest philosophers of the twentieth century because of his role as one of the pioneers of philosophy of science. Popper was a political and social philosopher of significant stature, a dedicated campaigner and strong defender of the Open Society, and a committed rival of all types of conventionalism, skepticism and relativism in human affairs and science (Thorton, n.d.). He considered one of the greatest philosophers of his time because of his remarkable extent of intellectual influence that contributed to his recognition by individuals within and outside the field of philosophy. In his early years, Popper displayed a wide range of interests including music and an inquiring mind that was characterized by examining the psychotherapeutic theories of Fred and Adler, participating in lectures by Einstein, and becoming a Marxist. The main motivation for Popper's scientific inquiry and discovery was the search for truth in…… [Read More]
Descartes argues that the mind and the body must be two different things since he knows the mind exists but knows no such thing about the body. Spell out this argument. What's wrong with it, if anything? Give a counterexample to the principle implied here.
Are other philosophers that we have read drawing conclusions about what the mind must be like based on what we know about the mind or how we know it? Is that always a mistake? Can reasoning like this be defended? Maybe even Descartes's reasoning?
Descartes on the dualism of mind and body
Descartes insists that mind and body are each distinct from the other although 'living together' in one 'package. His reasoning for this includes the following:
Mind and body are two different organisms. You see this clearly from the way they are fashioned. Each looks and behaves so different to the other, therefore how…… [Read More]
The Greek philosopher Plato's concept of justice in "The Republic" demonstrates his belief in the path towards rationality of the individual and society. In his discourse, he talks about the rational individual as a just individual and is guided by the pursuit of the common good. The philosopher demonstrates this by justifying that in one's pursuit to achieve self-discovery and self-realization, it is inevitable that one should interact with his/her society. Once the individual realizes his/her fullest potential and demonstrates this by committing just acts, then society in effect becomes influenced by this act of justice. However, Plato also clarifies that a just and unjust individual may pursue different paths and goals in life, but in the end, both individuals contribute to the coherence and harmony in the society. The just individual showed what behavior is desirable because it is beneficial for the society, while the unjust individual becomes…… [Read More]
German philosopher Hegel developed a philosophy that can be called phenomenology, or Philosophy and the Actual World. Whereas previous philosophers concerned themselves with abstractions, Hegel wanted to apply philosophical inquiry to the world that we can know directly. Hegel appears to be more concerned with effects than with causes. However, Hegel is a philosopher and as such he is eminently concerned with reason.
Like the ancient Greeks, Hegel appreciated the method of the dialectic. The dialectical tool is effective in philosophy because it phrases issues in a question and answer method. The reader places himself or herself in the role of the inquirer, and a knowledgeable philosopher can answer the probing philosophical questions. Using dialectic, Hegel was also able to "converse" with his predecessors in philosophical tradition such as Kant. The dialectic allowed Hegel to grapple with complex philosophical contradictions. Hegel could resolve those contradictions using the tool…… [Read More]
Philosophy of Pleasure
The question of ethics and morality, what is the right thing to do vs. The wrong thing in a given situation, can be an extremely difficult one. There are occasions where right and wrong are clear, black and white distinctions. In such scenarios, the right thing to do is easy discernible, though it may not be the easiest things to do. However, this is the rarest of occasions. Far more often than not trying to determine what is the right and wrong choice in a given situation is extremely difficult, if not wholly impossible. Usually the world is not divided into simple terms like good and bad, right or wrong, black or white. Sometimes in life a person will be encountered with the opportunity to make a choice. There will be times when the right or wrong thing will not be as obvious as one would like…… [Read More]
Locke v. Berkeley
The philosophers John Locke and George Berkeley offer stark contrasts on the issue of various matters. Locke's whose viewpoint can best be classified as based in relativism. He believed that all knowledge come from the senses. As every man's senses are unique, no two individuals will sense the same experience the same and, therefore, all knowledge is different in each individual. By extension, there is no such thing as better beliefs or true beliefs. Everyone's beliefs are their own and based on their individual experience. George Berkeley's viewpoints offer a sharp contrast to those of Locke. In fact, their individual careers ran concurrently and they spent most of that time being contrasted and possessing viewpoints that were diametrically opposed. Berkeley's was an empiricist but one who also possessed a certain idealist twist. Berkeley viewed experience as the source of most knowledge. According to Berkeley's form of empiricism,…… [Read More]
Locke combined the rational, deductive theory of Rene Descartes and the inductive, scientific experimentalism of Francis Bacon and the Royal Society. He gave the estern world the first modern theory of human nature and a new synthesis of the individualistic concept if liberty and the theory of government that was emerging out of the debates over natural law." (Locke 2003) look at Locke's early life shows why his thinking was so well rounded. He first was trained in an area of study that would have led him to become a 'man of the cloth' but instead of choosing that direction he turned to medicine as a field of study. Eventually he was granted the right to practice medicine, and did so, but also began to study in his quest to become a member of the Royal Society. Much of his training had to do with the manner of mankind's attempts…… [Read More]
This responsibility -- using knowledge to actualize others, is a predominant theme in much of Plato's works that resonates directly with contemporary pedagogical theory.
The Allegory itself is written as a fictional dialog between Plato's teacher Socrates and Plato's brother Glaucon. In the allegory of the cave, the reader, whom Plato assumes is also a philosopher on a path towards enlightenment, is treated to a play within a play. There is a dark cave, cavernous and damp. Individuals (prisoners) have been chained in this chasm since birth so that they are able to move in a way that they can only look at the wall in front of them; otherwise they are immobile. "Conceive them as having their legs and necks fettered from childhood, so that they remain in the same spot, able to look forward only, and prevented by the fetters from turning their heads" (vii: 515). There is…… [Read More]
Scene Four: Parker Adderson, Philospher
This scene will take place exactly as it does in the story. The stage will be divided into two parts. In center stage will be the tent with the Parker Adderson and the general. Adderson will be sitting across from the general at the table and will be questioned. The monologue will unfold with only this part of the stage being lit.
After the fight, Adderson will be escorted to stage left where there will be a doctor and campfire along with soldiers guarding Adderson. Adderson will be wrapped in a blanket and must be visibly trembling and shrunken in horror. The general and dead officer will still be in the tent, which will remain lit. The general will come around and order the execution. At this point, the tent and campfire will go black and the right stage will be lit with the fire…… [Read More]