PICOT Question Development and Literature Review
The Modeling and Role Modeling Theory of nursing developed by Erickson provides a useful means of analyzing and presenting options for solutions of my research area. The theory is based on the concept that nurses must appropriately use models to guide patients to better health decisions. In the theory, modeling is the process by which the nurse seeks to know and understand the patient's personal model of his or her own world, as well as learns to appreciate its value and significance. Modeling recognizes that each patient has a unique perspective of his or her own world. These perspectives are called models. The nurse uses the process to develop an image and understanding of the patient's world from that patient's unique perspective. Role modeling is the process by which the nurse facilitates and nurtures the individual in attaining, maintaining, and promoting health. It accepts the patient as he or she is unconditionally, and allows the planning of unique interventions. According to this concept, the patient is the expert in his or her own care, and knows best how he or she needs to be helped.
This theory works to support a solution to the problem of dietary barriers occurring in Asian-Americans to reduce A1C levels recently after diagnosis. The theory can be applied by providing nurses with accurate and disciplined means to treat patients in a proactive manner. Nursing as an art is explained in this modeling theory and the ability to those in this profession to draw upon their creative forces stand to become better healers than those mired in impractical convention.
Part 2 Literature Review
Deng et al. (2013) presented interesting qualitative information regarding immigrant adaptation to Western norms of medical practice. The authors of this research article attributed the progress of this relationship as "acculturation." The acculturation and its ultimate impact on the treatment of type 2 diabetes is explored and reviewed in this research article. The data contained in this article can be applied directly to the data gathered in my research effort as many of the same topics are of a shared interest. The article also presents some ideas for further research and practical solutions to help guide this phenomenon.
Tripp-Reimer (2001) presented an interesting manner in which to approach the problem and epidemic of diabetes. The research focused on the impact of cultural and the creation of barriers that are inadvertently set during medical treatment processes involved with diabetes. The research article is an offering of a solution to the problem. The research ultimately concluded that "addressing barriers arising from the health care system involves locating services within the targeted community to maximize access, offering a broad array of health and social services to increase efficiency and continuity, maintaining a consistent staff, hiring and retaining bilingual, bicultural staff, expanding hours of operation, and emphasizing family and community involvement with regard to graphics, posters and pictures, music, and seating arrangements, " (p.20).
The information contained within the data reported from Diabetes.org provided a useful set of data to examine the problem of the disease. The data captured in this literature provided applicable statistical information regarding the span of diabetes research. This article is very useful because it adds qualitative description to the problems involved with diabetes. Since the focus of this paper deals with a more specific inquiry of people, the research presented in this literature is an excellent source for contrast and comparison.
Keogh et al. (2011) presented a research paper that investigated the practice of interventions for the problem of type 2 diabetes. Through the use of case study, this article explained the usefulness of participating in family base intervention that targets misconceptions regarding type 2 diabetes. Specifically improvements in A1C levels were documented with psychological, family based interventions regarding the disease. The case and effect relationships established in this paper are cogent and applicable to the research question...
By identifying a solution to the problem, the hypothesis can be modified to include the impact of this model.
Levin et al. (1997) presented a useful template of incorporating abstract psychological ideas into quantitative analysis forms. Their research aimed to summarize the suggestions and guidance of the Quantitative Methods Working Group convened by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in support of the NIH Office of Alternative Medicine. The study described the efforts of this group to normalize methods of analyzing alternative medical approaches. The article concluded that alternative medicine inquiries are substantially supported by traditional means of research. As a result a 7 point manifesto was created to help guide these types of research quests. This article is helpful in guiding my research in a more accepting paradigm that can account for such abstract ideas in nursing such as care, value and consciousness.
Li & Bilik (2013) examined the type 2 diabetes epidemic from a social and economic perspective. This straightforward examination aimed to estimate the medical costs in a direct fashion that are associated with type 2 diabetes. Surveys, char reviews and health insurance documents were examined from a population of more than 7000 people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The articled suggested that the majority of medical cost that are in fact caused by patients with type 2 diabetes are related to complications from the disease and illnesses that are cormorbid with the patient. The impact of this article rests in the fact that type 2 diabetes is controllable with proper health interventions that reduce the risk of other types of health threats.
Lin & Jueng (2009) introduced an application of Orem's Self-Care Theory to patients with hypertension. The research used data and evidence recorded from interviews with patients and created interventions techniques to help in minimizing the debilitating condition. Alcohol consumption intervention was focused on in this research as a means to reduce the effects of hypertension. The intervention applied in the Orem's Self-Care Theory approach which applied a compensatory system as an education conduit. This research may supplement the larger research question of this paper in many ways. Most importantly the cross application of theories regarding intervention help to support the primary hypotheses posed from the PICOT question.
Martin et al. (2011) examined the success of diabetes interventions in the demographic of Mexican-American adults. The research failed in many aspects as the intervention schemes did not generate any large scale success. The importance of this research lies in the problems that immigrant populations create in these types of medical issues. The article concluded that "researchers identified three key barriers to participation: study intensity and duration, lack of financial incentives, and challenges in establishing trust. For future research to be successful, investigators need to recognize these barriers, offer adequate incentives to compensate for intervention intensity, and establish strong trust through community partnerships and the incorporation of community members in the recruitment process."
Meloni et al. (2013) examined very specific treatments of type 2 diabetes to test their head to head effectiveness. A comparison was made between two different treatment sources: a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, vs. An oral glucose-lowering medication or insulin glargine. The results of these applications were measured by an absolute benefit increase matrix. The results of this research praised the value of exenatide QW over the glucose lowering medications. The statistical evidence in this research is quite complicated and the verbage is often hard to understand. The validity of this research appears to be useful and can be applied in a larger treatment ideal that incorporates these two types of treatment in the proper application and environment.
Sabo (2011) examined nursing compassion fatigue as an issue within the health care community within the contents of her article. The article completes a review of the literature pertinent to the subject of compassion fatigue and presented compelling arguments that ultimately point towards the need to account for nursing burnout and occupational stress. This article is helpful in determining the proper amount of interventions nurses should invest in patients. The psychological impact on nurses is often dismissed as playing a role in nursing interventions.
Another useful source for this particular research question dealing with type 2 diabetes is found at the American Diabetes Association's website where they describe, in full detail many of the factors involving type 2 diabetes. This research can be used to infuse other statistical and qualitative forms into the larger argument, creating a balanced blend of subjective and objective thought into the subject.
Wahbeh et al. (2008) presented research on the topic of mind and body interventions. The article focused on consciousness studies and addressed the alternative medicine subject from an interesting viewpoint. The article focused on the subject of neurology and the applications of various relaxation techniques such as yoga and meditation to complement their more conventional material-based medical interventions. The article concluded highly in favor of using many of these techniques in addressing several health conditions. This evidence in this article is powerful for all nurses and medical researchers wishing to…
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experts would likely agree with the very general statement that individuals who exercise, or who implement an exercise regime, are much more likely to lose weight and alleviate pain experienced from a variety of diseases and maladies. It would seem that much of the current literature would provide evidence of this hypothesis. This specific study, however, seeks to do more than just ascertain the results from such a general