Pixar Animation Studios is one of the leading film animation studios in the world. It is the subsidiary of the Walt Disney Company. Pixar Animation Studios develops high definition animated films and is ranked among the most competitive firms in its industry. It manages a large workforce by formulating and implementing its human resource management policies in the light of motivational theories like need theory, equity theory, and intrinsic and extrinsic motivational techniques. The analysis of company's motivational methods reveals that it offers competitive salaries and compensation packages, flexible working options, and attractive growth and learning opportunities through brainstorming, job promotions, feedback, and different performance appraisal techniques.
Pixar Animation Studios empowers its employees to contribute towards its success and prosperity by bringing up innovative and creative ideas. The company expends a large amount on marketing research and employee training programs in order to move forward in the industry in the most competitive fashion. The employees' beliefs, feelings, and behavioral intentions are also strengthened by the company in the light of model of emotions, attitudes and behavior. This model helps the company in keeping the emotions and beliefs of its workforce positive which is helpful for the both the parties in making a long-term relationship. The implications of motivational theories, creativity practices, and the model of emotions, attitudes, and behavior can be observed in each and every human resource management practice at Pixar Animation Studios.
INTRODUCTION: PIXAR ANIMATION STUDIOS
Pixar Animation Studios is an American computer animation film studio. It is a subsidiary of the Walt Disney Company -- one of the world's largest mass media corporations. Pixar Animation Studios was founded in 1979 as Graphics Group by Steve Jobs (former CEO Apple Inc.), Ed Catmull, and Alvy Ray Smith. It was renamed as Pixar in 1986 and entered into partnership with Walt Disney Feature Animation in 1991. It is headquartered in Emeryville, California and is currently engaged in CGI (computer generated imagery) animation and Motion pictures (Pixar).
Its main products are Marionette, Pixar Image Computer, and RenderMan. Pixar Animation Studios has produced a number of successful animated movies like Toy Story, The Incredible, Monsters Inc., Finding Nemo, A Bug's Life, Cars, etc. Pixar Animation Studios has won various awards for its high-grossing animated films. Due to its high definition film production and strong emphasis on innovation, Pixar Animation Studios has become one of the most competitive corporations in the television and film entertainment industry (Pixar).
HUMAN RESOURCE Management AT PIXAR ANIMATION STUDIOS
Pixar Animation Studios operates in various locations around the United States. It has employed a large workforce that work in its different shifts and departments like production, research and development, sales and marketing, finance and audit, human resource management, etc. The major human resource management practices at Pixar Animation Studios include staffing, training and development, leadership and motivation, and compensation (Pixar). The following section evaluates the different factors which impact the management's effectiveness at Pixar Animation Studios in the light of motivational theory:
Management EFFECTIVENESS AT PIXAR ANIMATION STUDIOS
Pixar Animation Studios believes in motivating its employees through both intrinsic and extrinsic ways. The intrinsic ways of motivation emphasize on self-achievement and efficacy instead of external factors like monetary rewards or benefits (Saxena). On the other hand, extrinsic motivation comes from monetary and tangible benefits which organizations offer to their employees (Dowling & Welch). Pixar employees work under a blend of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Pixar Animation Studios offers competitive salary and compensation packages to its employees. These packages include market-based salaries, medical allowance, health insurance, transportation allowance, housing allowance, free memberships, and other benefits and perquisites. In addition, Pixar Animation Studios also provides periodical bonuses as a part of its motivational strategies.
In order to motivate its employees through intrinsic ways, Pixar Animation Studios also provide attractive growth opportunities to its workforce at all organizational levels, i.e. from lower level employees to the top level management positions. These opportunities are provided to the employees in order to keep them committed to their job responsibilities and stay for a longer period of time at this organization (Deresky).
Performance Appraisal and Management:
There is an effective performance appraisal and management system instituted at its workplace. This system is helpful for the management in assessing the performance of employees on individual basis. The middle level managers perform their duties as the immediate supervisors of the first line managers and lower level employees. These managers get the work done through these employees in work groups and teams. These work groups and teams are assigned specific targets to achieve within a definite period of time (Lings & Greenley). The performance of the team shows the collective efforts of all its members. However, managers take feedback of employees through organizational assessment and brainstorming sessions on regular basis in a view to assess the performance and learning of employees on individual basis (Klett).
Equity and Need Theories:
Pixar Animation Studios has formulated its employee empowerment and motivation policies in the light of equity theory which states that employees' performance must be compared with their coworkers in order to encourage them to perform better than them and reach higher level job positions by getting job promotion and enlargement (Saxena). The needs theories of motivation are also kept in perspective while designing work tasks and building work teams of the employees. Managers at Pixar believe that employees should be given specific targets to achieve along with their desire for personal achievement (Collings).
Flexible Working Options:
Flexible working options are also offered as intrinsic motivational techniques. Pixar Animation Studios has created a flexible working environment in which employees feel quite relaxed while they are on the job. Due to the placement of right individuals at the right place, the employees are never exposed to work pressures in their day-to-day tasks. Pixar Animation Studios has allowed its employees to work in shifts of their choice. Therefore, Pixar employees are able to achieve a good balance between their professional and personal life, i.e. they work in their favorite shifts without disturbing their personal or family matters at home (Pixar).
Flexible working options are considered among the most effective motivational techniques in today's fast paced environment. Organizations need to provide these options in order to retain their existing employees for the longest possible period of time. Pixar Animation Studios believes that employees must be mentally satisfied and relaxed when they come and start their work at its premises (Dowling & Welch).
Strong Organizational Culture:
In addition to the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, team building and flexible working options, Pixar Animation Studios also gives special emphasis on strengthening its organizational culture. It believes that a strong organizational culture radically supports the motivation and retention of employees. If the organizational culture is strong, employees feel more comfortable working for the organization (Klett). They respect and cooperate with each other, share information, and show collective efforts for the prosperity and success of their organization. Pixar Animation Studios has built a friendly and supportive working environment with an effective communication and coordination system between different departments. This communication system enables its employees to work more efficiently and productively.
Conflict management is another factor which has contributed towards management effectiveness at Pixar Animation Studios. The Pixar managers make every effort to keep their employees away from conflicts and issues which generally arise at the workplace. If any issues arise among managers and employees or between employees from different or same departments, managers play their leadership role and try to resolve them in a friendly and cooperative manner. They act as mediators and avoid biasness and favoritism while making decisions to resolve those issues (Deresky).
CREATIVITY PRACTICES AND EMPOWERMENT Management
Creative Brain Trust:
There is a group of individuals at Pixar Animation Studios which is responsible for bringing innovative and creative ideas for its business. It suggests improvements to innovate its business processes and procedures (Saxena). The creative brain trust also contributes in the company's empowerment management practices by introducing new ways to encourage and empower its employees and improve organizational effectiveness (Lings & Greenley).
Research and Development:
The creative team of Pixar Animation Studios has largely helped it in becoming a competitive and innovative firm in its industry. The team has made major contributions in the field of Information Technology. Pixar Animation Studios has always been expending a huge amount on its Research and Development section which conducts market research and brings creative ideas to innovate its existing products. The Research and Development has also enabled the company to continuously upgrade its systems; design and develop high definition animations, and make an effective use of technology (Pixar).
The company's creative team is composed of individuals from different organizational levels and departments. These employees are encouraged and empowered by their supervisors to come up with innovative ideas to bring improvement in the current business operations (Saxena). Brainstorming has been an effective creativity process at Pixar Animation Studios which has largely helped it in getting innovative and creative ideas from…