Attachment Theory Essays Examples

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Object Relation Attachment Theories and

Words: 26278 Length: 55 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34405449

During the next chapter of this clinical case study dissertation, the Literature Review section, this researcher relates accessed information that contributes a sampling of previous research to begin to enhance the understanding needed to help a patient "grow" not only in therapy, but also in life.



The theories and techniques used in psychoanalysis are very diverse; Freudian analysis is only one approach."

Thomas and McGinnis, 1991, ¶ 1)

Diverse Contentions

One recent University of New Hampshire study indicated that 63% of more than 3,000 surveyed American parents surveyed reported experiences of one or more instances of verbal aggression toward children in their homes. A Child Protective Services study, albeit reported that only 6% of child abuse cases involved "emotional maltreatment," form of abuse in which verbal abuse constitutes the most common form of maltreatment. The apparent low number of "official" verbal abuse cases likely relates to the fact verbal abuse signs prove more difficult to recognize and prove than the more obvious signs of physical abuse. (Vardiganm, 2008)

During this clinical case study dissertation's Literature Review chapter, this researcher presents information, as well as diverse contentions accessed from a barrage, more than 25, of credible sources,…… [Read More]

American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.

Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.
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Theory -- Horotwitz & Bartholomew

Words: 4058 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33183152

c. Other theorists (Modern Attachment Theories)

Upon the establishment and strengthening of Bowlby and Ainsworth's Attachment Theory, other theorists have developed new studies which either tested the theory or sought to apply it in different contexts or scenarios. Inevitably, most scenarios and contexts that new theorists and psychology researchers took is the path to explaining grief and bereavement. Others, however, have centered on specific aspects of the theory and sought to expound and/or test it, as Ainsworth did when Bowlby was still in the process of strengthening his attachment theory.

One such study was conducted by Schore and Schore (2008), which explored the emotion regulation aspect of the theory. In their study, the authors realized the potential of attachment theory in developing a "therapeutic intervention" from which coping on the loss of the attachment figure would be a healthier process for the individual. The authors shifted from the issue of attachment to (emotion) regulation, determining that using principles from attachment theory, the therapeutic intervention to effective and healthier coping "can repair damage and create new structure that is more able to cope with the demands of life" (18). Schore and Schore have taken on the challenge that Bowlby presented after…… [Read More]

Ainsworth, M. (1984). "Attachment across the life span." Bulletin of New York Academy of Medicine.

Ainsworth, M. And J. Bowlby. (1991). "An ethological approach to personality development." American Psychologist, Vol. 46, No. 4.
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Theory There Have Been Several

Words: 2479 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15855596

Lee, (2003).

Lee (2003) says that insecure attachments have been linked to psychiatric disorders to which the children are exposed to after the loss of the attachment figure. These children will form inability to form secure attachments, react with hostility and rejection to their environment according to Pickover, (2002). This is a phenomenon found among many immigrant children, especially who had the attachment figure back in their country of origin and yet they remained there. They tend to have a problem re-attaching themselves to any other person, hence may grow up to be violent and develop criminal trends Pickover, (2002).

Shortfalls of the attachment theory

The idea that the parents shape the personality and character is misplaced and instead it is the peers who influence character and behavior of the child. According to Harris (1998:Pp2) "parents do not shape their child's personality or character. A child's peers have more influence on them than their parents." This applied to the immigrant children as they can be seen to dramatically adopt other aspects within the U.S.A. setting in as much as they retain their original country traits. One instance is the language and physical expressions.

The aspect of nature and nurture also…… [Read More]

Chris Fraley, (2010). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved March 12, 2012 from 

Harris, J.R. (1998). The nurture assumption: Why children turn out the way they do. New York: Free Press. In Lee J., (2003). The Attachment System Throughout the Life Course: Review and Criticisms of Attachment Theory. Pp.2
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Theory the Objective of This

Words: 2202 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10371204

I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away. (Fraley, 2004)

Fraley relates that it was found in the study of Hazan and Shaver "...based on this three-category measure...that the distribution of categories was similar to that observed in infancy. In other words, about 60% of adults classified themselves as secure; about 20% described themselves as avoidant; and about 20% described themselves as anxious-resistant." (2004) While measurement in this manner was "a useful way to study the association between attachment styles and relationship functioning, it didn't allow a full test of the hypothesis in the same kinds of individual differences observed in infants might be manifest among adults." (Fraley, 2004) Fraley states that the findings of Brennan "suggested that there are two fundamental dimensions with respect to adult attachment patterns" with the first "critical variable" being one labeled 'attachment-related anxiety." (Fraley, 2004) Individuals who score high on this specific variable have worries relating to whether their partner is "available, responsive, attentive, etc." (Fraley, 2004) Individuals scoring low on this variable are stated by Fraley to be "more…… [Read More]

Borelli, Jessica L.; and David, Daryn H. (2003-2004) Imagination, Cognition and Personality. Volume 23, Number 4 / 2003-2004. Attachment Theory and Research as a Guide to Psychotherapy Practice. Yale University. Online Baywood Publishing Company, Inc. Amityville, NY. Online available at,2,6;journal,14,102;linkingpublicationresults,1:300311,1

Tuovila, Pirjo (2007)What Are Fathers for? Attachment Theory and the Significance of Fathers. European Centennial Conference to Celebrate the Birth of Dr. John Bowlby, the Founder of Attachment Theory. Tampere Hall, Finland, 1-2 February 2007.
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Theory Therapy Levy Meehan Kelly

Words: 4158 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86662734

Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a brief explanation of other modes of treatment, particularly simple cognitive therapy, which is not abandoned but used in a systematic manner to help educate the patient of the need for change and restructuring of behavior. The Schema Therapy used is described by the authors through a stepped system including; (1)…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.

Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
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Theory What Are the Major Concepts of

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What are the major concepts of Ainsworth's theory?

Ainsworth's attachment theory is rooted in Bowlby's research on the bonds that develop between parent and child. Building on Bowlby's research, Ainsworth conducted a groundbreaking experiment known as the Strange Situation. Results of the Strange Situation experiment revealed three different categories of attachment styles. Ainsworth found secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment (Cherry, n.d.). Moreover, four categories of attachment style behaviors were observed. These four categories include separation anxiety, which refers to the emotional reaction to the caregiver leaving. The infant's willingness to explore in the caregiver's absence is another feature of attachment. Stranger anxiety refers to how the infant responds to strangers when the primary caregiver is absent. Finally, Ainsworth studied reunion behavior, which was how the child reacted to the return of the caregiver. Using these four parameters of attachment-related behaviors, Ainsworth developed the three primary attachment styles: secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment. For example, a child with high separation anxiety, who avoids interacting with strangers in the absence of the parent, and who avoids exploring in the absence of the parent, will be classified as having a secure attachment style. If an infant shows no…… [Read More]

Benoit, D. (2004). Infant-parent attachment. Pediatric Child Health 9(8): 541-545.

Cherry, K. (n.d.). Attachment theory. Retrieved online:
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Theory Its Usefulness in the Workplace Today

Words: 1362 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59285246

theory: Its usefulness in the workplace today

Attachment theory has its origins in the study of animals. Watching geese 'imprint' upon the first living being they encounter after hatching or researchers observing how baby monkeys thrive when given terry cloth mothers, as opposed to wire mothers, are all examples of attachment theory in action. Attachment theory reinforces the psychodynamic notion that early experiences are seminal and seismic in shaping the human psyche and the way human beings relate to one another. As applied to humans, attachment theory suggests that parents who respond in a positive way to their infant's needs formulate the character of the child in such a way to enable him or her to feel secure in his or her relationships. In contrast, parents who create bonds of insecure attachment by being smothering or rejecting will foster behavioral patterns in their children that are negative, rather than positive. The child's future personality development becomes unfulfilling: avoidant and resistant personality types either passively or actively show hostility toward the parent while anxious types are overly dependant upon external parental reinforcement and praise (Attachment theory, 2002, Great ideas). On a macro scale, a general parenting style adopted by a culture,…… [Read More]

Attachment theory. (2002). Great ideas in personality research. Retrieved from: 
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Theories What Are the Explanations

Words: 3047 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41122908

203). Others who lose a loved one they had cherished for many years may have a disposition "towards compulsive caregiving" (Bowlby, p. 206). The welfare of others is of prime concern for these individuals; instead of experiencing "sadness and welcoming support for themselves" after the death of a loved one or family member that has been loved for many years, these individuals "proclaim that it is someone else who is in distress and in need of the care which then insist on bestowing."

This compulsive caregiving often manifests itself with the selection of a handicapped person to become that person's caregiver. Imagine the daughter who since adolescence has idolized her father, and never left the home but rather attended college nearby to her parents' home. She never made a lot of close friends and preferred to be home with her dad especially. So when he died, according to Bowlby's compulsive caregiving theory, she will latch on to a person who is in need of caregiving until she decides to marry.

Then, should she become a parent, the danger, Bowlby explains on page 206, is that she could become "excessively possessive and protective," in particular when the child grows older.

Meanwhile,…… [Read More]

Bowlby, John (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume I / Attachment. New York: Basic

Books, Inc., Publishers.
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Social Work Theory of Attachment

Words: 1898 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90172636

Grohol J. (2005). Attachment Theory. Psych Central. Retrieved October 7, 2005 from the World Wide Web:

Psych Central is a web site which provides free mental health, support and psychology information and resources online since 1992. The site is clustered with numerous links to psychological issues and people related to this field. This article has been written by Dr. John Grohol who is a renowned psychologist and owner of this web portal. The article focuses on the theory of attachment explaining various behavioral patterns observed in the canvas of this theory.

Holmes, J. (1993). John Bowlby and Attachment Theory. New York: Routledge.

Jeremy Holmes is a Consultant Psychiatrist/Psychotherapist in North Devon

District Hospital, Barn Staple, United Kingdom. He is also a visiting professor at Psychoanalysis Unit University College London. In this book, Jeremy Holmes provides a focused and coherent account of Bowlby's life and work, based on interviews with members of his family and with psychoanalysts who knew him. The author highlights the Bowlby's Attachment Theory which is one of the major theoretical developments in psychoanalysis last century. The book focuses on combining the rigorous scientific empiricism of ethology with the subjective insights of psychoanalysis. Holmes commends Bowlby's work…… [Read More]

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Nursing Theory Framework

Words: 2702 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33960538

Nursing Theory Framework

Attachment Theory

Recognizing Addiction through Attachment Theory

Affect Regulation and Addiction

Handling Addiction as an Attachment Disorder

The First Phase of Therapy





Nursing Theory Framework

The misappropriation of prescription drugs by teens in the United States is a growing public health issue. Using a nursing theory framework, the scope of the problem of prescription drug use among teens is reviewed. Equal in variety to manifestations of addiction are sundry psychological theories that attempt to explain and treat the problem. Hardy (2011) was able to look into four traditional models for recognizing alcoholism (social learning theory, tension reduction theory, personality theory, and interactional theory,) in addition to five theoretical models that were developing at the time of their writing.

An approach to treating and understanding addiction that has created a huge amount of research in current decades, and which displays big promise for effective treatment of those who are undergoing addictions, has derived from attachment theory. From a nursing framework, this paper will make the attempt to communicate those features of attachment theory pertinent to understanding addiction from its theoretical viewpoint, describe addiction in terms of attachment, and recognize how addiction is being treated…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Caplan, J.P. (2012). Neuropsychiatric effects of prescription drug abuse. Neuropsychology Review, 17(3), 363-80.

Elkashef, A.M. (2012). Prevention and treatment of addiction. Psychiatric Times, 16-18.
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Combination of Modern and Postmodern Bereavement Theory Explain and Contrast

Words: 5009 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16035742

Postmodern Bereavement Theory

Bereavement is a universal observable fact as every human being experiences the loss of a loved one at some point in his/her life. However, every individual experiences it in a unique way. It is, without a doubt, an undeniable truth that to be human is to grieve. The passing away of a loved one can be difficult, irresistible and dreadful for any normal individual. When people are faced with such overwhelming situations, a majority of them especially the older adults get into the habit of enduring their loss with time. On the other hand, to forget and live without a loved one is not as easy for some individuals. It becomes difficult for these people to cope up with the grief-stricken situations as they experience a grief of greater concentration or time (Hansson & Stroebe, 2007). There are a number of theorists who have put forwarded their views regarding grief, mourning and bereavement since the study of psychology has started. The most significant theorist among them is Freud who was the first to present a modern view of grief in his theories.

In this paper, I would present both modernist and postmodernist views regarding grief and bereavement.…… [Read More]

Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L.M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test o f a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(2), 226-244. Retrieved from

Bonanno, G.A., Keltner, D., Holen, A., & Horowitz, M.J. (1995). When avoiding unpleasant emotions might not be such a bad thing: Verbal-autonomic response dissociation and midlife conjugal bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
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Bowlby Suggest That Secure Attachment

Words: 366 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20436679

Flores describes our culture as an avoidance society, giving what you know as an attachment theory, what impact might this cultural tendency have on the prevalence of addiction on our society?

To the extent that avoidance plays a role in personal psychology, any challenge to self-esteem or to psychological security would be a risk factor in behaviors that could be used to help the individual avoid confronting the unpleasant thoughts or fears. Because consumption of addictive substances is a typical form of psychological escapism, individuals faced with challenges to their happiness who are socialized in an avoidance society would be inclined to use those substances as a specific means of avoiding unpleasant thoughts and feelings. Instead of recognizing the need to examine and address their impulses or fears, individuals socialized in an avoidance society would rely on intoxicating agents to escape from anything unpleasant. In the context of attachment theory, the insecurely attached individual who experiences negative thoughts or fears related to insecure attachment would resort to alcohol or drug use instead of examining those impulses with the intention of possibly resolving those…… [Read More]

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How Counseling Services Benefit People-Based on Theories of Human Development

Words: 1332 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8557938

(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)

Psychosocial Theory

Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (

VI. Benefits of Counseling and Development Theories

The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (Blocher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present to facilitate the meeting of developmental needs and the mastering of developmental tasks. Tasks and concerns encountered at specific stages are understood to be hindered, blocked, or resolved depending upon the presence or absence of environmental conditions and responses." (Muro, 2007, p. 7)

Develop mentalist hold that "relationships among cognitions,…… [Read More]

Muro, L. (2007) The Effects of Human Developmental counseling Application Curriculum on Content Integration, Application, and Cognitive Complexity for Counselor Trainees. Retrieved from:

Counseling Psychology (2014) Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Educational Counseling. Retrieved from: 
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Watson's Theory of Caring Theory Clinical

Words: 3459 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69890526

In applying this article to the nursing field, it appears that combining therapies with surgery can enhance care to surgical patients. The article reaction is preoperative anxiety can be reduced with holistic nursing.

Rosenberg, S. (2006). Utilizing the Language of Jean Watson's Caring Theory Within a Computerized Clinical Documentation System. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing.

This article describes and critiques a healthcare facility that was part of an eight-hospital organization that adopted Watson's theory of caring as part of their nursing philosophy. It provides an overview of the caring theory and its many meanings. Rosenberg critiques the caring theory, stating that during the implementation of the theory within the setting described, it was noted that there was no mechanism in the current documentation system for clinical nursing staff to document the patient experience using any language specific to the theory. As a result, the nurses at the healthcare facility decided to develop a new context in charting that consisted of an extensive clinical documentation system upgrade. The article concluded with a discussion of the steps taken that supported the newly adopted caring philosophy at the facility. The application and reaction is that such a system could be implemented at other facilities…… [Read More]

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Ainsworth Corsaro and Children's Relationships Theories of

Words: 1199 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33374857

Ainsworth, Corsaro, And Children's Relationships

Theories of child development generally focus on whether there it is more indebted to their private relationships (typically consisting of the child's interactions with their family) or public relationships (involving the child's interactions with their peers.) The former theory is known as attachment theory since it refers to the child's reliance on their parents, while the latter is considered an ethnographic approach, as it places greater emphasis on the environment in which the child's development takes place. Although both approaches are scientifically viable, they are in many ways antithetical; this essay elucidates some of the salient differences between the two.

Mary Ainsworth's approach to child development is characterized as "attachment theory." In Ainsworth's seminal procedure "The Strange Situation," she offers a comprehensive model for measuring a child's sociability, with a complete taxonomy for various diagnoses. The procedure lasts for 20 minutes and involves the child, their mother, and a stranger. It is important that the child is at infant age (typically one to two years old), since one of Ainworth's main claims is that a child's social development is formulated earlier than had been previously believed -- prior to the child entering elementary school. A…… [Read More]

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Secure Attachment There Are Many Attachment Styles

Words: 609 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47099549

Secure Attachment

There are many attachment styles and they can often influence a person's life by affecting anything from the simplest decision to more complicated and even life changing choices. Thus, it is important to reflect upon one's own attachment style so that one may better understand himself and be successful.

My attachment style as designated by the questionnaire was classified as "secure attachment." According to the test, my attachment style was further classified as follows:

"According to your questionnaire responses, your attachment-related anxiety score is 2.12, on a scale ranging from 1 (low anxiety) to 7 (high anxiety). Your attachment-related avoidance score is 2.92, on a scale ranging from 1 (low avoidance) to 7 (high avoidance)." [1: Not Applicable. (2011). "Attachment Styles and Close Relationships." Attachment Style. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from .]

I think that I was suspecting begin classified as low avoidance because I'm pretty secure in myself, but I did not expect being classified as low anxiety, because I believe I'm a pretty anxious person, especially when it comes to school studies and jobs.

However, having said this, I do agree with the designation of my attachment style, because often I can calm myself down and…… [Read More]

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Management -- Organizational Theory the

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6219004

519). The point before proceeding is that when employees sense that their organization is ethically responsible vis-a-vis citizenship, their work engagement is "likely stimulated" (Lin, p. 521). The procedure Lin follows in this research is to conduct empirical research using a survey of personnel from "20 large firm of an industrial zone in northern Taiwan" (high-tech and more traditional companies) (Lin, p. 522).

Of the 600 questionnaires Lin sent out, 428 "usable questionnaires" came back (a response rate of 71.33%). The system of measuring used by Lin: 5-point Likert scales modified from previous research. Lin's three steps: a) she first had the existing literature translated into Chinese from English and then a focus group of 4 (including 3 graduate students and a professor) that were very familiar with CSR modified the questions; b) two pilot tests were conducted to clarify the quality of the questions; and c) additional care went into making certain there was "no translation biases in the Chinese version" of the questionnaire (Lin, pp. 522-23).

Flaws in the design of the study: The "predictors in the research model were measured perceptually at a single point in time"; and also, the research was conducted in a single country…… [Read More]

Lin, Chieh-Peng. (2010). Modeling Corporate Citizenship, Organizational Trust, and Work

Engagement Based on Attachment Theory. Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 94, 517-531.
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Behavioral and Cognitive Behavioral Theories

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Behavioral and Cognitive Behavioral Theories

Psychodynamic and Cognitive Behavioral Theories

In this paper, there is going to an examination of Cognitive Behavioral and Psychodynamic theories. This is accomplished by focusing on: the two theories, their theoretical concepts, micro skills / techniques and a summary of these ideas. These elements will show how each one can address issues impacting the patient and the long-term effects upon them.

In the world of psychology, there are different theories which are used to explain how someone reacts to various stimuli. The result is that there has been contrasting ideas about the best way to understand human behavior. Two schools of thought which are very popular are the psychodynamic and cognitive behavioral approaches. (Okun, 2008)

To fully understand them requires examining each one. This will be accomplished by focusing on the two theories, their theoretical concepts, micro skills / techniques and a summary of these ideas. Together, these elements will provide specific insights about how they focus on understanding human behavior and those factors which are influencing it. (Okun, 2008) (Larson, 2012)

Discussion of two preferred theories: a discussion of two preferred theories covered in the textbook, demonstrating your critical thinking about the theories.

Psycho…… [Read More]

Larson, P. (2012). How Important is an Understanding of the Clients Early Attachments. Counseling Psychology Review, 27 (1), 10 -- 18.

Lucia, M. (2012). Therapeutic Activities and Psychological Interventions. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 12 (2), 118 -- 127.
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Aileen Wuornos and a General Theory of Crime

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Crime and Aileen Wuornos

Criminal theories based on biological, psychological, sociological, and socio-psychological factors have been constructed in an attempt to better identify the causes of crime and what drives an individual to behave in a deviant manner. While data on male serial killers is prevalent, the data and statistics available in regards to female serial killers are extremely limited. One of the most well-known female serial killers, in recent years, is Aileen Wuornos whose criminal career was thrown into the spotlight with the 2003 film Monster. Wuornos is the first convicted female serial killer in the United States; she was subsequently executed in 2002 for her crimes.

Aileen Wuornos is considered to be the first predatory female serial killer in the U.S. And there are many factors that may have led her to develop criminal behaviors. Wuornos was born on February 29, 1956 to Diane Wuornos and Leo Pittman (Arrigo & Griffin, 2004, p. 383). At the age of six months and then again when Wuornos was two, Wuornos and her 11-months older brother, Keith, were abandoned by their mother and subsequently taken in by their abusive grandparents, Lauri and Britta Wuornos. Wuornos never met her biological father, Pittman,…… [Read More]

Arrigo, B. (2006). Criminal Behavior: A Systems Approach. Upper Saddle Creek: Pearson

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Parent-Child Attachment it Is Now Widely Recognized

Words: 717 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99541896

Parent-Child Attachment

It is now widely recognized by psychologists that the first few years of a child's experiences are crucial in her subsequent personality and behavioral development. The most critical aspect in this regard is the child's relationship with her parents in the formative years. The recognition of this simple fact has led to the development of the "attachment theory" that emphasizes the importance of a close parent-child relationship in promoting a balanced, caring and trustful individual -- so essential for the evolution of a healthy society. This essay gives a brief overview of the "parent-child attachment theory" and outlines its importance.

Various people have carried out research on parent-child attachment during the last sixty years. Prominent names among them are John Bowlby, Mary Ainsworth and William Sears. (Nix 2005) Bowlby, regarded as the father of the attachment theory, believed that all infants would become "attached" to their care-givers regardless of the type of care they receive -- whether the care received was abusive, responsive, or inconsistent. However, the quality of the attachment determines to a large extent the child's future behavior and the way she relates to others in her future life. Those children, who receive "responsive," "consistent" and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
"Attachment Theory." (2005). Article from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopeia. Retrieved on October 19, 2005 from

Breazeale, Tami E. (2001). "Attachment Parenting: A Practical Approach for the Reduction of Attachment Disorders and the Promotion of Emotionally Secure Children." A Master's Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Bethel College. Retrieved on October 19, 2005 from
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Theory the Stand Point Theory

Words: 1411 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89001186

The other men of the less considered races however, also express their concerns but with less conviction since the society has set them as the less privileged. The differences between them cause each to express their issues with concern; hence this theory explains the men's behavior in the film.

The standpoint theory is one that considers the way our society and the culture shapes our way of thinking and views in different ideologies and perspectives

. Using the inequalities that exist within the society shapes how we perceive each other and hence; the stand point we have as individuals are not really considered as significant. The view point is usually exhibited through the culture we show and the language we use. The culture is diverse and the identities we express are usually rooted within the individuals.

The standpoint theory consists of three ideas; the first is that our standpoint is determined by our social location and situated knowledge. The second is that we do not only belong to one particular group but we belong to more groups depending on the various inequalities among us. This can either make us one large strong group or a less powerful group

. The…… [Read More]

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Theory Based on the Factors That Leads to Juvenile Delinquency

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50594089

Social Control Theory of Juvenile Delinquency

Underlying Assumptions

Travis Hirschi's Social Control theory of deviance assumes that deviant behavior is largely a function of the connectedness of the individual to his or her society; more specifically, Hirschi's assumptions are that juvenile delinquency, and criminal deviance more generally, are inversely related to the following elements of connectedness between the individual and the community: involvement, commitment, attachment, and belief (Akers & Sellers, 2004; Huebner & Betts, 2002).

Structure of Theory

Hirschi used the concept of involvement to describe the manner and extent to which the individuals takes part in the so-called "conventional" activities, such as extracurricular school functions and other organized opportunities for socially productive youth recreation available in the community (Macionis, 2008). Hirschi used the concept of commitment, to describe the basic "acceptance" in the most general senses, of fundamental social and behavioral norms, values, and expectations in the individual's community and society. Hirschi referred to the concept of attachment to characterize the quality of the interpersonal relationships within nuclear and extended families and between and among peers as well (Akers & Sellers, 2004; Huebner & Betts, 2002). Hirschi used the concept of belief to describe the degree to which the…… [Read More]

Akers, R.L., and Sellers, C.S. (2004). Criminological Theories: Introduction,

Evaluation, and Application. California: Roxbury Publishing Company.
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Theories in Psychotherapy

Words: 1051 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62395903

Psychosocial Development Theory

In the history of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud was the first to delve into the unknown recesses of the human mind to identify reasons for neuroses. As such, he identified infantile sexuality to lie at the heart of most problems in the relationship with the self and others and used the three-dimensional model of the id, the ego, and superego to describe the various ways in which these neuroses manifested themselves. Today, many theorists use Freud's theories to build their own derivative theories. Even though many today reject some or most of the early philosopher's ideas, it is thanks to him that these theories have a reason for existence in themselves. Today, the theory known as psychosocial development bases many of its concepts on the early ideas conceptualized by Freud. As such, theorists like Erik Erikson, Alfred Adler, and Karen Horney have developed their own concepts of what it means to develop as a human being from childhood to adulthood today. Their major departure from Freud's theory rests on the fact that the social environment plays a significant role in human development.

Like Freud, Erikson's theory is based upon the belief that childhood plays a vital role in…… [Read More]

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Theory of Using Vitamin a As Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders

Words: 1547 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67763224

Vitamin a for Autism Spectrum Disorder

The Theory of Using Vitamin a as Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders

There is widespread linkage of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Oxytoxin. There are reports that any decrease in the pathway of Oxytocin, is a possible causative factor to the development of autistic situation (Munese-et-al., 2008). Decrease in Oxytocin comes about because of mutations in its receptors, which lead to a reduction on the amount of Oxytocin released to the body posing possible chances for the development of autistic conditions (Lerer et-al., 2008). There is partial dependency of Oxytocin secretion to a protein found, in the cellular membranes of certain red blood cells. The scientific reference of these proteins is CD38, and whenever they mutate there develops a risk of Autism. Mice engineered without the oxytocin receptor gene have been shown to display socially anomalous behavior such as a deficiency of maternal behavior in females and increased aggression in males (Nishimori et al., 2008). However, it has been theorized that administrating Trans Retionic Acid, treats autistic spectrum disorders. This is a treatment derived from Vitamin A and it helps in creating an increase in CD38 expression.

Development and social implications of autism

The…… [Read More]

Andari-et-al. (2009). Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high functioning autism spectrum disorders Department of Psychiatry 1-6

Ebstein R., Mankuta D. Yirmiya N., Maravasi F. (2011). Are retonoids potential therapeutic agents in disorders of social cognitions including Autism. EEBS letters: journal homepage. 1529-1536
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Looking Into Theory on Juvenile Delinquency

Words: 1872 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64006820

Theory on Juvenile Delinquency

Interventions that involve life-course unrelenting offenders should place emphasis on remedial social abilities, for them to have a chance to decrease their frequency of offending in future, and to tackle conduct disorder problems. Interventions involving teenage-onset offenders should, wherever applicable, tackle issues relating to parenting, alcohol/drug misuse, and anti-social cronies. Keane, Krull and Phythian (2008) define self-control as the extent to which a person is susceptible to temptation. According to them, lack of self-restraint or self-control is a fairly universal and stable characteristic, accounting for individual discrepancies in deviant, reckless, and criminal conduct. Youngsters' parents are usually blamed for their kids' delinquent behavior. Some courts go as far as penalizing parents for their kids' antisocial actions. It is believed that weak self-control develops during early childhood, when one's family is the most central socializing agent. Hence, lack of self-restraint and the resultant deviant behavior result from familial factors. This research work studies parenting effects on kids' self-restraint via a large-scale, countrywide sample of kids in Canada; it considers the part played by factors like household size and parental composition. Analyses show that the dimension of self-control is different for different family structures -- kids residing in…… [Read More]

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Freud and His Complete Theory of Grief Bereavement

Words: 3008 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50942874


Freud's theory of Grief and bereavement

Grade Course

Id, Ego and the Superego or the conscious and the unconscious mind are some of the terms which are well-known by almost every individual. These words not only point out to the field of Psychology but also to the man who coined them and proposed a new realm of theories behind each of it; Sigmund Freud. He is famous for being the father of psychoanalysis and the techniques of hypnosis, dream interpretation and free association which he has used to successfully treat his patients. Psychology is devoid without Freud. This is not only because of the theories which he proposed but also because of his followers and those who extended his basic concept with a new touch. Freud in all his theories talks about the past to be affecting the present. In other words, the unconscious mind which is the hidden reservoir of all the repressed memories and traumatic experiences must be brought to the conscious mind to treat the patient so that he can lead life normally (Freud, 1923).

Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 in a Viennese family and raised according to the Jewish customs and traditions. Despite his…… [Read More]

Jones E. (1955). The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud: Vol. 2. Years of Maturity, 1901 -- 1919. New York: Basic Books.

Reisner, S. (1999). Freud and psychoanalysis: Into the 21st century. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 47:1037 -- 1060.

Schiesari, J. (1992). The Gendering of Melancholia: Feminism, Psychoanalysis, and the Symbolics of Loss in Renaissance Literature. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
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Influential Theories Related to Deviance by Robert

Words: 3803 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29991827

influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. Firstly, the paper provides the historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas. Secondly, the paper provides a summary of their original theory. Thirdly, the paper provides a discussion of how the model has been critiqued and altered as new research has emerged. Lastly, the paper delves into the theory's current usage/popularity within criminology.

The historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas

There is huge contribution of influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. As a matter of fact, He is considered one of the most significant sociologists of modern times. Moreover, he has also made large number of contributions to the criminology field. Undoubtedly, Merton influenced various fields of science, humanities, law, political theories, economics and anthropology (Cole, 2004, p.37). Merton's introduced numerous concepts like anomie, deviant behavior, self-fulfilling prophecy, strain, middle range theory and focused group behavior. He is recognized mostly because of the introduction of these concepts.

Merton's inspiration was his own childhood. He was born on 5th July, 1910 in South Philadelphia's slums. He was a child of Jewish immigrants. His father ran a dairy shop which was located near their place.…… [Read More]

American Sociological Review (2012). Retrieved January 29, 2014 from 

Bernanke, Ben, S. (1995) 'The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach', Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 27 February.
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Psychological Theories of Crime Similarities

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36139053

For instance a child performs poorly in examination and the parent decides to withdraw his promise to take the child to the zoo during the holiday.

Positive punishment; it is a process by which stimulus is immediately added after a specific behavior so that future frequency of the behavior is decreased. A good example is of a pick pocket is taken to prison and subjected to learning of a given artwork so that when he comes out of prison he can make his own money through the artwork learned.

Negative punishment; it is a process by which stimulus is removed immediately after a given behavior so that future frequency of that behavior is decreased. Example is when a student performs poorly in class and the parent decides to cut down the student pocket money, the pocket money acts as the stimulant that has been removed hence a negative punishment.

The most effective behavior theory is positive punishment. This is because it helps in two different perspectives, first it helps rectify the undesired behavior of a person and again something new is instilled in the involved person that helps improve and completely change his undesired behavior.


It is the ability…… [Read More]

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Sociological Theories of Crime There Are a

Words: 1298 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10016462

Sociological Theories of Crime

There are a number of respected sociological theories of crime and criminality, and in this paper four of those theories -- social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory and neutralization theory -- will be reviewed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. Also, of the theories discussed, one or more will be referenced in terms of the relevance to a recently convicted offender.

Social Control Theory

According to professor Larry Siegel social control theories put forward the notion that everyone has the potential to become a law-breaker, and the society offers multiple opportunities for illegal activity. The attraction for some people to deal drugs or steal cars, Siegel explains, is that there is "…the promise of immediate reward and gratification" (Siegel, 2011, p. 248). And so, Siegel continues, given the attraction of crime for many, and the benefits for some, his question is: why do people obey the rules at all? Why don't more people break the law?

His answers include what other theorists would reply to that question. The "choice theorist" would answer that question by saying people fear getting punished for wrongdoing (Siegel, 248). The "structural theorists" would observe, "…obedience is a function…… [Read More]

Akers, Ronald L. (1999). Criminological Theories. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.

Briggs, Steven, and Friedman, Joan. (2009). Criminology for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John
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Nursing Theory Caring as an Integral Nursing

Words: 3261 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41578236

Nursing Theory

Caring as an integral nursing concept can be viewed from diverse perspectives. It can be an attribute, a complex set of behaviors, or an attitude. This has made some people believe that it is impossible to improve and measure it although there is evidence that both improvement and measurement are possible. People recognize that caring models of professional practice affect the service users, health outcomes, healthcare staff, and ultimately health care costs. The ability of healthcare staff to deliver caring-based models is driven by characteristics of healthcare service users and organizational behaviors. While nursing has generated a lot of research about caring, this concept remains relevant to all healthcare professionals encountering users of health care services. The caring concept has many similarities with relationship-based care and person-centered care.

B. Literature review

Nurse at risk of threatened well-being

In many countries, an increasing tendency to abandon the nursing field has been observed. Studies indicate that care providers experience a feeling of incapacity when they are unable to offer the care that preserves the dignity of the patient. In addition, the situations that frustrate the good intentions of nurses generate a feeling of disempowerment leading to suffering and exhaustion. This…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
De, C.M., & Anderson, B.A. (2008). Caring for the vulnerable: Perspectives in nursing theory, practice, and research. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Dennis, C.M. (2007). Self-care deficit theory of nursing: Concepts and applications. St. Louis, Miss.; Toronto: Mosby.
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Victimization Theories of Crime Victimization Theories of

Words: 838 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51701514

victimization theories of crime. Victimization theories of crime focus on victim characteristics and behavior patterns, rather than focus exclusively on the perpetrators of crime. These theories help present a broader picture of crime rates and patterns within any given community. Victimization theories also help to identify vulnerable groups, and can therefore be helpful when creating public policy or law enforcement strategies.

Some victimization theories include victim participation theory, victim lifestyle theory, deviant place theory, and routine activity theory. Each of these theories can be useful in helping communities, individuals, and law enforcement officials discover ways of promoting public safety and minimizing crime. For example, a victimization theory revealing that people in a certain neighborhood are more vulnerable can help raise awareness about crime in that community so that the local residents and law enforcement can collectively pool resources.

Data on victimization can be used in a number of different ways. For example, the United States Bureau of Justice Statistics issues a Crime Victimization report called the National Crime Victimization Survey. The National Crime Victimization Survey is "the Nation's primary source of information on criminal victimization," (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2011). The survey empowers victims by allowing them to share their…… [Read More]

Bureau of Justice Statistics (2011). Retrieved online:

Herek, G.M., Gillis, J.R. & Cogan, J.C. (1999). Psychological sequelae of hate-crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 67(6), Dec 1999, 945-951
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Ecological Systems Theory How Children

Words: 1467 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41045091

Conyne, Ellen Cook, and the University of Cincinnati Counseling Program. In a nutshell, Bronfenbrenner's theory points to environmental factors as playing a major role in human or child development (Derksen, Warren).

The Impact of the Theory on Career Goals

It teaches that children grow and develop with a series of different relationship systems like circles forming from within and moving outward (NACCE, 2012; Yngist, 2011). It shows how a child is affected by each system and how he affects it. In turn, each system affects, and is affected by, other oncoming systems. These are linked and interlinked among themselves. Moreover, each system contains risks as well as opportunities for a child's development and the stronger and more positive the connections between systems, the better it is for the child (NACCE, Yngist).

According to the Theory, the mesosystem consists of relationships between different microsystems between family and child care and between child care and community (NACCE, 2012; Yngist, 2011). The child is entrenched at the center. The microsystem is the inner system closest to the child. It consists of the family, the local community, play groups, child care and schools. The exosystem consists of relationships that do not affect the child…… [Read More]

Yingst, N. (2011). Bronfenbrenner Urie. Nicole Lyingst. Retrieved on May 24, 2013 from 

Yorganop (2013). Theories and theorist. IPSUWA. Indigenous Professional Support Unit

Western Australia. Retrieved on May 24, 2013 from
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Labeling Theory Criminality Is an Unfortunate but

Words: 1119 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13048017

Labeling Theory

Criminality is an unfortunate but inevitable component of human society. As much as people would like to believe that there is a way to create a type of community that has no crime, psychologists and other experts in the field of criminology have done research and created various hypotheses which show that criminality is actually an inevitability under any circumstances where large numbers of human beings interact and then create a system of laws. Wherever there is a system of laws, there will be at least a few people who choose to behave in ways antithetical to those laws. Among the many theories that have been explored about the potential reasons for criminality, perhaps the most interesting and most logical is the hypothetical argument which is referred to as the labeling theory.

Labeling is the process by which an individual is identified by the society in which they live according to certain criteria. The social structure provides the label and applies it to the individual. There can be positive, negative, and neutral labels. Once a label is applied, it is difficult to remove it because society constantly underlines and reinforces the label on that person and on all…… [Read More]

Lilly, J. Robert. Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences. Thousand Oaks, CA:

SAGE. 2011. Print.
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Crime Theory in the World of Criminology

Words: 1589 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16714251

Crime Theory

In the world of criminology, several theories have been constructed to help legal professionals understand the nature of and motive behind criminal activity. Studying these more closely can help with the rehabilitation of criminals and curb criminal activity. Criminal theory, therefore, is constructed to determine ways in which to prevent crime and mitigate the crime being committed. Theories such as the social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory, and neutralization theory can therefore be used for the purposes mentioned above. Each theory has its strenghts and weaknesses; to determine the theory to use could be determined on a case by case basis, hence enhancing the strengths and minimizing the weaknesses of the theory in question.

According to Welch (1998), Hirschi wrote his Causes of Delinquency, in which he developed the social control theory, during the 1960s. This was a troubled time in social terms, and American society found itself in need of an alternative to the social disorganization perspective of criminology. Hirschi observed that social institutions such as organized religion, the family, and educational institutions have lost their appeal for young people with the arrival of rock and roll, drugs, and the civil rights movement. These trends…… [Read More]

Ball, R.A. (2006, Mar 7). An Empirical Exploration of Neutralization Theory. Criminology, Vol 4, Iss 2. Retrieved from:

Matsueda, R.L. (2000). Differential Association Theory. Retrieved from:
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Forrest Gump Analysis of Jenny Theories

Words: 2150 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75289089

Mustanski et al. (2007) have conducted research on genetics and disposition and have found genetics can influence personality, sensation seeking, impulsivity, and social deviance. Since her father was clearly abusive and appeared to be a drinker as well, his impulsiveness and social deviance was evident. In looking at internal psychological states things like goals and self-efficacy beliefs are main determinants of behavior (Vancouver, More, & Yoder, 2008)

External factors influencing Jenny's personality, were her interactions socially within the environment in which she lived. Also contributing to her self-schema and how she viewed the environment was the development of knowledge structures. The different social and interpersonal experiences Jenny faced developed a self-schema that was different from those around her. Since Forrest was the only person she had that was positive in her life, her experiences drove her toward a negative self-schema. This would be the only way she might be able to understand the abuse she received throughout her lifetime.

Another external factor Jenny had to deal with was the stigma of being an abused child. She did her best to hide what was happening to her but it did not help her self-esteem. Pachankis (2007) proposes individuals with a concealable…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Tamir, M., John, O.P., Srivastava, S., & Gross, J.J. (2007).Implicit theories of emotion: Affective and social outcomes across a major life transition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 92[4], 731-744.

Vancouver, J.B., More, K.M., & Yoder, R.J. (2008). Self-efficacy and resource allocation:

Support for a nonmonotonic, discontinuous model. Journal of Applied Psychology. 93[1], 35-47.
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Psychodynamic Theory and Counseling Practice Psychodynamic Theory

Words: 578 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26576744

Psychodynamic Theory and Counseling Practice

Psychodynamic theory, also known as Freudian psychoanalysis was an original theory of human psychology introduced by Viennese psychologist Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) shortly before the turn of the 20 Century (Mitchell & Black, 1995). Its central theoretical construct is that abnormal human psychology is the product of frustrations and other psychologically traumatizing experiences occurring very early in life. According to Freud, the principal mechanism of psychological dysfunction was the suppression or repression of frustration and anger into the psychological subconscious and the subsequent re-emergence or expression of those reactions through perceptions and behaviors (Mitchell & Black, 1995). More specifically, Freud suggested that frustrations occurring during infancy, particularly in the area of mother-infant bonding (Lewis & Feiring, 1989) and in connection with predictable stages of early development set the stage for latent psychological problems, many of which manifest themselves in the direction and nature of sexual urges (Mitchell & Black, 1995; Murdoch, 2009).

Foundational Concepts and Constructs

Freud believed that the predominant themes of human infancy characterized by the stages of oral and anal fixation were the most significant sources of latent psychological issues, along with the Oedipal Complex and the Electra Complex, by which he referred…… [Read More]

Lewis, M. And Feiring, C. (1989). Infant, Mother, and Mother-Infant Interaction Behavior

and Subsequent Attachment. Child Development 60(4): 831-837.
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Social Control Theory All Control

Words: 3849 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51715937

If integration with a conventional social group helps prevent suicide and "delinquency" (Hirschi 1969) and motivates people to fight, make sacrifices for a community, or commit deviant acts on behalf of a sub-cultural group, it should affect almost all forms of deviance. The absence of social integration with conventional groups should be influential in psychotic behavior (unless that specific behavior is organically determined and totally uncontrollable); without integration into nonbusiness groups, entrepreneurs, who are highly motivated to turn a profit, should be free to engage in price fixing; and strong social integration with any group should inspire some to excess zeal in fulfilling what they perceive as group expectations (over conformity), which may result in various forms of deviance. Since Hirschi's version, the best-known expression of the social control argument, does not convey this breadth, it must be regarded as shortsighted. Even the proliferation of separate theories of social integration for various deviant and conforming acts illustrates the inefficiency of theory building in the social sciences and dramatically underscores the importance of constructing theories with breadth.

Because of imprecision and shallowness, it is difficult to say exactly what kinds of deviance labeling theory presumably explains, particularly since it only attempts…… [Read More]

Durkheim, Emile. [1897] 1951. Suicide, A Study in Sociology. Translated by John A. Spaulding and George Simpson, edited with an introduction by George Simpson. Reprint, Glencoe, N.Y.: The Free Press.

Gottfredson, Michael R., and Travis Hirschi. 1990. A General Theory of Crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
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Sternberg Triangular Theory Although the

Words: 4035 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87029872

Because research on romantic love has increased markedly in the past few years, undoubtedly stimulated by the widespread interest in close relationships, Hendrick and Hendrick examined five different measurement approaches to love, including those of the researchers noted above (1989). Hendrick and Hendrick state, "These theories appear to have considerable overlap, but they also deal with different phenomena as well. Modest claims of one theory's superiority over another are beginning to appear, suggesting the fruitfulness of comparison to determine commonalities and differences."

To compare the above theories, Hendrick and Hendrick surveyed 424 undergraduate students at a large southwestern university during the fall semester of 1987. After dropouts, the remaining sample consisted of 391 unmarried undergraduate students (189 men, 202 women), and representative of a somewhat affluent, white, middle-class student population. The researchers measured each of the approaches noted above through specially designed scales. They found an overall problem not particularly with Sternberg's approach, but with current love research in general like his: That is that Scale similarities and differences may be fascinating to scaling researchers, but often are of little consequence to anyone else.... Our answer is that if we ever hope to enlarge our understanding of the complex phenomenon…… [Read More]

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Family-Centered Program Theories and Concepts

Words: 2475 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87788339

As with any other behaviors they are taught in school, pro-social behaviors must be reinforced at home (U.S. Department, 2011). Practicing with the child can go a long way toward developing an understanding of acceptable behavior. Many parents leave this up to the school, but children generally want to emulate what they see at home. As they move into pre-school and learn new ways to interact with people, those ways should be encouraged at home. This will help the family dynamics, and will also help the pre-school teachers who are looking for ways to ensure that order is kept in their classrooms.

When parents talk to their children about what they have learned that day, and when they correct their children when they make a social faux pas, they are helping their children learn valuable lessons that those children will use all throughout their school years and into adulthood (U.S. Department, 2011). It is possible for a child to get through school without being social, but to succeed in the world one generally has to be able to interact with others. The earlier children learn this skill, the more opportunity they will have to practice it before they need it…… [Read More]

Buysee, V., & Wesley, P.W. (2005). Consultation in early childhood settings. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., Inc.

Levin, H. M & Schwartz, H.L. (2007). Educational vouchers for universal pre-schools. Economics of Education Review, 26, 3-16.
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Erikson's Theory of Psychological Development

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94000969

The theory does not appear to allow for success in the workplace solely for the sake of workplace success. Instead, it appears to view procreation as the ultimate purpose of human life, with workplace success only a vehicle towards attaining success within the loving family circle.

To these ideas the authors add that the theory does not account for intimacy beyond the heterosexual and indeed beyond the sexual. As such, the theory is fundamentally inadequate to address the entire paradigm of successful adult individuation and attachment. Furthermore, the authors note that the theory is very limited in its connection between the biological and the psychological paradigms of differences between the male and female. While the theory does indeed better address the positive aspects of female development, it does so primarily in terms of the female drive to bear children, which substantiates the feminist view that the theory appears to be sexist.

In order to avoid this charge, the authors propose not so much a fundamental change as an extension of Erikson's existing theory. Instead of focusing only on the biological differences between male and female, the authors propose an extension that also includes psychological elements as they relate to both…… [Read More]

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Object Relations Theory

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95159815

Object Relations Theory

What exactly is 'Object Relations Theory'? What does it deal with? What is it about? The Theory as such is based on the belief and conviction that every single person has within themselves a completely world of relations and relationships that may well be quite different and at times even infinitely more compelling and forceful and convincing than what actually is happening in their real world filled with real people. The Theory as such lays primary emphasis and focuses on all the various interactions and also on all the various processes that an individual would naturally use to internalize those processes and, on the large and enormous role that such processes play on the psychological development of an individual. Therefore, it can be stated that the very term 'Object Relations' would mean the so called 'real relationships' that a person would have with others, but also to all the various internal mental representations of others, and to those internal images of one's own self also. However, one must remember that when uses the term 'object relations theory', the word need not be always synonymous with what one generally refers to as a 'relationship', rather, it refers to…… [Read More]

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Positivist Theory of Crime Lombroso

Words: 1786 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72636028

Positivist Theory of Crime, Lombroso

Criminal Behavior Treatment Program and Positivist Theory

The objective of this study is to examine the positivist theory of crime posited by Lombroso and to develop a crime prevention or treatment program.

Cesare Lombroso is held to be the founder of modern criminology and to have introduced the positivist movement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, which has made a more scientific approach to criminology available. Empirical scientific research in understanding criminality was first introduced by the positivist approach. According to Farr (nd) positivism is based in logic and is "the philosophy that combined epistemological phenomenalism with 'scientism' that is, with the belief in the desirability of scientific and technological progress." (Farr, nd, p.2)

Three Types of Positivism

Positivism as it relates to criminology can be divided into three types including: (1) biological; (2) psychological; and (3) Social. (Farr, nd, p.2) Positivist methods of social research utilize empirical scientific methods and "are grounded in the rational proof-disproof of scientific assertions and assume a knowable objective reality." (Farr, nd) The objective of positivism is to obtain objective facts, unlike interpretivism, which is subjective and is more concerned with uncovering the meaning behind actions; and…… [Read More]

Deviance and Social Control (nd) McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from:

Gowan, T. Whetstone, S. Making the criminal addict: Subjectivity and social control in a strong-arm rehab. Punishment and Society. January 2012. Vol 14 No 1. Retrieved from: 
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Individual Theories of Delinquency

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88316847

Crime Theories and Juvenile Delinquency

There are many theories of crime that aim at determining or explaining why individuals resort to criminal and/or violent behavior. Among the different types of offenders are juvenile delinquents who are driven to deviancy for a number of reasons. By examining two theories of crime, behavioral and psychodynamic, one can gain a better understanding of the motivating factors behind juvenile delinquency.

One of the most relevant behavioral theories in criminology is the social learning theory. Albert Bandura posited that "people learn by what they see" (Arrigo, 2006, p. 87). He believed that violent tendencies were not inherited, but rather that they were modeled on three distinct principles: reinforcement from family members, the media, and the environment (Isom, 1998). Thus, people behave in ways that are "consistent with what we are exposed to and thus familiar with as a byproduct of our environment" (Arrigo, 2006, p. 87). Atkinson, Atkinson, Smith, and Bem (1990) expand on Bandura's claims and state, "When children observe and subsequently imitate their parents, they learn how adults are reward or punished in specific situations, and these experiences influence their own sense of morality" (Arrigo, 2006, p. 169). However, when there is a…… [Read More]

Arrigo, B. (2006). Criminal behavior: a systems approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Isom, MD (1998, Nov 30). Albert Bandura. The Florida State University College of Criminology
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Vygotsky Freud's Theories of Development Have Been

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46596661


Freud's theories of development have been profoundly influential upon literature and popular culture. Freud's theory of the Oedipal and Electra complexes suggests that all children form a sexual connection with their mother as their first, primary emotional impulse. Gradually, culture comes to channel children's emotions into more appropriate ways, so that after the repressive phase of childhood, adolescents form sexual attachments to people outside the family. Freud's influence upon educational theory is somewhat limited, given his focus upon the 'family romance.' B.F. Skinner, in contrast, took a diametrically opposed view to Freud and instead emphasized the ability of outside, deliberate forces to 'condition' a subject to engage in behaviors, through a series of rewards and punishments.

While to some degree, Skinner's methods are evident in the behavioral management of children in the classroom, Lev Vygotsky is probably the most influential of the major theorists of childhood development on education today. Vygotsky believed that social influences were the most important aspect of shaping children's perspective upon the world, suggesting that human beings were essentially pliable and could be profoundly shaped by early interactions. Vygotsky's ideas were in notable contrast to his contemporary Piaget, who viewed development as something was hard-wired…… [Read More]

Blake, Barbara & Pope, Tambra. (2008). Developmental psychology: Incorporating Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories in classrooms. Journal of Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives in Education, 1 (1) 59 -- 67. Retrieved: 

Bruno Bettelheim Attacks. (2008). YouTube. Retrieved: