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Anxious / ambivalent adults often worry that their partner doesn't really love them or won't want to stay with them. Anxious / ambivalent adults want to merge completely with another person, and this desire sometimes scares people away." (Hazen 1987-page 512).
In 1990 another researcher also developed models that portrayed the attachment theories. These models were based on studies conducted to discover how we coped as adults and were based on whether we were secure or avoidant personalities (see figure 1)
These attachment theories and models are primarily based on how we as individuals are treated, and how we attach ourselves to others as infants and throughout our respective childhoods.
In 1969 Travis Hirschi presented four social bonds which promote socialization and conformity. These include attachment, commitment, involvement and belief." (Hirschi's Social Theory). Hirschi said that the attachment process was only part of the development we as humans go through.…
Alston, RJ., Harley, D., Lenhoff, K., (1995) Hirschi's Social Control Theory: A Sociological Perspective on Drug Abuse Among Persons with Disabilities, Journal of Rehabilitation, retrieved from Look Smart database July 26, 2006
Attachment Theory. Retrieved July 26, 2006 at http://www.personalityresearch.org/attachment.html
Bartholomew, K. (1990). Avoidance of intimacy: An Attachment Perspective. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 147-178.
Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. (1987). Romantic Love Conceptualized as an Attachment Process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 52, pp. 511-524.
How the attachment theory accounts for differences in the development of social relationships in aging adults?
The attachment theory is one of the common theories in the specification of child development and growth in the world. Indeed, several influencing factors are concerned with the generation and establishment of the relationship that exists between parents and their children in the society. According to psychological understandings and studies in the world, there is a common feature of child growth and development that can be developed within the parameters of assumption and specification. For instance, it becomes very possible to have children growing and developing within the parameters and precepts set by their parents or caregivers. The attitudes and treatments from the caregiver appear to have innate influence on the general growth and development of the child (Sigelman & ider, 2011).
According to the growth and development of the attachment theory, children…
George, C., & West, M.L. (2012). The adult attachment projective picture system:
Attachment theory and assessment in adults. New York: Guilford Press.
Golding, K.S. (2013). Observing children with attachment difficulties in school: A tool for identifying and supporting emotional and social difficulties in children aged 5-11.
London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Figure 1 portrays three of the scenes 20/20 presented March 15, 2010.
Figure 1: Heather, Rachel, and Unnamed Girl in 20/20 Program (adapted from Stossel, 2010).
Statement of the Problem
For any individual, the death of a family member, friend, parent or sibling may often be overhelming. For adolescents, the death of person close to them may prove much more traumatic as it can disrupt adolescent development. Diana Mahoney (2008), ith the Ne England Bureau, reports in the journal article, "Navigating adolescent grief," that Erik H. Erikson created a seminal model of psychosocial development that classified adolescent years as a time period hen teens form their personality. These trying teen times typically may be defined by the opposing extremes of integration and separation. Mahoney (2008) asserts that as adolescents struggle to belong and strive to be accepted by others, particularly their peers; they simultaneously struggle to become individuals. For the…
works cited. You have one "as cited in" and at this point in the game you will need to find the original citation for what you want to include.
4) You ask about the possibility of including some personal information to help elaborate and fill a section -- .I want to think on this a bit and this may be driven by whether you end up with a quant or qual study. Qual you would be okay with, quant maybe not, at least in the beginning. Usually the personal anecdotal stuff doesn't play out until the discussion section.
5) If you choose the instrument design then you will need to become an expert in psychometrics as well. I, of course, love the idea. And I think the idea fits really nicely with measuring traumatic grief.
6) I like the idea of connecting loss/death with attachment theory, that is one of my interests so that would be fun.
7) Let's focus on the prospectus and get that done along with the committee formation, etc. If we tackle what is required for the course then we can grade you when it is complete -- ..we will need to trust that they have it organized in a way that will result in this thing being completed.
Attachment is defined as a deep and enduring emotional bond usually that links an individual to another across space and time. Attachment is at times not reciprocal, in other words it may not be shared between the two. Attachment is characterized especially in children by specific behaviour, whereby a child seeks proximity with the individual to whom they are attached when they are threatened or upset (McLeod, 2009). Attachment-linked behaviour in parents towards their children encompasses responding appropriately and sensitively to the needs of their children. Such behaviour is seemingly universal across different cultures. Attachment theory offers an explanation of the manner in which the relationship between the parent and the child emerges and how it impacts subsequent development (McLeod, 2009; Bretherton, 1992).
Attachment theory is the field of psychology emerged from the influential work of John Bowlby in 1958. In the 1930's, Dr. Bowlby worked as a psychiatrist…
Allen, J., Fonagy, P. & Bateman, A. (2010). 'The role of mentalizing in treating attachment trauma'. In The Impact of Early Life Trauma on Health and Disease: The Hidden Epidemic, eds. R. Lanius, E. Vermetten & C. Pain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bretherton, I. (1992). The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology, 28, 759-775.
Colmer, K., Rutherford, L., & Pam, M. (2011). Attachment theory and primary caregiving. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 36(4), 16-20.
Davies, K, (2006). Secure and insecure attachment relationships in a preschool, long day care setting. University of Adelaide: School of Psychology,
Mary Ainsworth, conveyed Bowlby's theory to the United States and came up with a technique of examining infant attachment. In her book, she talks about this extensively utilized procedure, the bizarre condition, and the outlines of protected and apprehensive attachment. In the beginning three outlines were looked at, protected, nervous avoidant, and nervous ambivalent, but later on Mary Main and Judith Solomon at the University of California in Berkeley came up with a fourth category, disordered. The anxious-avoidant and disordered kinds wanted attachment but had anxiety as a result of attachment. In addition, both had apprehension at the departure of the mother and were hard to pacify upon reunion. The disordered children were predominantly unsure upon reuniting with their attachment figure, both seeking out and staying away from contact. Bowlby portrayed these children as moving away crossly while at the same time seeking nearness when reunited with their mothers. Even…
Adult Attachment. (2010). Retrieved October 21, 2010, from Adoption Web site:
Attachment Theory. (2002). Retrieved October 21, 2010, from Web site:
Clinical Interventions With Families- Critical Family Transition Paper
An individual's family of origin denotes the family he/she was raised in, as against the persons he/she resides with at present; it represents the place where individuals, normally, are trained to become what they currently are (i.e., where their adulthood identity is developed). It is an individual's biological/adoptive family that teaches one how he/she must process emotions, communicate with others, and have one's needs fulfilled. People's families also inculcate in them several beliefs and values. Those encountering emotional concerns, in connection with their family, might find meeting with an expert for the purpose of beginning to resolve these issues, beneficial (Family of Origin Issues, 2015). Formation of identity constitutes a normative adolescent developmental task; researchers observe that, for youth hailing from ethnic minorities, one significant developmental task is formation of ethnic identity. There is a positive relationship of ethnic identity…
Buchmann M. C. and Kriesi, I. (2011).Transition to Adulthood in Europe. Annual Review of Sociology, 37:481-503
Chase, N. (1999). An overview of theory, research, and societal issues. In N. Chase (Ed.), Burdened children (pp. 3-33). New York: Guilford. In Hooper, L. M. (2014). The Application of Attachment Theory and Family Systems Theory to the Phenomena of Parentification . The Family Journal, 1.
Faber, A. J., Edwards, A. E., Bauer, K. S., & Wetchler, J. L. (2003). Family structure: Its effects on adolescent attachment and identity formation. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 31(4), 243-255
Fagan, P. F., & Rector, R. (2000).The effects of divorce on America. World and I, 15(10), 56-61.
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…
American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.
Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.
Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic
c. Other theorists (Modern Attachment Theories)
Upon the establishment and strengthening of Bowlby and Ainsworth's Attachment Theory, other theorists have developed new studies which either tested the theory or sought to apply it in different contexts or scenarios. Inevitably, most scenarios and contexts that new theorists and psychology researchers took is the path to explaining grief and bereavement. Others, however, have centered on specific aspects of the theory and sought to expound and/or test it, as Ainsworth did when Bowlby was still in the process of strengthening his attachment theory.
One such study was conducted by Schore and Schore (2008), which explored the emotion regulation aspect of the theory. In their study, the authors realized the potential of attachment theory in developing a "therapeutic intervention" from which coping on the loss of the attachment figure would be a healthier process for the individual. The authors shifted from the issue of…
Ainsworth, M. (1984). "Attachment across the life span." Bulletin of New York Academy of Medicine.
Ainsworth, M. And J. Bowlby. (1991). "An ethological approach to personality development." American Psychologist, Vol. 46, No. 4.
Bartholomew, K. And L. Horowitz. (1991). "Attachment styles among young adults: a test of a four-category model." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 61, No. 2.
Bartholomew, K. And P. Shaver. (1998). In Attachment theory and close relationships. J. Simpson and W. Rholes (Eds.). NY: Guilford Press.
Lee (2003) says that insecure attachments have been linked to psychiatric disorders to which the children are exposed to after the loss of the attachment figure. These children will form inability to form secure attachments, react with hostility and rejection to their environment according to Pickover, (2002). This is a phenomenon found among many immigrant children, especially who had the attachment figure back in their country of origin and yet they remained there. They tend to have a problem re-attaching themselves to any other person, hence may grow up to be violent and develop criminal trends Pickover, (2002).
Shortfalls of the attachment theory
The idea that the parents shape the personality and character is misplaced and instead it is the peers who influence character and behavior of the child. According to Harris (1998:Pp2) "parents do not shape their child's personality or character. A child's peers have more influence…
Chris Fraley, (2010). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved March 12, 2012 from http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm
Harris, J.R. (1998). The nurture assumption: Why children turn out the way they do. New York: Free Press. In Lee J., (2003). The Attachment System Throughout the Life Course: Review and Criticisms of Attachment Theory. Pp.2 http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/lee.html
Klaus, M.H., Kennell, J.H., & Klaus, P.H. (1995). Bonding. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Pickover, S. (2002). Breaking the cycle: A clinical example of disrupting an insecure attachment system. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24, 358-367.
I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away. (Fraley, 2004)
Fraley relates that it was found in the study of Hazan and Shaver "...based on this three-category measure...that the distribution of categories was similar to that observed in infancy. In other words, about 60% of adults classified themselves as secure; about 20% described themselves as avoidant; and about 20% described themselves as anxious-resistant." (2004) While measurement in this manner was "a useful way to study the association between attachment styles and relationship functioning, it didn't allow a full test of the hypothesis in the same kinds of individual differences observed in infants might be manifest among adults." (Fraley, 2004) Fraley states that the findings of rennan "suggested that there are two fundamental dimensions with respect to…
Borelli, Jessica L.; and David, Daryn H. (2003-2004) Imagination, Cognition and Personality. Volume 23, Number 4 / 2003-2004. Attachment Theory and Research as a Guide to Psychotherapy Practice. Yale University. Online Baywood Publishing Company, Inc. Amityville, NY. Online available at http://baywood.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,2,6;journal,14,102;linkingpublicationresults,1:300311,1
Tuovila, Pirjo (2007)What Are Fathers for? Attachment Theory and the Significance of Fathers. European Centennial Conference to Celebrate the Birth of Dr. John Bowlby, the Founder of Attachment Theory. Tampere Hall, Finland, 1-2 February 2007.
Levine, Robert a. (2002) Attachment Research as an Ideological Movement: Preliminary Statement. Revised from presentation at the ISSBD, 2002, Ottawa. Harvard University.
Blizard, Ruth a. (1997) the origins of Disassociate Identity Disorder from an Object Relations and Attachment Theory Perspective. Journal of Dissociation. Vol. X No. 4, December, 1997.
What are the major concepts of Ainsworth's theory?
Ainsworth's attachment theory is rooted in Bowlby's research on the bonds that develop between parent and child. Building on Bowlby's research, Ainsworth conducted a groundbreaking experiment known as the Strange Situation. esults of the Strange Situation experiment revealed three different categories of attachment styles. Ainsworth found secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment (Cherry, n.d.). Moreover, four categories of attachment style behaviors were observed. These four categories include separation anxiety, which refers to the emotional reaction to the caregiver leaving. The infant's willingness to explore in the caregiver's absence is another feature of attachment. Stranger anxiety refers to how the infant responds to strangers when the primary caregiver is absent. Finally, Ainsworth studied reunion behavior, which was how the child reacted to the return of the caregiver. Using these four parameters of attachment-related behaviors, Ainsworth developed the three primary attachment styles:…
Benoit, D. (2004). Infant-parent attachment. Pediatric Child Health 9(8): 541-545.
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Attachment theory. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm
Fraley, R.C. (n.d.). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved online: http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm
Main, M. & Solomon, J. (1986). Discovery of an insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern. Affective Development in Infancy. 95(124).
theory: Its usefulness in the workplace today
Attachment theory has its origins in the study of animals. Watching geese 'imprint' upon the first living being they encounter after hatching or researchers observing how baby monkeys thrive when given terry cloth mothers, as opposed to wire mothers, are all examples of attachment theory in action. Attachment theory reinforces the psychodynamic notion that early experiences are seminal and seismic in shaping the human psyche and the way human beings relate to one another. As applied to humans, attachment theory suggests that parents who respond in a positive way to their infant's needs formulate the character of the child in such a way to enable him or her to feel secure in his or her relationships. In contrast, parents who create bonds of insecure attachment by being smothering or rejecting will foster behavioral patterns in their children that are negative, rather than positive.…
Attachment theory. (2002). Great ideas in personality research. Retrieved from:
Hinde, Robert A. (1976). On describing relationships. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 17, 1-19. Retrieved from:
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…
Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.
Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.
Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
203). Others who lose a loved one they had cherished for many years may have a disposition "towards compulsive caregiving" (Bowlby, p. 206). The welfare of others is of prime concern for these individuals; instead of experiencing "sadness and welcoming support for themselves" after the death of a loved one or family member that has been loved for many years, these individuals "proclaim that it is someone else who is in distress and in need of the care which then insist on bestowing."
This compulsive caregiving often manifests itself with the selection of a handicapped person to become that person's caregiver. Imagine the daughter who since adolescence has idolized her father, and never left the home but rather attended college nearby to her parents' home. She never made a lot of close friends and preferred to be home with her dad especially. So when he died, according to Bowlby's compulsive…
Bowlby, John (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume I / Attachment. New York: Basic
Books, Inc., Publishers.
Bowlby, John (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume II / Separation / Anxiety and Anger. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
Bowlby, John. (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume III / Loss / Sadness and Depression. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
Attachment behaviors and attachment experiences are central to child development, and can have lasting impacts on adult psychology. Attachment refers to a “sustained, developmental...connection,” (Mossler, 2014, 13.1). The attachment process is emotional, but it also serves distinct biological and evolutionary functions in enabling the survival of the species. As Mossler (2014) points out, attachment bonds can be formed between an infant and any adult due to the fact that early humans contended with far greater physical and environmental risks that might leave infants vulnerable should one or both parents perish. Infants experiencing healthy attachments will also evolve a sense of security that is essential for psychological resilience and the reduction of risk for separation anxiety and other attachment-related issues. This paper outlines the different attachment theories provided by Bowlby and Ainsworth, both of which show how attachment experiences are central to the evolution of fundamental social needs, such as trust…
Grohol J. (2005). Attachment heory. Psych Central. Retrieved October 7, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://psychcentral.com/psypsych/Attachment_theory
Psych Central is a web site which provides free mental health, support and psychology information and resources online since 1992. he site is clustered with numerous links to psychological issues and people related to this field. his article has been written by Dr. John Grohol who is a renowned psychologist and owner of this web portal. he article focuses on the theory of attachment explaining various behavioral patterns observed in the canvas of this theory.
Holmes, J. (1993). John Bowlby and Attachment heory. New York: Routledge.
Jeremy Holmes is a Consultant Psychiatrist/Psychotherapist in North Devon
District Hospital, Barn Staple, United Kingdom. He is also a visiting professor at Psychoanalysis Unit University College London. In this book, Jeremy Holmes provides a focused and coherent account of Bowlby's life and work, based on interviews with…
The web site is an online resource for various definitions and explanation of various terms used in the language. The site contains list of words which are distributed in titles or categories. It is a comprehensive portal of the language.
Pietromonaco P.R. And Barrett L. F, (2000). Attachment Theory as an Organizing Framework: A view from different levels of analysis. Review of General Psychology, 4, No 2,107-110.
Review of General Psychology is a quarterly journal and publishes new theoretical, conceptual, or methodological articles that focus on the traditional sub-disciplines of psychology. It is an approved journal of American Psychological Association (APA). The writers of the article are renowned psychologists. Paula R. Pietrornonaco is teaching at University of Massachusetts at Amherst and Lisa Feldman Barrett at Boston College. The article encompasses most of the aspects of the diverse theory of attachment from its evolution to its present day status.
Nursing Theory Framework
ecognizing Addiction through Attachment Theory
Affect egulation and Addiction
Handling Addiction as an Attachment Disorder
The First Phase of Therapy
Nursing Theory Framework
The misappropriation of prescription drugs by teens in the United States is a growing public health issue. Using a nursing theory framework, the scope of the problem of prescription drug use among teens is reviewed. Equal in variety to manifestations of addiction are sundry psychological theories that attempt to explain and treat the problem. Hardy (2011) was able to look into four traditional models for recognizing alcoholism (social learning theory, tension reduction theory, personality theory, and interactional theory,) in addition to five theoretical models that were developing at the time of their writing.
An approach to treating and understanding addiction that has created a huge amount of research in current decades, and which displays big promise for effective…
Caplan, J.P. (2012). Neuropsychiatric effects of prescription drug abuse. Neuropsychology Review, 17(3), 363-80.
Elkashef, A.M. (2012). Prevention and treatment of addiction. Psychiatric Times, 16-18.
Fischer, B.P. (n.d.). Assessing the prevalence of nonmedical prescription opioid use in the general canadian population: Methodological issues and questions. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(9), 606-9.
Flores, P.J. (2012). Group psychotherapy and neuro-plasticity: An attachment theory perspective. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 60(4), 546-70.
Postmodern Bereavement Theory
Bereavement is a universal observable fact as every human being experiences the loss of a loved one at some point in his/her life. However, every individual experiences it in a unique way. It is, without a doubt, an undeniable truth that to be human is to grieve. The passing away of a loved one can be difficult, irresistible and dreadful for any normal individual. When people are faced with such overwhelming situations, a majority of them especially the older adults get into the habit of enduring their loss with time. On the other hand, to forget and live without a loved one is not as easy for some individuals. It becomes difficult for these people to cope up with the grief-stricken situations as they experience a grief of greater concentration or time (Hansson & Stroebe, 2007). There are a number of theorists who have put forwarded their…
Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L.M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test o f a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(2), 226-244. Retrieved from http://www.sfu.ca/psyc/faculty/bartholomew/attachmentpub_files/bh1991.pdf
Bonanno, G.A., Keltner, D., Holen, A., & Horowitz, M.J. (1995). When avoiding unpleasant emotions might not be such a bad thing: Verbal-autonomic response dissociation and midlife conjugal bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Dent, A. (2005). Supporting the Bereaved: Theory and Practice. Counselling at Work, 22-23. Retrieved May 28, 2012 from http://www.bacpworkplace.org.uk/journal_pdf/acw_autumn05_ann.pdf
Flores describes our culture as an avoidance society, giving what you know as an attachment theory, what impact might this cultural tendency have on the prevalence of addiction on our society?
To the extent that avoidance plays a role in personal psychology, any challenge to self-esteem or to psychological security would be a risk factor in behaviors that could be used to help the individual avoid confronting the unpleasant thoughts or fears. Because consumption of addictive substances is a typical form of psychological escapism, individuals faced with challenges to their happiness who are socialized in an avoidance society would be inclined to use those substances as a specific means of avoiding unpleasant thoughts and feelings. Instead of recognizing the need to examine and address their impulses or fears, individuals socialized in an avoidance society would rely on intoxicating agents to escape from anything unpleasant. In the context of attachment theory,…
(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)
Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm)
VI. enefits of Counseling and Development Theories
The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (locher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present…
Muro, L. (2007) The Effects of Human Developmental counseling Application Curriculum on Content Integration, Application, and Cognitive Complexity for Counselor Trainees. Retrieved from: http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5138/m2/1/high_res_d/dissertation.pdf
Counseling Psychology (2014) Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Educational Counseling. Retrieved from: http://graduate.lclark.edu/departments/counseling_psychology/mental_health/about/
Psychosocial Theory (Erik Erikson) (2014) Retrieved from: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm
Learning Theory (2014) Princeton University. Retrieved from: https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Learning_theory_(education).html
Ainsworth, Corsaro, And Children's Relationships
Theories of child development generally focus on whether there it is more indebted to their private relationships (typically consisting of the child's interactions with their family) or public relationships (involving the child's interactions with their peers.) The former theory is known as attachment theory since it refers to the child's reliance on their parents, while the latter is considered an ethnographic approach, as it places greater emphasis on the environment in which the child's development takes place. Although both approaches are scientifically viable, they are in many ways antithetical; this essay elucidates some of the salient differences between the two.
Mary Ainsworth's approach to child development is characterized as "attachment theory." In Ainsworth's seminal procedure "The Strange Situation," she offers a comprehensive model for measuring a child's sociability, with a complete taxonomy for various diagnoses. The procedure lasts for 20 minutes and involves the child,…
here are many attachment styles and they can often influence a person's life by affecting anything from the simplest decision to more complicated and even life changing choices. hus, it is important to reflect upon one's own attachment style so that one may better understand himself and be successful.
My attachment style as designated by the questionnaire was classified as "secure attachment." According to the test, my attachment style was further classified as follows:
"According to your questionnaire responses, your attachment-related anxiety score is 2.12, on a scale ranging from 1 (low anxiety) to 7 (high anxiety). Your attachment-related avoidance score is 2.92, on a scale ranging from 1 (low avoidance) to 7 (high avoidance)." [1: Not Applicable. (2011). "Attachment Styles and Close Relationships." Attachment Style. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from .]
I think that I was suspecting begin classified as low avoidance because I'm pretty secure in…
There are other attachment styles, however, including emotions such as preoccupied, dismissing and fearful-avoidant. However, there are many ways to describe attachment. According to the John Bolwby, some other attachment styles are proximity maintenance, safe haven, secure base and separation distress s. Another source describes attachment style with a romantic connotation, such as the first case described above, which has also utilized a questionnaire to describe my attachment style. [2: Cherry, K. (2011). "Attachment Styles." About.com Guide. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from .] [3: Cherry, K. (2011). "Attachment Styles." About.com Guide. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from . ] [4: Not Applicable. (2011). "What's your Romantic Attachment Style?" About.com Psychology. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from .]
Once again, it is very important to find one's attachment style, and I have come to believe that, indeed, the test does describe me very well. Studies also accord attachment quite some importance. According to the Chris Fraley at the University of Illinois, research on adult attachment is important to find what and how intimate relationships develop between adults. Though the study in this overview by Professor Fraley is quite comprehensive, the conclusions are also to be further studied. For example, the author states that it is necessary for future researchers to find ways "to better determine whether a relationship is actually service attachment-related functions." [5: Fraley, C. (2010). "A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research." University of Illinois. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from < http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm>. ]
I still believe that having taken this test has allowed me a bit of self-examination, that I think will only further help me grow, and I do believe that studies on this topic are significant, and can define who we are as adults.
Behavioral and Cognitive Behavioral Theories
Psychodynamic and Cognitive Behavioral Theories
In this paper, there is going to an examination of Cognitive Behavioral and Psychodynamic theories. This is accomplished by focusing on: the two theories, their theoretical concepts, micro skills / techniques and a summary of these ideas. These elements will show how each one can address issues impacting the patient and the long-term effects upon them.
In the world of psychology, there are different theories which are used to explain how someone reacts to various stimuli. The result is that there has been contrasting ideas about the best way to understand human behavior. Two schools of thought which are very popular are the psychodynamic and cognitive behavioral approaches. (Okun, 2008)
To fully understand them requires examining each one. This will be accomplished by focusing on the two theories, their theoretical concepts, micro skills / techniques and a summary of these…
Larson, P. (2012). How Important is an Understanding of the Clients Early Attachments. Counseling Psychology Review, 27 (1), 10 -- 18.
Lucia, M. (2012). Therapeutic Activities and Psychological Interventions. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 12 (2), 118 -- 127.
Okun, B. (2008). Effective Helping: Interviewing and Counseling Techniques. New York, NY: Brooks and Cole.
Parpottis, P. (2012). Working with the Therapeutic Relationship. Counseling Psychology Review, 27 (3), 91-97
Social Control Theory of Juvenile Delinquency
Travis Hirschi's Social Control theory of deviance assumes that deviant behavior is largely a function of the connectedness of the individual to his or her society; more specifically, Hirschi's assumptions are that juvenile delinquency, and criminal deviance more generally, are inversely related to the following elements of connectedness between the individual and the community: involvement, commitment, attachment, and belief (Akers & Sellers, 2004; Huebner & Betts, 2002).
Structure of Theory
Hirschi used the concept of involvement to describe the manner and extent to which the individuals takes part in the so-called "conventional" activities, such as extracurricular school functions and other organized opportunities for socially productive youth recreation available in the community (Macionis, 2008). Hirschi used the concept of commitment, to describe the basic "acceptance" in the most general senses, of fundamental social and behavioral norms, values, and expectations in the individual's community…
Akers, R.L., and Sellers, C.S. (2004). Criminological Theories: Introduction,
Evaluation, and Application. California: Roxbury Publishing Company.
Button, D.M. "Social Disadvantage and Family Violence: Neighborhood Effects on Attitudes about Intimate Partner Violence and Corporal Punishment." American
Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 33 (2008):130 -- 147.
Psychosocial Development Theory
In the history of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud was the first to delve into the unknown recesses of the human mind to identify reasons for neuroses. As such, he identified infantile sexuality to lie at the heart of most problems in the relationship with the self and others and used the three-dimensional model of the id, the ego, and superego to describe the various ways in which these neuroses manifested themselves. Today, many theorists use Freud's theories to build their own derivative theories. Even though many today reject some or most of the early philosopher's ideas, it is thanks to him that these theories have a reason for existence in themselves. Today, the theory known as psychosocial development bases many of its concepts on the early ideas conceptualized by Freud. As such, theorists like Erik Erikson, Alfred Adler, and Karen Horney have developed their own concepts of what…
Adler Graduate School. (2014). Alfred Adler: Theory and Application. Retrieved from: http://www.alfredadler.edu/about/theory
Beyers, W. And Seiffge-Krenke, I. (2010). Does Identity Precede Intimacy? Testing Erikson's Theory on Romantic Development in Emerging Adults of the 21st Century. Journal of Adolescent Research. 20(10). Retrieved from: https://biblio.ugent.be/input/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=941691&fileOId=967467
Davis, D. And Clifton, A. (n.d.) Psychosocial Theory: Erikson. Retrieved from: http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/erikson.stages.html
Goodman, S.H., Connell, A.M., and Hall, C.M. (2011). Maternal Depression and Child Psychopathology: A Meta-Analytic Review. Clinical Child Family Psychological Review. 14. Retrieved from: http://psych.colorado.edu/~willcutt/pdfs/Goodman_2011.pdf
Vitamin a for Autism Spectrum Disorder
The Theory of Using Vitamin a as Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders
There is widespread linkage of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Oxytoxin. There are reports that any decrease in the pathway of Oxytocin, is a possible causative factor to the development of autistic situation (Munese-et-al., 2008). Decrease in Oxytocin comes about because of mutations in its receptors, which lead to a reduction on the amount of Oxytocin released to the body posing possible chances for the development of autistic conditions (Lerer et-al., 2008). There is partial dependency of Oxytocin secretion to a protein found, in the cellular membranes of certain red blood cells. The scientific reference of these proteins is CD38, and whenever they mutate there develops a risk of Autism. Mice engineered without the oxytocin receptor gene have been shown to display socially anomalous behavior such as a deficiency of maternal behavior…
Andari-et-al. (2009). Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high functioning autism spectrum disorders Department of Psychiatry 1-6
Ebstein R., Mankuta D. Yirmiya N., Maravasi F. (2011). Are retonoids potential therapeutic agents in disorders of social cognitions including Autism. EEBS letters: journal homepage. 1529-1536
Campbell et-al. (2010). Association of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variants with multiple phenotype domains of autism spectrum disorder J. Neurodevelop Disord 101-112
Higashida H., Kikuchi M., Yokoyama S., Munesue T. (2012). CD38 and its role in Oxytocin secretion and social behavior Hormones and behavior journal homepage 351-358
Theory on Juvenile Delinquency
Interventions that involve life-course unrelenting offenders should place emphasis on remedial social abilities, for them to have a chance to decrease their frequency of offending in future, and to tackle conduct disorder problems. Interventions involving teenage-onset offenders should, wherever applicable, tackle issues relating to parenting, alcohol/drug misuse, and anti-social cronies. Keane, Krull and Phythian (2008) define self-control as the extent to which a person is susceptible to temptation. According to them, lack of self-restraint or self-control is a fairly universal and stable characteristic, accounting for individual discrepancies in deviant, reckless, and criminal conduct. Youngsters' parents are usually blamed for their kids' delinquent behavior. Some courts go as far as penalizing parents for their kids' antisocial actions. It is believed that weak self-control develops during early childhood, when one's family is the most central socializing agent. Hence, lack of self-restraint and the resultant deviant behavior result from…
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory.
Burfeind, J. W., & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Demuth, Stephen and Susan L. Brown. 2004. "Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.
Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.
Freud's theory of Grief and bereavement
Id, Ego and the Superego or the conscious and the unconscious mind are some of the terms which are well-known by almost every individual. These words not only point out to the field of Psychology but also to the man who coined them and proposed a new realm of theories behind each of it; Sigmund Freud. He is famous for being the father of psychoanalysis and the techniques of hypnosis, dream interpretation and free association which he has used to successfully treat his patients. Psychology is devoid without Freud. This is not only because of the theories which he proposed but also because of his followers and those who extended his basic concept with a new touch. Freud in all his theories talks about the past to be affecting the present. In other words, the unconscious mind which is the hidden…
Butler, J. (1997). The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Freud, S. (1914). On narcissism: An introduction. Standard Edition. 14:73 -- 102.
Freud, S. (1917). Mourning and melancholia. Standard Edition 14:243 -- 258
Freud, S. (1923). The ego and the id. Standard Edition 19:12 -- 66.
influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. Firstly, the paper provides the historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas. Secondly, the paper provides a summary of their original theory. Thirdly, the paper provides a discussion of how the model has been critiqued and altered as new research has emerged. Lastly, the paper delves into the theory's current usage/popularity within criminology.
The historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas
There is huge contribution of influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. As a matter of fact, He is considered one of the most significant sociologists of modern times. Moreover, he has also made large number of contributions to the criminology field. Undoubtedly, Merton influenced various fields of science, humanities, law, political theories, economics and anthropology (Cole, 2004, p.37). Merton's introduced numerous concepts like anomie, deviant behavior, self-fulfilling prophecy, strain, middle range theory and…
American Sociological Review (2012). Retrieved January 29, 2014 from http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/histcomp/index-merton.html
Bernanke, Ben, S. (1995) 'The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach', Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 27 February.
Bivens, T. (2004). Robert K. Merton Draft. Florida State University Publications
Calhoun, C. (2003). Remembering Robert K. Merton. Papers in Honor of Robert K. Merton. 175-220. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Sociological Theories of Crime
There are a number of respected sociological theories of crime and criminality, and in this paper four of those theories -- social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory and neutralization theory -- will be reviewed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. Also, of the theories discussed, one or more will be referenced in terms of the relevance to a recently convicted offender.
Social Control Theory
According to professor Larry Siegel social control theories put forward the notion that everyone has the potential to become a law-breaker, and the society offers multiple opportunities for illegal activity. The attraction for some people to deal drugs or steal cars, Siegel explains, is that there is "…the promise of immediate reward and gratification" (Siegel, 2011, p. 248). And so, Siegel continues, given the attraction of crime for many, and the benefits for some, his question is: why do…
Akers, Ronald L. (1999). Criminological Theories. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.
Briggs, Steven, and Friedman, Joan. (2009). Criminology for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John
Wiley & Sons.
Siegel, Larry J. (2011). Criminology. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
victimization theories of crime. Victimization theories of crime focus on victim characteristics and behavior patterns, rather than focus exclusively on the perpetrators of crime. These theories help present a broader picture of crime rates and patterns within any given community. Victimization theories also help to identify vulnerable groups, and can therefore be helpful when creating public policy or law enforcement strategies.
Some victimization theories include victim participation theory, victim lifestyle theory, deviant place theory, and routine activity theory. Each of these theories can be useful in helping communities, individuals, and law enforcement officials discover ways of promoting public safety and minimizing crime. For example, a victimization theory revealing that people in a certain neighborhood are more vulnerable can help raise awareness about crime in that community so that the local residents and law enforcement can collectively pool resources.
Data on victimization can be used in a number of different ways.…
Bureau of Justice Statistics (2011). Retrieved online: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=dcdetail&iid=245
Herek, G.M., Gillis, J.R. & Cogan, J.C. (1999). Psychological sequelae of hate-crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 67(6), Dec 1999, 945-951
Ybarra, L.M.R. & Lohr, S.L. (2002). Estimates of repeat victimization using the national crime victimization survey. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 18(1).
In the world of criminology, several theories have been constructed to help legal professionals understand the nature of and motive behind criminal activity. Studying these more closely can help with the rehabilitation of criminals and curb criminal activity. Criminal theory, therefore, is constructed to determine ways in which to prevent crime and mitigate the crime being committed. Theories such as the social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory, and neutralization theory can therefore be used for the purposes mentioned above. Each theory has its strenghts and weaknesses; to determine the theory to use could be determined on a case by case basis, hence enhancing the strengths and minimizing the weaknesses of the theory in question.
According to Welch (1998), Hirschi wrote his Causes of Delinquency, in which he developed the social control theory, during the 1960s. This was a troubled time in social terms, and American society…
Ball, R.A. (2006, Mar 7). An Empirical Exploration of Neutralization Theory. Criminology, Vol 4, Iss 2. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1966.tb00147.x/abstract
Matsueda, R.L. (2000). Differential Association Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/matsueda/DA.pdf
Nash, M. (2002, Nov. 15). General Strain Theory as an Explanation for Crime and Deviance. Retrieved from: http://web.viu.ca/crim/student/nash.pdf
Welch, K. (1998, Nov. 30). Two Major Theories of Travis Hirschi. Retrieved from: http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/hirschi.htm
Because research on romantic love has increased markedly in the past few years, undoubtedly stimulated by the widespread interest in close relationships, Hendrick and Hendrick examined five different measurement approaches to love, including those of the researchers noted above (1989). Hendrick and Hendrick state, "These theories appear to have considerable overlap, but they also deal with different phenomena as well. Modest claims of one theory's superiority over another are beginning to appear, suggesting the fruitfulness of comparison to determine commonalities and differences."
To compare the above theories, Hendrick and Hendrick surveyed 424 undergraduate students at a large southwestern university during the fall semester of 1987. After dropouts, the remaining sample consisted of 391 unmarried undergraduate students (189 men, 202 women), and representative of a somewhat affluent, white, middle-class student population. The researchers measured each of the approaches noted above through specially designed scales. They found an overall problem not particularly…
Travis Hirschi's Social Bonding Theory
The theorist, Hirschi, asserts that those who exhibit deviant behavior desire to do so and that criminal behavior is seen among people with weak social bonds. In his social bonding model, he delineated four elements which make up social bonds, namely, attachment to partner/spouse, engagement in conforming behaviors, holding conventional beliefs and values, and dedication to conventionality (Wolfzorn, Heckert & Heckert, 2006). The theorist indicates that with increased attachment of a person to fellow human beings, their belief in conformist social values will increase. Furthermore, with increased investment and involvement in conventional activity, their propensity to deviate will decrease (Chriss, 2007).
Four Elements of Social Bonding Theory
Social bonding has four elements, namely: attachment, involvement, belief, and commitment.
The first component -- attachment -- denotes individuals' ties to their spouses or partners, and other members of the family. This aspect encompasses the extent of…
As with any other behaviors they are taught in school, pro-social behaviors must be reinforced at home (U.S. Department, 2011). Practicing with the child can go a long way toward developing an understanding of acceptable behavior. Many parents leave this up to the school, but children generally want to emulate what they see at home. As they move into pre-school and learn new ways to interact with people, those ways should be encouraged at home. This will help the family dynamics, and will also help the pre-school teachers who are looking for ways to ensure that order is kept in their classrooms.
When parents talk to their children about what they have learned that day, and when they correct their children when they make a social faux pas, they are helping their children learn valuable lessons that those children will use all throughout their school years and into adulthood (U.S.…
Buysee, V., & Wesley, P.W. (2005). Consultation in early childhood settings. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., Inc.
Levin, H. M & Schwartz, H.L. (2007). Educational vouchers for universal pre-schools. Economics of Education Review, 26, 3-16.
Levin, H.M., & Schwartz, H.L. (2007, March). What is the cost of a preschool program? National Center for the study of Privatization in Education. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the AEFA Annual Conference, Baltimore, Maryland.
McCollum, J.A., & Yates, T., (1994). Dyad as focus, triad as means: A family-centered approach to supporting parent-child interactions. Infants and Young Children, 6, 54-66.
The theory does not appear to allow for success in the workplace solely for the sake of workplace success. Instead, it appears to view procreation as the ultimate purpose of human life, with workplace success only a vehicle towards attaining success within the loving family circle.
To these ideas the authors add that the theory does not account for intimacy beyond the heterosexual and indeed beyond the sexual. As such, the theory is fundamentally inadequate to address the entire paradigm of successful adult individuation and attachment. Furthermore, the authors note that the theory is very limited in its connection between the biological and the psychological paradigms of differences between the male and female. While the theory does indeed better address the positive aspects of female development, it does so primarily in terms of the female drive to bear children, which substantiates the feminist view that the theory appears to be…
Criminology researchers usually draw on multiple sociological theories for understanding crime and offenders. Certain elements of serial-killing research continue to be a subject of speculation and exploration, on account of the numerous preconceptions and myths surrounding the crime. The significance of establishing a theoretic basis to explain sociological factors proves crucial to distinguishing between fact and fiction (Hickey, 2013).
Social Structure Theory
This class of theories concentrates on the socioeconomic status of a person and suggests that the poor perpetrate more offenses owing to their struggle to achieve social or monetary success. They are, particularly owing to their subcultural, racial, or ethnic status, restricted in several ways from lawfully attaining the great “American Dream\". Thus, they resort to deviant techniques to succeed. Structural theories provide convincing justifications for numerous offenses, with the exception of serial killing. Normally, serial killers lack financial or social motivation, and aren’t members of any specific…
Positivist Theory of Crime, Lombroso
Criminal ehavior Treatment Program and Positivist Theory
The objective of this study is to examine the positivist theory of crime posited by Lombroso and to develop a crime prevention or treatment program.
Cesare Lombroso is held to be the founder of modern criminology and to have introduced the positivist movement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, which has made a more scientific approach to criminology available. Empirical scientific research in understanding criminality was first introduced by the positivist approach. According to Farr (nd) positivism is based in logic and is "the philosophy that combined epistemological phenomenalism with 'scientism' that is, with the belief in the desirability of scientific and technological progress." (Farr, nd, p.2)
Three Types of Positivism
Positivism as it relates to criminology can be divided into three types including: (1) biological; (2) psychological; and (3) Social. (Farr, nd, p.2) Positivist methods…
Deviance and Social Control (nd) McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0070918082/83003/Chapter7.pdf
Gowan, T. Whetstone, S. Making the criminal addict: Subjectivity and social control in a strong-arm rehab. Punishment and Society. January 2012. Vol 14 No 1. Retrieved from: http://pun.sagepub.com/content/14/1/69.abstract
Farr, Z. (nd) Critically assess the impact of positivist approaches to understanding crime. Retrieved from: http://www.essex.ac.uk/sociology/documents/pdf/ug_journal/vol8/2012sc242_Zoefarr.pdf
Crime Theories and Juvenile Delinquency
There are many theories of crime that aim at determining or explaining why individuals resort to criminal and/or violent behavior. Among the different types of offenders are juvenile delinquents who are driven to deviancy for a number of reasons. By examining two theories of crime, behavioral and psychodynamic, one can gain a better understanding of the motivating factors behind juvenile delinquency.
One of the most relevant behavioral theories in criminology is the social learning theory. Albert Bandura posited that "people learn by what they see" (Arrigo, 2006, p. 87). He believed that violent tendencies were not inherited, but rather that they were modeled on three distinct principles: reinforcement from family members, the media, and the environment (Isom, 1998). Thus, people behave in ways that are "consistent with what we are exposed to and thus familiar with as a byproduct of our environment" (Arrigo, 2006, p.…
Arrigo, B. (2006). Criminal behavior: a systems approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Isom, MD (1998, Nov 30). Albert Bandura. The Florida State University College of Criminology
and Criminal Justice. Retrieved 8 March 2013, from
Freud's theories of development have been profoundly influential upon literature and popular culture. Freud's theory of the Oedipal and Electra complexes suggests that all children form a sexual connection with their mother as their first, primary emotional impulse. Gradually, culture comes to channel children's emotions into more appropriate ways, so that after the repressive phase of childhood, adolescents form sexual attachments to people outside the family. Freud's influence upon educational theory is somewhat limited, given his focus upon the 'family romance.' B.F. Skinner, in contrast, took a diametrically opposed view to Freud and instead emphasized the ability of outside, deliberate forces to 'condition' a subject to engage in behaviors, through a series of rewards and punishments.
While to some degree, Skinner's methods are evident in the behavioral management of children in the classroom, Lev Vygotsky is probably the most influential of the major theorists of childhood development on education…
Blake, Barbara & Pope, Tambra. (2008). Developmental psychology: Incorporating Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories in classrooms. Journal of Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives in Education, 1 (1) 59 -- 67. Retrieved: http://jcpe.wmwikis.net/file/view/blake.pdf
Bruno Bettelheim Attacks. (2008). YouTube. Retrieved:
The refrigerator mother. (2010). Neuroskeptic. Retrieved:
Whereas it remains true that African-Americans and other racial minorities continue to be overrepresented in the American prison population, both common sense and the general consensus of the criminal justice community and sociological experts suggest that this hardly a direct function of race. ather, it merely reflects the unfortunate correlation between poverty, comparative lack of educational and employment opportunities in the American urban centers where many minorities reside, as well as of the social values that tend to prevail in many of those impoverished communities (Schmalleger 1997).
First, the quality of public school facilities and programs is directly related to the economic realities of their surrounding areas; second, within many segments of minority urban social culture, education is not valued the way it is in middle class and upper class communities and students who make the effort to apply themselves academically are more likely to be targeted for ridicule by…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas
Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Gushue, Clarke, Pantzer, et al., (2006) examine the application of social cognitive theories to career counseling, reporting that self-efficacy is a pertinent issue in this process. In particular, these authors report that:
Career decision making self-efficacy refers to the degree to which individuals feel confident in their ability to successfully engage in tasks associated with making a career choice and with commitment to a career. It has also been observed that career-related self-efficacy in general may prove to be an important element in formulating a model of career development...(p. 308).
Gushue and coworkers go on to argue that when career self-efficacy is high, individuals are more assertive in the career counseling process. Thus, by developing career self-efficacy, career counselors can effectively improve interactions with clients and facilitate a greater understanding of client needs with respect to career decision making.
Applying this to the larger context of social learning theory, it…
Arbona, C. (2000). Practice and research in career counseling and development -- "1999. Career Development Quarterly, 49(2), 98-134.
Flores, L.Y., Scott, a.B., Wang, Y.W., et al., (2003). Annual review: Practice and research in career counseling and development -- "2002. Career Development Quarterly, 52, 98-131.
Germeijs, V., Verschueren, K., Soenens, B. (2006). Indecisiveness and high school students' career decision making process: Longitudinal associations and the mediational role of anxiety. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(4), 397-410.
Giannantonio, G.M., & Hurley-Hanson, a.E. (2006). Applying image norms across Super's career development stages. Career Development Quarterly, 54(4), 318-330.
Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).
Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).
All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…
Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;
Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.
Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.
Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.
Yet the film ends on an optimistic, even triumphant note, with the raised hand of Bender symbolizing victory over the stereotypes subject to which the characters began the film.
The film "The Breakfast Club" contains myriad examples of group dynamics at play. Doing a close reading of the film was valuable in that it provided insight into how narratives can be shaped by psychological principles. In dissecting the actions of the film's principal characters, it became apparent that the filmmakers were not simply trying to create a plotline that would entertain a mass audience. The film also integrates psychological inquiry into its teenaged protagonists. Each character is given a back story which motivates his or her behavior and later undergoes a realization of his or her flaws in order to make a change. The film goes beyond just a high school narrative; it is about how to break free…
Aronoff, J., & Wilson, J.P. (1985). Personality in the social process. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum
Golembiewski, R.T. (Ed.) (2000). Handbook of organizational consultation. New York, NY:
Management Theory vs. Organizational Functions
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is useful for raising awareness of the contribution between job challenge and responsibility in motivating employees toward higher productivity and employee retention. It has also been useful in identifying and assessing customer satisfaction characteristics. Fishbein's Reasoned Action Theory is useful for explaining why particular behaviors are happening and the underlying causes of the behavior. Both theories are useful for identifying problem areas and planning actions for improvement in organizational behaviors.
According to (Bolm, 2012), the Two-factor Theory claims individual perception of satisfaction or dissatisfaction relates to discrete intrinsic and extrinsic variables where a variable can uniquely influence satisfaction or dissatisfaction, but not both. Motivator (intrinsic) factors include achievement, recognition, and responsibility where hygiene (extrinsic) factors include policy, status, and security. Motivator factors, when present, increase job motivation and satisfaction, but, when not present, show no effect. Hygiene factors, when present, show no…
Bolm, J. (2012). Two-factor theory-at the intersection of health care management and patient satisfaction. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res., vol 4, 277-285 Retrieved from http:/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3468274.
Dartey-Baah, K. & . (2011). Application of Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory in assessing and understanding employee motivation at work: A Ghanian Perspective. European Journal of Business and Management 3(9).
Peters, R.M. (2010). Theory of Planned Behavior, Self-Care Motivation, and Blood Pressure Self-Care. Res Theory Nurs Pract, 24(3), 172-186 Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm, nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3728772.
Sukato, N. & . (2009). A Model of Male Consumer Behavior in Buying Skin Care Products in Thailand. ABAC Journal, 29(1), 39-52 Retrieved from http://www.abacjournal.au.edu/2009/jan09/article03_JanApr2009.pdf .
Gallant, J. (2016). Alleged sex abuse victim's fight for justice turns into bureaucratic nightmare. Toronto Star. 2 Dec, 2016. Retrieved online: https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2016/12/02/alleged-sex-abuse-victims-fight-for-justice-turns-into-bureaucratic-nightmare.html
In this article, Gallant (2016) describes the ongoing legal battle between Sveta Kholi and her former neurologist, Paul O'Connor. Kholi has accused O'Connor of sexual abuse. After the complaint was lodged formally, a complex bureaucratic process ensued whereby the entire case appears to have been stalemated. The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario has a committee that formally handles complaints, and the Health Professions Appeal and Review Board (HPARB) is a civilian body that hears appeals specifically from that very same College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario.
However, the bureaucratic complications become even trickier. According to the journalist, the College of Physicians and Surgeons also has an Inquiries, Complaints and Reports Committee. The HPARB has ordered on two separate occasions for the Inquiries, Complaints, and Reports…
Just as parole programs typically restrict contact between offenders, a Differential Association-oriented delinquency prevention program would endeavor to prohibit the formation of deviant groups and criminally-prone gangs.
The specific mechanisms for intervention would include sentencing juvenile offenders to mandatory suspension of social relationships deemed capable of precipitating delinquent or criminal conduct in lieu of harsher penalties. Another mechanism might be the strict enforcement of particular municipal codes, such as ordinances prohibiting the public assembly of groups of individuals or the promulgation of such legislation for that purpose where existing legislation is lacking in that regard.
Likewise, the strict enforcement of other commonly overlooked activities technically prohibited by ordinance, such as the timely vacating of parks promptly at closing time, loitering on private commercial property adjacent to convenience stores, and truancy statutes would all be incorporated into a Differential Association-oriented approach to delinquency prevention.
More generally, that concept of delinquency prevention…
Henslin, J. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach Boston: Allyn
Macionis, J. (2003). Sociology 9th Ed New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E., Miller, C. (2007). "Street Gang Mentality: A Mosaic of Remorseless Violence and Relentless Loyalty." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
deviance and criminal behavior can result from people feeling disconnected from their school and home situation. This backs up the control theory, which posits that with less control -- or weak bonds -- behavior can and does become deviant and even criminal later in life.
Control Theory -- Narrative Explanations
In his narratives on delinquency, Travis Hirschi, one of the most prominent theorists when it comes to control theories, said there are four variables that help explain why people either conform to, or deviate from social norms. And this is important because delinquents are often caught up in criminal activities later in life. In the process of deviating from socially respectable behaviors -- and in the extreme, becoming involved in crime -- people are just reacting to four variables, Hirschi explains. The four are: a) attachment (with parents, peers, teachers, and others); b) commitment (this is what a person must…
Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services. (2008). Review of the Roots of Youth
Violence: Literature Reviews. Retrieved March 29, 2014, from http://www.children.gov.on.ca .
Welch, K. (1998). Two Major Theories of Travis Hirschi. Florida State University. Retrieved March 29, 2014, from http://www.criminology.fsu.edu .
It may even be impossible to retroactively identify every influence on the development of personality. However, contemporary psychologists already understand the general patterns in which major areas of psychological influence exert themselves on the individual.
More often than not, more than one avenue of psychological inquiry is helpful. Personality development in the typical patient may have been primarily influenced by Freudian issues in infancy and subsequent specific experiences in middle childhood, and secondarily by a particular negative experience or period of conflict in the nuclear family. Therefore, in the practical sense, measuring personality development means retroactively identifying the conceptually recognized potential influences along the full spectrum of psychological approaches. y matching behavioral (and other outwardly observable) manifestations of personality formation to the identifiable potential influences, it is often possible to pinpoint the most likely route of origin for major observable elements of personality.
Toward a Cross-Culturally Appropriate Theory of Personality…
Bradshaw J. (2002). Bradshaw on: The Family. Deerfield Beach, FL: HCI.
Branden N. (2001). The Psychology of Self-Esteem. New York: Basic Books.
Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Princeton, NJ: Pearson.
Lewis M. And Feiring C. "Infant, Mother, and Mother-Infant Interaction Behavior and Subsequent Attachment" Child Development, Vol. 60, No. 4, (1989): 831-837.
Functional motivation suggests that psychological factors, such as a need to feel useful, a need for a sense of purpose, motivate volunteerism (Widjaja, 2010). Therefore, volunteerism can be framed within the tenets of basic behaviorism and cognitive-behavioral principles. If volunteering feels good, then a person will be increasingly motivated to volunteer. Volunteering is not always selfless and altruistic; it can be ego-driven. In some situations, the motivation to volunteer comes from concrete extrinsic variables such as receiving credit in school or one's place of employment (Widjaja, 2010). Social motives for volunteering include social pressure or even shaming (Widjaja, 2010). Individuals can be pushed into volunteering from a sense of obligation or guilt, or pulled into it based on factors like boredom, curiosity, or an altruistic desire to promote the well being of others.
Self-determination theory takes individual differences into account, and differentiates between autonomous motivation and controlled motivation (Oostlander, Guntert,…
At only $50 below the X5, Handheld must either drop the price to at least $175 for the X7 to alleviate cannibalization from occurring by the X5. The paradox however is that to lower the price of the X7 is to prolong the payback period for this specific model, which is the most unprofitable of the entire company. Ideally the X7 needs to have a higher price point associated with it, and in retrospect the better product strategy would have been to expand into higher-priced models where Handheld would have had ample room in terms of price points to differentiate. The new product needed to be approximately 30% or more than the X6, with significantly greater features including support for WiFi, social networking apps including Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, Friendfeed and other features that could be turned into value-added services that could be upsold to customers. A new product at the…
Negandhi, Anant, R. (1973). Comparative Management and an Open Systems Theory. Academy of Management Journal:
PROCEEDINGS,150. Retrieved October 27, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1938333).
George Haley, Stephen Goldberg. (2008). Reciprocally derived demand and pricing strategy for mature industrial products. Management Decision, 46(7), 1066-1080. Retrieved October 27, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1524741101).
Mike Hall (2005, March). Adding value for embedded. Electronic Engineering Times,(1361), 56-57. Retrieved October 27, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry database. (Document ID: 809766711).
Principles and Theories
Stark (2004) discussed the transformational elements present in the state of leadership in his article. This article attempted to strike a balance by understanding leadership as more of a state of mind than a state of action. Five major conclusions were highlighted in this reading. The first suggests that strong and positive organizations are direct reflections of the collective state of the workers of that organization. The next suggests that leadership is not related to power and is a state of being. The third conclusion the author discussed that the fundamental state of leadership is results driven. The fourth conclusion mandated that leaders need to experience deep and serious change to enter a state of fundamental leadership. The fifth conclusion suggested that change is contingent upon the leadership's ability to accept and engage in change.
Lawler & n Golden's (2003) article embraced the idea of…
Assumptions and Implications of the elational Theory
elational theory aligns with traditional views of social work. This theory has special significance on relationships and the settings that women attest to. In the recent times, researchers and psychologist have perceived the dissimilarities in mental development between men and women (Saari, 2005). A key conclusion is that women strongly emphasize on relationships whereas men lay emphasis on individuation (Quinn and Grumbach, 2015). One of the main assumptions of the relational theory is the intrinsically and innately social nature of human beings. Based on the belief that people are socially founded and instituted by associations, relational theory seeks to understand the complication behind the formation of relationships (Mccauley, 2013). In particular, the relational theory puts forward that the relational nature of us as human beings' steers and instigates us to grow and develop through and in the direction of connection. As…
Comstock, D. L., Hammer, T. R., Strentzsch, J., Cannon, K., Parsons, J., & II, G. S. (2008). Relational-cultural theory: A framework for bridging relational, multicultural, and social justice competencies. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86(3), 279-287.
Firestone, L. (2013). How Your Attachment Style Impacts Your Relationship: What is your attachment style? Psychology Today.
McCauley, M. (2013). Relational-Cultural Theory: Fostering Healthy Coexistence Through a Relational Lens. Beyond Intractability. Retrieved from: http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/relational-cultural-theory
Quinn, C. R., &Grumbach, G. (2015). Critical Race Theory and the Limits of Relational Theory in Social Work with Women. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 24(3), 202-218.
LaFond Padykula, N. And Conklin, P. (2010). The self-regulation model of attachment trauma and addiction. Clinical Social Work, 38(4), 351-360.
LaFond Padykula theorized the self-regulation model (SRM) as a means of informing the practice of assessing and treating addiction and attachment trauma. dialectical philosophy John Bowlby[footnoteRef:1] (1988) developed the theory of attachment through his seminal work observing the distress of infants and young children who had been separated from their mothers. Bowlby asserted that attachment was not consciously controlled but was instead hard-wired in humans and many other animals. [1: Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York, NY: Basic Books.]
The theory builds on and integrates the attachment behavior research by Bowlby, positing addiction as the efforts of an individual to regulate their own attachment in the direction of more normal adaptive behavior. The theoretical foundation for the self-regulation…
Erickson, E.H. (1950). Childhood and Society. New York, NY: Norton.
Erickson contributed to the development of ego psychology beyond the framework that Freud presented in that Erickson attributed the formation of personality to culture and society in addition to sexuality. Erickson's theories consider the ego to be the most important aspect of personality as it can function independently from the id and the superego. Because the ego is an influential and powerful aspect of the personality, it adapts to the presenting situations to promote mental health and appropriate social adaptation. Erickson studied individuals exhibiting normal personality in addition to people who were considered to be neurotic. In this way, Erickson contributed to theory in the fields of normal psychology as well as abnormal psychology.
Hirschi's Social Bond Theory
Hirschi's social bonding theory argues that those persons who strong and abiding attachments to conventional society are less likely to deviate than persons who have shallow or weak bonds (Smangs, 2010). These bonds come in four interrelated forms, the first of which is attachment. Attachment, refers to the level of psychological affection one has for pro-social others and institutions. Parents and schools are of critical importance in this regard. Youths who form close attachments to their parents1 and schools will, by extension, experience greater levels of social control. The second type of bond is referred to as commitment. Commitment stresses the importance of the social relationships that people value, which they would not want to risk jeopardizing by committing criminal or deviant acts. People are less likely to misbehave when they know that they have something to lose. For juveniles, this could mean not wanting to…
"Key idea: Hirschi's social bond/social control theory." (NDI). Sage Publications. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/36812_5.pdf
Smangs, M. (2010, December) Delinquency, social skills, and the structure of peer relations: Assessing criminological theories by social network theory. Social Forces, Vol. 89, Issue 2, 609-631. University of North Carolina Press. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=a9dcb4b0-c42c-4f64-8b67-c1a089b82105%40sessionmgr110&hid=108
Homelessness in America has been a problem for a very long time. The homeless are a vulnerable population therefore something has to be done to make sure that the situation is either controlled or improved. One suggestion I would make is putting the homeless up in a local shelter and tries to re-integrate them back to the society very rapidly. The shelter encourages the people to look out for themselves by requiring that the homeless take part in the upkeep of the shelter if they want to stay. The second suggestion would be enabling these homeless people at these shelters go back to work. Social workers can help the homeless get their birth certificates or proof that they are citizens and a social security card hence they can be bale to get work. These ideas can make the homeless more responsible and hence they can be able to stand out…
Rebecca Bay, (2014). Testing for the Chivalry Hypothesis within the Central Nebraska Drug Court System. University of Nebraska at Kearney. Retrieved July 24,2014 from http://www.lopers.net/student_org/SSRP/papers/pdf/crj_bayr.pdf
Morgan's Case Study
Morgan is a bi-racial 16-year-old adolescent male whose mother is Japanese-American and the father is African-American. His parents divorced when he was 3 years old and have negative feelings towards each other even though they both love him. Morgan's parents have remarried and have children. He has very good relationships with his father, stepmother, and younger sisters but has struggled to have a good relationship with his mother after she remarried. The family situation is quite stressful since it's difficult for Morgan to see his mother who relocated to another state while the father lost his job and the family is experiencing tremendous financial challenges. While Morgan has developed feelings for one young woman in his social group, he is skeptical of asking her out on a date for fear of rejection. In the past year, he has demonstrated behavioral changes including identifying himself as African-American instead…
Counseling Staff. (2015, June 1). Five Counseling Theories and Approaches. Retrieved from The Family Institute at Northwestern University website: https://counseling.northwestern.edu/five-counseling-theories-and-approaches/
Han, H.S., West-Olatunji, C. & Thomas, M.S. (2011). Use of Racial Identity Development Theory to Explore Cultural Competence among Early Childhood Educators. SRATE Journal, 20(1), 1-11.
Ivey, A. E., D'Andrea, M. J., & Ivey, M. B. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy. A multicultural perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.
Jones-Smith, E. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: an integrative approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc.
However, many times, viewing an object in relation to other objects does indeed transcend the permanence of the meaning and create new meaning. Therefore, our knowledge of what we are convinced is real can change, which highlights the question of whether or not our original knowledge was real before it changed; or if knowledge can ever be real. Socrates posed these questions initially, pondering the ability to agree that something "is" no matter what it might eventually be or not be.
Brumbaugh thus presents the following three principles that comprise this argument:
"1. e only contact these objects through subjective images. e never perceive them directly.
2. These objects contain a number of properties that are mixed together. Any description of the object that doesn't separate out these properties cannot explain what makes the object act the way it does. For example, if all you know about [an] & #8230;…
Banach, David "Plato's Theory of Forms," St. Anslem College, Department of Philosophy, http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/dbanach/platform.htm
Brumbaugh, Robert Sherrick. Plato for the Modern Age. University Press of America, 1991
Plato, Meno, 380 B.C.E Transl. Benjamin Jowett http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/meno.html
Plato, Phaedrus 360 B.C.E Transl. Benjamin Jowett http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/phaedrus.html
Question One The break even level of a family of four under the proposal for a negative income tax that grants each person $3,000 annually -- regardless of his or her age -- is $48,000. This figure was derived partly from information that states that the transfers will be phased out at a rate of 25% as earned income increases (Hyman, 2011). Were an individual in such a family to earn $12,000, that amount multiplied by .25 would equal $3,000 dollars -- which is the break even point. Since there are four people in the family, four times that $12,000 is $48,000 -- which would be the break even point for the entire family. Plotting disposable income as a function of earned income for a situation in which all families above the break even level of income pay a 25% tax on their earnings would require putting the…
Hyman, D.N. (2011). Public finance: A contemporary application of theory to policy. (10th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western.
Low Self -Control Theory
This theory deviates from the emphasis on informal relational controls and concentrates instead on individual controls. Through effective parenting practices of discipline and monitoring, some kids develop the ability to appropriately react to situations requiring deferred gratification planning. Delinquency is observed more frequently among males than females. One explanation for this is the divergent etiologies of delinquency for females and males. Males might be relatively more susceptible to inadequate parenting and other such factors that place them at risk of developing delinquency. An alternate hypothesis is: delinquency risk factors are identical for females and males, but the latter have relatively greater exposure to these. People with high self-restraint levels are more sensitive to others, have better verbal and cognitive skills, have lesser independence, and are more willing to accept any restrictions on their actions. On the other hand, those with poor self-restraint are characterized by insensitivity,…
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Burfeind, J. W. & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Demuth, S. & Brown, S.L. (2004). Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.
Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.