Why do people behave justly? Is it because they fear societal punishment? Or do they do so because it is good for them and thus society as a whole? Is justice, regardless of its rewards and punishments, a good thing in and of itself? How should justice be defined? Plato responds to such questions in the Republic and concludes that justice is worthwhile in and of itself.
In Book III of the Republic, Plato continues his discourse on "guardians" (373d-374e) as well as other roles that make up a society. In order to educate guardians so they can gain the necessary character traits, he notes the importance of music and poetry, with an emphasis on simplicity of style. These guardians will be motivated by beauty and the arts (401d-403c). Such studies of art and literature, along with physical training, will develop a just soul. By stressing the importance of a balance between physical training in addition to intellectual learning, Plato is stipulating that his ideal city is not an other- worldly institution for gods or all mighty individuals, who are above being concerned about the problems and imperfections of daily life. Rather, they remain aware of a combination of harshness and gentleness (410a-412a) that exists around them.
Plato also notes that some of the more educated and advanced guardians will become the society's rulers. Those "who are the most guardingly of the guardians." These individuals will do what is best for the city, since they are doing what is best for themselves, in order to maintain a just and stable community and promote conditions that will protect the city from both external and internal...
In addition to the guardians, are the producers, craftsmen, farmers and artisans and auxiliaries or warriors. Each group must only perform its appropriate function, and each must be in the right position of power in relation to the others. Rulers must rule, auxiliaries must uphold rulers' convictions, and producers must limit themselves to exercising whatever skills nature grants them, such as farming, blacksmithing and painting. Justice is a principle of specialization -- a principle that requires that each person fulfill the societal role to which he/she is fitted and not interfere in any other business.
In the Republic, Plato writes about the ideal city he would like to see. He is not speaking of a society that has already achieved this point of development. Rather, it is a city that with time and the recommendations he makes in Republic will be able to reach a stage where everyone is working together for a just, right community that is best for all concerned. This can only occur with the division of labor and each person fulfilling his/her particular role.
The important notion is that although this form of city appears difficult to attain, it can be done. Man has the capacity to establish this environment as long as the citizens are not unjust and dictatorial.
In the unfinished work Critias, Plato narrates a story of ancient Athens and Atlantis. Although the narration says a couple of times that the story is true, the reader must question if this is indeed so. Looking at this dilemma from…
In his model, Plato is therefore unjust. Just as his social and political arrangement of a city is inappropriate for humans, so too is his argument for the humans in that political and social arrangement. Most of his arguments for the individuals in this society can be found in his fifth book. While be first begins with the argument that men and women should be treated equally in education, occupation,
Republic is Plato attempting to demonstrate through the character and discourse of Socrates that justice is better than justice is the good which men must strive for, regardless of whether they could be unjust and still be rewarded. Heuses dialectic, the asking and answering of questions which led the hearer from one point to another, with logic by obtaining agreement to each point before going on to the next,
To paraphrase Marx several centuries later, this can most easily be summed up as "from each according to his ability to each according to his needs," or, for Plato, "if each person does one thing for which he is naturally suited, and does it at the opportune moment" (48). Here, Plato is acknowledging that not every individual is equal, nor has the same abilities as everyone else. This, in
"I believe myself able to speak about Homer better than any man; and that neither Metrodorus of Lampsacus, nor Stesimbrotus of Thasos, nor Glaucon, nor any one else who ever was, had as good ideas about Homer as I have, or as many." Plato's main purpose in Ion is to differentiate between gift of true knowledge and gift of shallow speech. True knowledge is not limited to one artist but must
Thrasymachus's Definition Of Justice Creative Writing Thrasymachus's Definition of Justice In Book I of Plato's The Republic Thrasymavhus definition of justice as nothing more than the advantage of the stronger. He offers this concept not as a definition, but as a way of pointing out that justice is irrelevant. It does not pay to be just. Just behavior works to the advantage of other people, not to the person who behaves justly. Thrasymavhus is
The second part of this book introduces the more central aspect of his argument's epistemological motive, with the prescription for proper leadership extending from a view that is ethically, intellectually and socially instructed. We can easily detect here the strands of ideology which would be invested into Hobbes view many centuries hence. This is to say that at the crux of his argument, Plato writes that "until philosophers are kings,