Rabies infections in humans are uncommon in the United States. Nevertheless, around the world approximately fifty thousand people die from rabies every year, mostly in emergent nations where agendas for vaccinating dogs against rabies don't exist. The good news is that troubles can be prohibited if the exposed individual gets treatment prior to symptoms of the contamination developing (About Rabies, 2011).
Rabies is an avoidable viral disease of mammals most frequently passed on by way of the bite of a rabid animal. The huge preponderance of rabies cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) every year take place in wild animals like raccoons, skunks, bats, and foxes. The rabies virus contaminates the central nervous system, in the end causing sickness in the brain and death. The initial symptoms of rabies in human beings are comparable to that of a lot of other sicknesses, comprising fever, headache, and general weakness or discomfort. As the disease advances, more specific symptoms become visible and may include insomnia, anxiety, confusion, slight or partial paralysis, excitation, hallucinations, agitation, hyper salivation, trouble swallowing, and hydrophobia. Death generally happens within days of the beginning of these indications (Rabies, 2011).
In most individuals, the first contact with rabies comes by way of an animal bite. The symptoms of itching or discomfort like pins or needles pricking the skin occur at the bite area. Additionally, the person may develop a fever and a headache. Experts suggest these symptoms may last from about two days to weeks. This is the acute phase or the acute incubation stage of the disease. Unfortunately, there is another incubation stage prior to the next set of signs and symptoms develop. The NIH (National Institutes of Health) suggests that the average latent incubation period is about three to seven weeks, even though they do report a range from seven days to ten years, with the longer time periods happening infrequently (What are rabies symptoms and signs in humans, 2011).
Approximately seven thousand cases of rabies in animals are reported every year to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Raccoons are the most ordinary carriers of rabies in the United States, but bats are most probable to infect people. Roughly three quarters of rabies instances between 1990 and 2001 came from contact with bats. Skunks and foxes also can be infected with rabies, and a few instances have been reported in wolves, coyotes, bobcats, and ferrets. Small rodents such as hamsters, squirrels, chipmunks, mice, and rabbits are very infrequently infected with the virus. For the reason that of extensive vaccination programs in the United States, transmission from dogs to humans is also very rare. Outside the United States, contact with rabid dogs is the most frequent cause of transmission to people (About Rabies, 2011).
A contaminated animal will carry the rabies virus in its saliva and can pass it to a human being by way of biting. In rare cases, an animal can spread the virus when its saliva comes in contact with an individual's mucous membranes or broken skin such as a cut, scratch, bruise, or open wound. After a bite, the rabies virus can extend into nearby muscle, and then travel up close by nerves to the brain. Once the virus gets to the brain, the infection is deadly in roughly all cases (About Rabies, 2011).
There are currently no tests accessible to diagnose rabies infection in humans before the beginning of clinical disease, and unless the rabies-specific symptoms of hydrophobia or aerophobia are present, the clinical diagnosis may be hard. "Post mortem, the standard diagnostic technique is to detect rabies virus antigen in brain tissue by fluorescent antibody test" (Rabies, 2011).
Successful treatment within a few days after exposure to rabies can stop the beginning of symptoms and death. Post-exposure avoidance consists of local care of the wound, administration of rabies immunoglobulin, if…
Sources Used in Document:
"About Rabies." Kidshealth, 2011. Web. 25 April 2011.
"Rabies." CDC, 2011. Web. 25 April 2011.
"Rabies." WHO, 2011. Web. 25 April 2011.
"What are rabies symptoms and signs in humans?" MedicineNet, 2011. Web. 25 April 2011.