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Icd-9-Cm V Codes V Codes V Codes
Words: 735 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43957524
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Icd-9-Cm V Codes

V Codes

V codes are provided as supplemental categories under the ICD-9-CM classification system (Ingenix Staff, 2010). They are intended to be used for situations when the patient seeks care for something other than a disease or injury, repetitive care related to a chronic or resolving disease or condition, follow up care after disease or condition has been successfully treated, or for providing relevant information that may have an impact on care trajectory. The information that V codes provide are critical because they can be used to justify medical treatments or denial of care, and elaborate on a disease condition.

Sequencing V Codes

V code use is controlled by the ICD-9-CM guidelines concerning how codes should be sequenced. An underlying condition should be listed first and any manifestations, late effects, or elaborations of the underlying condition listed next (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services [CMS] and National…


Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2011, Oct. 1). Diagnosis and procedure codes: Abbreviated and full name titles. Retrieved 6 Dec. 2011 from 

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and National Center for Health Statistics. (2008). ICD-9-CM official coding guidelines. Retrieved 6 Dec. 2011 from 

Ingenix Staff. (2010, Nov 9). V codes: How & when to assign them. Retrieved 6 Dec. 2011 from 

Kushner, Robert F. And Blatner, Dawn J. (2005). Risk assessment of the overweight and obese patient. Journal of the American Diatetic Association, 105, S53-S62.

Why Are Epidemiologists Sometimes Interested in Epizootics
Words: 776 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37279238
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Why are epidemiologists sometimes interested in epizootics?

"Epidemics in animals are called epizootics" (Epizootics, 2012, University of Liverpool). The evolution of epidemics in animal populations can mirror the spread of disease in humans, or the diseases in animals can present features of interest to epidemiologists because of their potential to pass diseases to humans through contact or consumption. Examples of diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans include foot and mouth disease, rabies, and 'mad cow' disease. For example, in foot and mouth disease, animals can spread the disease to other organisms through salvia, milk and dung manure and blood. In the case of foot and mouth, "Animals start to excrete the virus even before the symptoms appear and so may pass it on to many others before anyone realises that they are infected" (Epizootics, 2012, University of Liverpool). This can cause the disease to spread extremely…


Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans. (2012). CDC (Centers for Disease Control).



Cujo King Stephen Cujo New
Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12919790
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Both parents must cope with the death of their child, Tad at the end of the book after Tad dies of heat exhaustion in the car where he and his mother are trapped.

Cujo operates on both the ordinary and the extraordinary, in terms of its levels of horror. On one hand, unlike most of Stephen King's novels, Cujo is not dependant upon the supernatural to inspire terror in its reader. In the real world, people are attacked and are killed by dogs. Rabies is a real illness. The horrific thing is that once Cujo was a beloved family pet, but because of the fact he has contracted rabies, it as if he has become possessed by a demon and he becomes a killer. The ordinary, beautiful setting of a quiet suburb that seems ideal to raise one's children makes the horrific contrast between Cujo's actions and the setting particularly…

Jewish Culture of Medieval Europe
Words: 1893 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27818159
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Their escape from persecutions was always organized, which strengthened relations of community members and later turned into a duty of mutual aid and assistance, typical for members of Jewish Diaspora today. These times of horror and deprivations molded spirit and will of Jews, influenced the growth of cooperation of different communities all over Europe and resulted in moving to Eastern Europe, where they peacefully coexisted with local population up until 17th century. Unlike other nations it was already typical in the Middle Ages for Ashkenazi Jews to receive universal education, which was not only limited to Talmud and Torah studying. Sinful activities of money loaning, which were shameful for Catholics, were mostly occupied by Jews who achieved considerable success in finances all over Europe and gave them reputation of successful financiers and bankers.

Sepharadi Jews suffered persecution after the end of econquista in Iberian Peninsula. The main goal of queen…


Jewish Life in Medieval Europe, available at

Zion Zohar A Global Perspective on Sephardic and Mizrahi Jewry, pp.1-20 available at 

Bernard Lewis, The Jews of Islam Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984

Jane Gerber, The Jews of Spain: A History of the Sephardic Experience (New York: Free Press, 1992), 89.

Louis Pasteur French Scientist Louis
Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35324862
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Pasteur proved the opposite: that the world is populated with microorganisms and that they do not spontaneously generate. Microorganisms essentially invade larger bodies or substances and cause disease or the spoilage of food. Pasteur's work is called the "germ theory of disease" and has been the rubric of scientific understanding of disease ever since. His work with the silkworms and with the wine industry extended to his working with diseases that affected farm animals and human beings.

Pasteur's initial work with farm animals addressed the problem of anthrax. Anthrax was a disease primarily affecting France's cattle and sheep populations, crippling the agriculture industry. Pasteur found that by injecting animals with small amounts of anthrax, they could be rendered immune from the disease's deadly effects. He extended his research with anthrax into other diseases like rabies, tuberculosis, smallpox, and cholera, performing most of his experiments on farm animals. His work with…

Works Cited

Cohn, David V. "The Life and Times of Louis Pasteur." University of Louisville School of Dentistry. 1996. Online at .

Embassy of France in Canada: Science and Technology Department. Online at .

Pasteur, Louis." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 2001. .

Pasteur, Louis." MSN Encarta. 2005. Online at

Sease v Taylor's Pets Inc
Words: 1060 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 37412562
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He may have been entitled to those damages if he had filed a breach of warranty claim, which permits damages for emotional stress without an underlying physical injury, but Brad did not file a breach of warranty complaint, but merely a strict liability complaint.

Decision: A live pet skunk is a product within the meaning of OS 30.900 et seq.

A person who comes into contact with a rabid skunk but does not suffer physical harm cannot recover for emotional distress in an action based solely on strict product liability under OS 30.920. Physical harm from being bitten and receiving injections provide a sufficient basis for allegations of emotional distress relating to fear of death under OS 30.920.

Use of precedent/effect on later cases: This case was one of first impression in Oregon and asked the Court to determine whether or not animals would be covered as products under OS…


ORS 30.900 et seq.

Pendergrass, E. (2007). Approaching liability with animal identification. Retrieved November

18, 2011 from The National Agricultural Law Center website:

Sease v. Taylor's Pets Inc., 700 P2d 1054 (1985).

Pasteur There Is Perhaps No
Words: 1220 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 68529247
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g., maggots in rotting matter.

Pasteur believed that germs, just as those that caused fermentation, could also be causing disease. With the support of other scientists and collaborators, he was able to isolate several disease causing bacteria, cholera (with Robert Koch) and small pox (work originally done by Edward Jenner), among several others. While working with cholera in chicken, Pasteur helped set the foundation for the idea of vaccinations; this had been proposed by others earlier. That a mild form of the virus or bacteria induces the creation of antibodies in the host. When infected by a virulent form of the virus or bacteria, the antibodies created in the system can destroy the infecting agents thereby protecting the host. Pasteur's work influenced the creation of vaccinations.

After successfully using it in the cure of cholera, small pox and several other diseases, Pasteur used this idea in identifying a cure for…


Cohn, David V. (1996, February 11). The Life and Times of Louis Pasteur. Retrieved. March 17, 2009 at 

Debre, P.; E. Forster (1998). Louis Pasteur. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Hart, Michael H. (1992). The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. Citadel Press. pp. pp.60-61.

Morris, D.; Abel, E. (2002). Stereochemistry. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

American Pit Bull Terrier
Words: 6478 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22805840
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American Pit Bull Terrier

What is the American Pit Bull Terrier? What are its origins and what is its history? The American Pit Bull Terrier has most often been described as the dog that is closest to the human race, in its likeness to the human race. This endearing breed of dog has the most charming and pleasing of personalities, in that it is very individualistic and independent, as well as intelligent and friendly. It has an innate strength, is extremely tenacious, and is also full of beans, and when all these traits are combined with its basically soft and charming nature, this is a breed that is very close to the human race, and it closely resembles an ordinary human being. All the character traits that have been found in the American Pit Bull Terrier not only make it an easy breed to own and train, but also make…


American Pit bull Terrier, Breed and Health Information. Retrieved From  Accessed on 2 January, 2005

American Pit Bull Terrier: Bull Dog Retrieved From  Accessed on 2 January, 2005

Democracy and Public Administration
Words: 5642 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63787304
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Democracy and Public Administration

This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and the political environment in which these individuals and organizations operate in. Public agencies in the healthcare environment are prime examples of successful interdepartmental cooperation in most cases, but, there are also examples where they can demonstrate both internal and external in-fighting. "The health sector workforce, which usually comprises a significant element within the total public sector workforce, may be either directly employed by the public sector health system, or work in public-funded agencies or organizations (e.g., social insurance funded). In many countries healthcare will also be delivered by organizations in the private sector and by voluntary organizations." (World Bank Group) As concerns like the nation's aging population, a rapidly depleting Medicare Trust or the many potential pandemics such as SAs, Swine…


Antos, Joseph. (2008). "Medicare's Bad News: Is Anyone Listening?" American Institute for Public Policy Research. April, No. 3.

American Public Health Association (2009). Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from American Public Health Association Web Site:  aphanet. (2001). Senators' Introduce Bill to Prepare For Possibility of Biological Warfare. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from 

CDC. (2009). H1N1. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center For Disease Control web site at /h1n1flu/sick.htm.

Center for Disease Control. (2009). State and Local Infrastructure. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center for Disease Control Web Site:

Encephalitis Seven Things You Need
Words: 509 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 91239974
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Question 5: Are there any sequelae as a result of acquiring the disease/condition?

Encephalitis itself is often sequelae. Secondary encephalitis can develops as a complication of a viral infection or reactivation of a latent virus, such as when the immune system is suppressed. Common diseases that can trigger secondary encephalitis include influenza, chickenpox, measles, mumps, and German measles (Encephalitis, 2008, Neurology Channel).

Question 6: Do you considered the disease/condition chronic or communicable?

The most common form of transmission in the U.S. is through herpes which is usually transmitted through human sexual contact. Mosquitoes and other insects can transmit the virus through bites and secondary conditions such as chickenpox that give rise to the virus are contagious.

Question 7: hy?

Herpes is an extremely common and contagious STD. Additionally, other forms of the virus are highly contagious through animal to human transmission, as in the case of the mosquito-borne est Nile…

Works Cited

Encephalitis. (2009). The Encephalitis Society. Retrieved March 7, 2009 at 

Encephalitis. (2009). Neurology Channel. Retrieved March 7, 2009 at

Ringold, Sarah, Cassio Lynm, & Richard M. Glass. Viral encephalitis. JAMA. 2005; 294(4):514.

A doi:10.1001/jama.294.4.514). Retrieved March 7, 2009 at

Marketing Plan for Opening a
Words: 6854 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32314033
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Likewise, McCain (2003) reports that, "The United States is a dog-loving nation. The American Veterinary Medical Association says about 36% of U.S. households own dogs, compared with 31% that own cats. The most popular breeds, the American Kennel Club says, are Labrador retrievers, golden retrievers and German shepherds" (2). According to the Southwest Boston Dog Owners' Group (2007), "The number of licensed dogs in Boston is 8,500; Animal Control estimates the total number of dogs in the city is 40,000" (Petition to Boston City Council and Mayor's office 4).

The results of the 2000 census of Boston showed that the city enjoys a healthy percentage of middle- to upper-middle class residents as shown in Table ____ below.

Table ____.

2000 Census Breakdown of Household Incomes in Boston.





Less than $10,000

10,000 to $14,999

15,000 to $24,999

25,000 to $34,999

35,000 to $49,999

50,000 to $74,999


Works Cited

Barker, Randolph T. (2005). "On the Edge or Not? Opportunities for Interdisciplinary Scholars in Business Communication to Focus on the Individual and Organizational Benefits of Companion Animals in the Workplace." The Journal of Business Communication 42(3):299.

Boston Housing Authority: Elderly & Disabled Housing Program Pet Policy. (October 1, 2000). Boston Housing Authority. [Online]. Available: .

Dennick, Reg and Kate Exley. Small Group Teaching. New York: RoutledgeFalmer, 2004.

Goldberg, Jonah. (2002, December 9). "Man Bites Dog: The Axis of Evil Takes on Canines," National Review 54(23):37.

United States Army Do to
Words: 7293 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64522681
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Hearing loss is very case specific because one person who has hearing loss or impairment may be able to hear certain sounds or be completely deaf.

Impairment entails something is not working as well as it should but there may still be some basic functioning. Hearing loss can go by many terms such as deaf, deafness, or hard of hearing. All could be one and the same situation but as pointed out, each individual is suffering from their own individual illness or situation and may or may not be comparable to any other hearing loss situation.

Although this report focuses on hearing loss as it is associated to military service, it is important to note that in the United States; approximately three of every thousand newborns are born with some type of hearing impairment thus making it one of the more common birth defects in our nation. This entails that…

References, cont.

Minter, Stephen G. (2002). "Does Your Hearing Conservation Program Measure Up? Once Described as "Sleep Aid Material," the Dry Topic of Hearing Conservation Metrics Draws Increased Interest as OSHA's STS Trigger Undergoes Review." Occupational Hazards, 3/1/2002.

Mosley, Gerry L. (2004). "National Guard and Reserve Unit Health Protections." Congressional Testimony, 3/30/2004.

PR Newswire (2003). "Compound Licensed by American BioHealth Group From U.S. Navy Shown to Protect Against Hearing Loss From Impulse Noise; - New Data Presented at Association for Research in Otolaryngology Meeting." PR Newswire Release, 3/3/2003.

Rabinowitz, Peter M. (2000). Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. American Family Physician, 5/1/2000,.

Expatriate Education for Thailand Access Your Site's
Words: 2882 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4390258
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Expatriate Education for Thailand

Access your site's tools and features through your member area. You can login any time by going to and using the username and password below. Check back often for ideas, updates, and new features.

Developing an Effective International SBU Intranet-based Employee Manual Outline and Intranet Listing for Thailand

The average cost of sending an employee and his or her family on an overseas assignment is between three and five times the employee's predeparture salary; consequently, it is important for these expatriate employees to be prepared for their assignment to the maximum extent possible (Sims, 2002). While there are a number of strategic approaches available to assist in the planning and management of international human resources, an intranet would be a particularly useful vehicle to assist XYZ Import and Export Company's ("XYZ") expatriate employees become familiar with their new country of assignment, in this case Thailand…


Ashbaugh, S., & Miranda, R. (2002) Technology for human resources management: Seven questions and answers. Public Personnel Management, 31(1), 7.

Askew, M. (1997). Thai images: The culture of the public world. SOJOURN: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia, 14, 37.

Creating communities. (2005). [Online]. phpBB Open Source. [Online]. Available: .

Pharmacologic Treatment of Fear and
Words: 4199 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2973543
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e., they became helpless). Furthermore, other behaviors of the dogs were adversely affected (e.g., the dogs appeared apathetic and had poor appetites) (Hitzemann, 2000). In his essay, "Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders and Their elevance to Alcoholism," Hitzemann (2000) reports that, "Both fear and anxiety are alerting signals that warn the individual against impending danger and enable the individual to take defensive measures. For animals, the distinctions between fear and anxiety are vague" (p. 149). The distinctions between fear and anxiety are clearly irrelevant for humans who encounter such stressed animals, though.

According to Hodge and Stull (2000), dog bites cause an average of 17 human deaths, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 330,000 emergency room visits every year in the Untied States and a like number of people probably do not seek treatment or report the incident, but may nevertheless experience psychological trauma, anxiety, and missed work or school. Furthermore, dog bites…


Becker, M.G., Chew, G.L., Correa, J.C., Hoepner, L.A., Jusino, C.M., Kinney, P.L., Miller, R.L., & Perzanowski, M.S. (2003). Distribution and determinants of mouse allergen exposure in low-income New York City apartments. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(10), 1348.

Boone, J.S., & Tyler, J.W. (2001). Transferable residues from dog fur and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in dogs treated with a flea control dip containing chlorpyrifos. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(11), 1109.

Chang, Y., Cohen, J.H., Hennon, D.L., LaPorte, R.E., & McMahon, J.E. (1997). Dog bite incidence in the City of Pittsburgh: A capture-recapture approach. American Journal of Public Health, 87(10), 1703-5.

Duke, M.L., & Swain, J.L. (2001). Recommendations for research on ethics in public policy from a public administration perspective: Barking dogs and more. International Journal of Public Administration, 24(1), 125.

Role of Family Physician in Improving Healthcare Equality
Words: 3859 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 76577105
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ole of Family Physician

It is important for us to understand the role of a family physician before we begin our discussion on the importance of family physicians in any health care system of the community. Many reforms have been made in the health care systems of various communities all over the world. Almost all of these reforms lay their focus on the prevention as well as the treatment of any disease along with the promotion of health and management of conditions that have become a chronic problem for the patients. All of these areas are the center of the family physicians and therefore family medicine has a huge role to play in here.

In this paper, we shall look at the current health care system in Libya and see how the government and other organizations like WHO are playing their role to improve the health care system in the…


(2005). Libya country profile. Library of Congress Federal Research Division (April 2005).

(2004). Pfizer Clear Health Communication Initiative. What it Health Literacy? [Online].

(2004). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition; 2000. [Online].

Kates N. (1997). Psychiatry and family medicine: sharing care. Can J. Psychiatry. Vol. 42:913-14.

Arabic Morphology
Words: 6720 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37761264
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Arabic Morphology

Morph = form or shape, ology = study of Language comprises of words and words have meanings. Meanings give value to words hence they must be given attention in body of knowledge. This is the reason; a study of foundation of meaning is developed. This foundation is called morpheme which is the basic and the smallest entity containing meaning or function in language. This whole study is known as Morphology (Kuthy, 2002).

What Are Morphemes?

It must be noted with concern that word is not the unit of meaning in language. It is because; a word may contain multiple words in meaning (Kuthy, 2002). Below are a few examples when words contain obvious, difficult and medium meanings.

a. obvious: dinnertime, homework, moonlight, classroom

difficult: tenth, walks, dog's, flipped

c. medium: quickly, fearless, fishing, momentary

Morpheme is the most basic element of meaning. If above mentioned words are carefully…


Abdah, D.A. (1979). Frequent words in Arabic. Riyad University, Saudi Arabia (in Arabic).

Abuleil, Saleem and Evens, Martha W. (1998). "Discovering Lexical Information by Tagging Arabic Newspaper Text." Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages, Proceedings of the Workshop.

Ali, N. (1988). "Computers and the Arabic Language." Cairo, Egypt: Al-khat Publishing Press, Ta'reep. Al-Kharashi, I. And Evens,

Anshen, F., & Aronoff, M. (1999). Using dictionaries to study the mental lexicon. Brain and Language, 68, 16 -- 26.

Turning a Narrative Into a Film
Words: 3852 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52499850
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Man of the Crowd

By Edgar Allan Poe (1840)

The story significantly depicts not only the preoccupation of the 17th hundred London issues and a trend brought by the progressive industrialization of time, but speaks so much relevance in our modern time as well. The epigraph which sums up the very essence of the story explains the dynamic of a human being too busy to mingle with the crowd for fear of facing the haunting memory of a disturbed self, the lonely person, the conscience and the unsettling disturbances deep within. The epigraph "Such a great misfortune, not to be able to be alone" is rich in context within the story, but also a rich source of reflection of a human and societal struggle. I firmly believe in the relevance of the story not only in its significance to the theme and era when this story was written, but for…

Works Cited

Anxiety Care UK. Fear of Being Alone-Monophobia. 2012. 10 November 2012


Auster, Paul. The New York Trilogy. New York: Penguin, 1990. Gerald, Kennedy J.

"Poe, Death, and the Life of Writing." Yale University Press (1987): 118.

Tom Shulich Coltishhum a Comparative Study on
Words: 9196 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 33144233
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Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum")

A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre


In this chapter, I examine similarities and differences between The City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre (1985) and Song of Kali by Dan Simmons (1985) with regard to the themes of the Western journalistic observer of the Oriental Other, and the fascination-repulsion that inspires the Occidental spatial imaginary of Calcutta. By comparing and contrasting these two popular novels, both describing white men's journey into the space of the Other, the chapter seeks to achieve a two-fold objective: (a) to provide insight into the authors with respect to alterity (otherness), and (b) to examine the discursive practices of these novels in terms of contrasting spatial metaphors of Calcutta as "The City of Dreadful Night" or "The City of…


Barbiani, E. (2005). Kalighat, the home of goddess Kali: The place where Calcutta is imagined twice: A visual investigation into the dark metropolis. Sociological Research Online, 10 (1). Retrieved from 

Barbiani, E. (2002). Kali e Calcutta: immagini della dea, immagini della metropoli. Urbino: University of Urbino.

Cameron, J. (1987). An Indian summer. New York, NY: Penguin Travel Library.

Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. New York, NY: Routledge & K. Paul.

Health Medical
Words: 1491 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96447520
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healthcare problems facing this nation is that of migrant workers, primarily those from Mexico, who work both legally and illegally on this side of the border. While other immigrant populations are also underinsured and under-treated --most notably Asians -- the Hispanic problem is by the far the most significant because of the shear numbers and the structural poverty which create stagnant population pools too large to ignore.

By allowing this problem to continue, we face the more direct health threat of the Mexican migrant worker population becoming a breeding ground for infectious diseases that can spread quickly into the general population. While humanitarian reasons alone should call for our involvement in solving this problem, we should be aware that the problem is an economic one as well. The Mexican workers, especially since the passage of NAFTA, have become an intergral part of the U.. workforce in that they are performing…


Hahn, Kaye (1998) "Health Related Issues and Challenges of Women and Children In a Migratory WorkForce." Online at Medical College of Georgia Available:

Lanzendorfer, Joy Silent Suffering North Bay farm workers face a healthcare crisis." Online at Metro PublishingFrom the May 30-June 5, 2002 issue of the North Bay Bohemian. Available: .(1/11/03)

Pinkerton, James. (May 2002). "Health Care: Crisis at the Border." Online at the Grande Valley Bureau Houston Chronicle. Available: .(1/12/03)

Stanley, Eduardo. March 27, 2001."Farm Worker Survey Uncovers Health Problems, Abuses." Online at New California Media. Avaialble: .(1/10/03)

Meat Packing Industry
Words: 6838 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17615196
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Safety and Health Issues in Meat Processing Industry

In the meat processing industry, health and safety issues are of vital importance, in view of the several risks arising out of microbial contamination of meat and the occupational hazards faced by workers. Past experiences have shown that microbial reproduction in meat and meat products can reach alarming proportions traversing across countries and even continents. The infamous mad cow disease and the foot and mouth disease in cattle has rattled the British meat industry for a considerable period, resulting in loss of image, confidence and erosion of profits. North America's main problem is the widespread prevalence of eschericia coli in meat, more commonly known as the hamburger disease. It is well-known that meat is highly susceptible to attack of bacteria and virus and hence there is a constant need to address this risk. When microbial activity sets in, the quality of meat…


American Meat Industry Fact Sheet: 'Worker Safety in the Meat and Poultry Industry', (2002) Available at Accessed 11/28/2003

Brodeur, C. (n.d) Agriculture and Agri-food Canada - 'Meat Safety: The war on bacteria', Available at Accessed 11/28/2003

Cannon, J.E et. al (1996) 'Pork Chain Quality Audit Survey: Quantification of Port Quality Characteristics', Journal of Muscle Foods (7), 56-62

Chesworth, N (1997) 'Food Hygiene Auditing', Blackie Academic & Professional, London

Animal Species Studied for This Report Include
Words: 2701 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10515392
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animal species studied for this report include the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and the American lack ear (Ursus americanus). The plant species studied are the Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) and the Prickly Pear cactus (Opuntia humifusa). Each of these species has been observed at the local zoo, and further research has been conducted to learn about the environment in which each species would live in a natural setting. The behavior which have been observed within the zoo have also been combined with the noted behaviors of these species from a natural setting to give a more complete range of information. From this study, I have learned that there are many similarities between the behavior that can be observed in both plants and animals in a captive setting and their natural behavior. However, there are also many notable differences, based largely on to what degree the zoological habitat varies from that…


ContiE et al. "Wolf." Wikipedia. March 2004. 

Hilty, John. "Eastern Prickly Pear." Insect Visitors of Prairie Wildflowers in Illinois. 2003. 

Marshman, et al. "Opuntia." Wikipedia. March, 2004. 

Naddy, et al. "American Black Bear." Wikipedia. March, 2004.

Keeping Cigarettes Away From Young People Through Media Campaigns
Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 5135629
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Public Health Achievements

hat factors accounted for the control of tobacco in the U.S. Currently, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about 42.1 million Americans smoke cigarettes, which is about 18.1% of all adults (18 or over). About 20.5% of men smoke cigarettes and 15.8% of women smoke cigarettes (Liss, 2013).

the information environment -- mass media and counter-advertising. There is no doubt that media campaigns have a positive impact when it comes to anti-smoking campaigns. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that the first year of the federal government's national advertising campaign called "Tips from Former Smokers" "exceeded expectations; an estimated 1.6 million cigarette smokers attempted to stop smoking. Of those, about 100,000 actually succeeded in quitting, and that information came from a study published by the medical journal, The Lancet. Moreover, the campaign run by the CDC reportedly "inspired millions of nonsmokers to encourage…

Works Cited

Centers for Disease Control. (2011). Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States. Retrieved April 11, 2014, from .

Liss, S.M. (2013). CDC's Anti-Smoking Ad Campaign Spurred Over 100,000 Smokers to Quit;

Media Campaigns Must be Expanded Nationally and in the States. Center for Disease

Controls. Retrieved April 12, 2014, from .

Prevention of Tropical Diseases
Words: 711 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73680209
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World Health Organization

Advocating Universal Access to Primary Care

One major goal of primary health care is better health for all. Furthermore, the major international initiative to foster this goal is from the World Health Organization who has advocated since the late seventies to improve global public health by improving access. The WHO has created a coalition calls for a (WHO, N.d.):

"A new global coalition of more than 500 leading health and development organizations worldwide is urging governments to accelerate reforms that ensure everyone, everywhere, can access quality health services without being forced into poverty. The coalition emphasises the importance of universal access to health services for saving lives, ending extreme poverty, building resilience against the health effects of climate change and ending deadly epidemics such as Ebola."

The statement calls something other than common conceptions of what is referred to as "universal healthcare" in the West. However, "access"…


Evans, D., Hsu, J., & Boerma, T. (2013). Universal health coverage and universal access. Retrieved from WHO: /bulletin/volumes/91/8/13-125450/en/

WHO . (N.d.). Neglected Tropical Diseases. Retrieved from World Health Organization:

Demographics of Denver Metro
Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21570628
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Denver Facts

The city of Denver, not to mention the wider state of Colorado, is blooming in terms of demographics and population. Whether it be the scenic views or the legalization of recreational marijuana, Denver has seemingly become a "go to" place in terms of places to move. This quick report shall discuss the population of the town, whether the population is increasing or decreasing, the age distribution of the town and how that compares to the wider United States, the ethnic composition of the area, the educational level of the population and how it compares to the wider population of the United States and the public health problems that are prevalent in Denver. While Denver's cost of living and other factors might dissuade some from moving there, the good seems to outweigh the bad for more and more people.


As a metropolitan area, Denver has a population of…


Census Scope. 2015. 'Census Scope -- Population Pyramid And Age Distribution Statistics'. Retrieved October 16, 2015 ( ).

Denver Health. 2015. 'Denver Health -- Public Health Concerns -- Colorado'. Retrieved October 16, 2015 ( ).

Home To Denver. 2015. 'Denver Colorado Demographics And Population Statistics'. Retrieved October 16, 2015 ( ).

MetroDenver. 2015. 'Metro Denver Age & Gender -- Metro Denver'. Retrieved October 16, 2015 ( ).

Why Marijuana Should Be Legalized
Words: 1643 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 64462623
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When the nation was founded, hemp was a regular crop that the Founding Fathers all harvested. Cannabis was literally part of the fabric of the American Way: hemp was used for a variety of functions, from tea to textiles. As Robert Deitch notes, “we know colonial Americans were aware of the medicinal properties of cannabis. It was one of the few medicines they had, and they used it as commonly as we use aspirin today” (25). If cannabis was good enough for the first Americans, surely it stands some much warranted consideration—particularly in the light of the recent opioid epidemic that has claimed the lives of so many young in today’s day and age (Nelson, Juurlink, Perrone). People looking for a little relief are chasing after dangerous drugs that can kill. Marijuana, however, has never really been associated with overdosing and death. Just as the early Americans found, cannabis…

History of Medical Technology
Words: 1317 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62490736
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Technology and the Development of Modern Medicine
The 20th century saw a seismic change in the perception of the human body, and the relationship of patients to physicians and other aspects of modern medicine. With the recent coronavirus pandemic, of course, the focus upon technology and medical developments has become a matter of global importance. Vaccines and innovative drugs were not solely innovations of the past century, but they extent to which they were proven safe and effective is relatively new. The relationship between providers and patients has likewise changed, as well as expectations about treatment.
Vaccination and Immunization Technology
Infectious disease was once an accepted part of modern life. However, the first smallpox vaccines were developed as early as the late 18th century. Safety of vaccines could not always be guaranteed, however. Inactivation of bacteria via heat or chemical treatment to confer immunity status was developed by the very…

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Plotkin, Stanley. “History of vaccination.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 111, 34 (2014): 12283-7. December 20, 2020. Web. 
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