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Rabies infections in humans are uncommon in the United States. Nevertheless, around the world approximately fifty thousand people die from rabies every year, mostly in emergent nations where agendas for vaccinating dogs against rabies don't exist. The good news is that troubles can be prohibited if the exposed individual gets treatment prior to symptoms of the contamination developing (About Rabies, 2011).
Rabies is an avoidable viral disease of mammals most frequently passed on by way of the bite of a rabid animal. The huge preponderance of rabies cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) every year take place in wild animals like raccoons, skunks, bats, and foxes. The rabies virus contaminates the central nervous system, in the end causing sickness in the brain and death. The initial symptoms of rabies in human beings are comparable to that of a lot of other sicknesses, comprising fever, headache,…… [Read More]
Jennings, Schneider, Lewis and Scatterday (1960) document the high prevalence of rabies virus present among gray foxes. They further document the fact that these rabid foxes were abundantly found near densely populated human settlements and reportedly attacked humans and other valuable livestock. Florida. Jennings, Schneider, Lewis and Scatterday (1960) however claim, that it is not possible to accurately determine the accurate percentage of deaths occurring due to rabid foxes as during that time, another deadly disease among population of foxes was also reported. Therefore, it cannot be concretely proved that what percentage of them constituted the rabies infected foxes. Jennings, Schneider, Lewis and Scatterday (1960) claim that 33% of rabid animals examined by the Florida State Board of Health Laboratories between the time period of 1948 to 1958 were reported to be gray foxes.
Coming to more recent times, reports issued by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention claims…… [Read More]
S. this has dramatically decreased incidences of the disease. Deborah Briggs, executive director for the Alliance for Rabies Control, reports that until now, no global coordinated effort has been exerted to help educate people in the world about rabies. Rabies "can be readily prevented through education, pet vaccination and increased human awareness about proper wound management and administration of rabies vaccination after an exposure has occurred" ("est Lafayette…," ¶ 7) Briggs stresses.
Lentnek, Arnold L. (reviewer), 2007, "Symptoms Rabies." American Accreditation HealthCare
Commission A.D.A.M. 1 May 2009.
Bren, Linda. "Reducing the Risk of Rabies." FDA Consumer, July-Aug. Questia. 1 May 2009. .
Marchione, Marilynn. "Rodent Virus Now Linked to Six Deaths." AP Online. 2005. HighBeam
Research. 1 May 2009. .
McMaster University. "Rabies Deaths From Dog Bites Could Be Eliminated Globally." Science
Daily, 16 March 2009. 1 May 2009. .
rabies. Merriam-ebster's Online Medical Dictionary, 2005, Merriam…… [Read More]
The book Rabies, edited by Alan C. Jackson and William H. Wunner is critically reviewed in a peer publication. Rabies is a "comprehensive" discussion about a major global disease, focusing on the history of the disease from ancient times, diagnostic evaluation of animal and human cases, immunological responses to the virus, and public health management recommendations. The reviewer recommends the book for its multidisciplinarity.
8. Scatterday, James E.; Schneider, Nathan J.; Jennings, William L.; Lewis, Arthur L. Sporadic animal rabies in Florida. Public Health Reports 960;75(0): 945-955.
In 960, the Florida State Board of Health examined 59 rabid animals, mostly dogs, from 95-958. "With the gradual reduction of this disease in dogs and the evolution of an increasingly effective animal bite reporting procedure, the sporadic cases in wildlife have now assumed major importance in Florida." The Board searched for an "inapparent reservoir" of vectors that led to sporadic infections.
9.…… [Read More]
These charts conclusively establish that the preponderance of rabies cases occur in urban areas and that the percentage between urban and rural areas is consistent.
This graph demonstrates the occurrence of reported rabies cases for each animal type and overlays such occurrences against the location of each incident. The graph clearly establishes, again, the overwhelming involvement of raccoons in rabies cases, as in every given year of the study, the number of cases attributed to raccoons out numbers the rest of the animal types significantly.
These two charts compare the number of reported rabies cases in the states of Florida and Georgia. They demonstrate that rabies in the state of Georgia are far more prevalent than reported cases in Florida. In both states, raccoons are the primary problem and by numbers that are more serious than the remainder of the animal types combined. Interestingly, dogs, which are traditionally identified with…… [Read More]
Icd-9-Cm V Codes
V codes are provided as supplemental categories under the ICD-9-CM classification system (Ingenix Staff, 2010). They are intended to be used for situations when the patient seeks care for something other than a disease or injury, repetitive care related to a chronic or resolving disease or condition, follow up care after disease or condition has been successfully treated, or for providing relevant information that may have an impact on care trajectory. The information that V codes provide are critical because they can be used to justify medical treatments or denial of care, and elaborate on a disease condition.
Sequencing V Codes
V code use is controlled by the ICD-9-CM guidelines concerning how codes should be sequenced. An underlying condition should be listed first and any manifestations, late effects, or elaborations of the underlying condition listed next (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services [CMS] and National…… [Read More]
Why are epidemiologists sometimes interested in epizootics?
"Epidemics in animals are called epizootics" (Epizootics, 2012, University of Liverpool). The evolution of epidemics in animal populations can mirror the spread of disease in humans, or the diseases in animals can present features of interest to epidemiologists because of their potential to pass diseases to humans through contact or consumption. Examples of diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans include foot and mouth disease, rabies, and 'mad cow' disease. For example, in foot and mouth disease, animals can spread the disease to other organisms through salvia, milk and dung manure and blood. In the case of foot and mouth, "Animals start to excrete the virus even before the symptoms appear and so may pass it on to many others before anyone realises that they are infected" (Epizootics, 2012, University of Liverpool). This can cause the disease to spread extremely…… [Read More]
Both parents must cope with the death of their child, Tad at the end of the book after Tad dies of heat exhaustion in the car where he and his mother are trapped.
Cujo operates on both the ordinary and the extraordinary, in terms of its levels of horror. On one hand, unlike most of Stephen King's novels, Cujo is not dependant upon the supernatural to inspire terror in its reader. In the real world, people are attacked and are killed by dogs. Rabies is a real illness. The horrific thing is that once Cujo was a beloved family pet, but because of the fact he has contracted rabies, it as if he has become possessed by a demon and he becomes a killer. The ordinary, beautiful setting of a quiet suburb that seems ideal to raise one's children makes the horrific contrast between Cujo's actions and the setting particularly…… [Read More]
Their escape from persecutions was always organized, which strengthened relations of community members and later turned into a duty of mutual aid and assistance, typical for members of Jewish Diaspora today. These times of horror and deprivations molded spirit and will of Jews, influenced the growth of cooperation of different communities all over Europe and resulted in moving to Eastern Europe, where they peacefully coexisted with local population up until 17th century. Unlike other nations it was already typical in the Middle Ages for Ashkenazi Jews to receive universal education, which was not only limited to Talmud and Torah studying. Sinful activities of money loaning, which were shameful for Catholics, were mostly occupied by Jews who achieved considerable success in finances all over Europe and gave them reputation of successful financiers and bankers.
Sepharadi Jews suffered persecution after the end of econquista in Iberian Peninsula. The main goal of queen…… [Read More]
Pasteur proved the opposite: that the world is populated with microorganisms and that they do not spontaneously generate. Microorganisms essentially invade larger bodies or substances and cause disease or the spoilage of food. Pasteur's work is called the "germ theory of disease" and has been the rubric of scientific understanding of disease ever since. His work with the silkworms and with the wine industry extended to his working with diseases that affected farm animals and human beings.
Pasteur's initial work with farm animals addressed the problem of anthrax. Anthrax was a disease primarily affecting France's cattle and sheep populations, crippling the agriculture industry. Pasteur found that by injecting animals with small amounts of anthrax, they could be rendered immune from the disease's deadly effects. He extended his research with anthrax into other diseases like rabies, tuberculosis, smallpox, and cholera, performing most of his experiments on farm animals. His work with…… [Read More]
He may have been entitled to those damages if he had filed a breach of warranty claim, which permits damages for emotional stress without an underlying physical injury, but Brad did not file a breach of warranty complaint, but merely a strict liability complaint.
Decision: A live pet skunk is a product within the meaning of OS 30.900 et seq.
A person who comes into contact with a rabid skunk but does not suffer physical harm cannot recover for emotional distress in an action based solely on strict product liability under OS 30.920. Physical harm from being bitten and receiving injections provide a sufficient basis for allegations of emotional distress relating to fear of death under OS 30.920.
Use of precedent/effect on later cases: This case was one of first impression in Oregon and asked the Court to determine whether or not animals would be covered as products under OS…… [Read More]
g., maggots in rotting matter.
Pasteur believed that germs, just as those that caused fermentation, could also be causing disease. With the support of other scientists and collaborators, he was able to isolate several disease causing bacteria, cholera (with Robert Koch) and small pox (work originally done by Edward Jenner), among several others. While working with cholera in chicken, Pasteur helped set the foundation for the idea of vaccinations; this had been proposed by others earlier. That a mild form of the virus or bacteria induces the creation of antibodies in the host. When infected by a virulent form of the virus or bacteria, the antibodies created in the system can destroy the infecting agents thereby protecting the host. Pasteur's work influenced the creation of vaccinations.
After successfully using it in the cure of cholera, small pox and several other diseases, Pasteur used this idea in identifying a cure for…… [Read More]
American Pit Bull Terrier
What is the American Pit Bull Terrier? What are its origins and what is its history? The American Pit Bull Terrier has most often been described as the dog that is closest to the human race, in its likeness to the human race. This endearing breed of dog has the most charming and pleasing of personalities, in that it is very individualistic and independent, as well as intelligent and friendly. It has an innate strength, is extremely tenacious, and is also full of beans, and when all these traits are combined with its basically soft and charming nature, this is a breed that is very close to the human race, and it closely resembles an ordinary human being. All the character traits that have been found in the American Pit Bull Terrier not only make it an easy breed to own and train, but also make…… [Read More]
Democracy and Public Administration
This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and the political environment in which these individuals and organizations operate in. Public agencies in the healthcare environment are prime examples of successful interdepartmental cooperation in most cases, but, there are also examples where they can demonstrate both internal and external in-fighting. "The health sector workforce, which usually comprises a significant element within the total public sector workforce, may be either directly employed by the public sector health system, or work in public-funded agencies or organizations (e.g., social insurance funded). In many countries healthcare will also be delivered by organizations in the private sector and by voluntary organizations." (World Bank Group) As concerns like the nation's aging population, a rapidly depleting Medicare Trust or the many potential pandemics such as SAs, Swine…… [Read More]
Question 5: Are there any sequelae as a result of acquiring the disease/condition?
Encephalitis itself is often sequelae. Secondary encephalitis can develops as a complication of a viral infection or reactivation of a latent virus, such as when the immune system is suppressed. Common diseases that can trigger secondary encephalitis include influenza, chickenpox, measles, mumps, and German measles (Encephalitis, 2008, Neurology Channel).
Question 6: Do you considered the disease/condition chronic or communicable?
The most common form of transmission in the U.S. is through herpes which is usually transmitted through human sexual contact. Mosquitoes and other insects can transmit the virus through bites and secondary conditions such as chickenpox that give rise to the virus are contagious.
Question 7: hy?
Herpes is an extremely common and contagious STD. Additionally, other forms of the virus are highly contagious through animal to human transmission, as in the case of the mosquito-borne est Nile…… [Read More]
Likewise, McCain (2003) reports that, "The United States is a dog-loving nation. The American Veterinary Medical Association says about 36% of U.S. households own dogs, compared with 31% that own cats. The most popular breeds, the American Kennel Club says, are Labrador retrievers, golden retrievers and German shepherds" (2). According to the Southwest Boston Dog Owners' Group (2007), "The number of licensed dogs in Boston is 8,500; Animal Control estimates the total number of dogs in the city is 40,000" (Petition to Boston City Council and Mayor's office 4).
The results of the 2000 census of Boston showed that the city enjoys a healthy percentage of middle- to upper-middle class residents as shown in Table ____ below.
2000 Census Breakdown of Household Incomes in Boston.
Less than $10,000
10,000 to $14,999
15,000 to $24,999
25,000 to $34,999
35,000 to $49,999
50,000 to $74,999
75,000…… [Read More]
Hearing loss is very case specific because one person who has hearing loss or impairment may be able to hear certain sounds or be completely deaf.
Impairment entails something is not working as well as it should but there may still be some basic functioning. Hearing loss can go by many terms such as deaf, deafness, or hard of hearing. All could be one and the same situation but as pointed out, each individual is suffering from their own individual illness or situation and may or may not be comparable to any other hearing loss situation.
Although this report focuses on hearing loss as it is associated to military service, it is important to note that in the United States; approximately three of every thousand newborns are born with some type of hearing impairment thus making it one of the more common birth defects in our nation. This entails that…… [Read More]
Expatriate Education for Thailand
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Developing an Effective International SBU Intranet-based Employee Manual Outline and Intranet Listing for Thailand
The average cost of sending an employee and his or her family on an overseas assignment is between three and five times the employee's predeparture salary; consequently, it is important for these expatriate employees to be prepared for their assignment to the maximum extent possible (Sims, 2002). While there are a number of strategic approaches available to assist in the planning and management of international human resources, an intranet would be a particularly useful vehicle to assist XYZ Import and Export Company's ("XYZ") expatriate employees become familiar with their new country of assignment, in this case Thailand…… [Read More]
e., they became helpless). Furthermore, other behaviors of the dogs were adversely affected (e.g., the dogs appeared apathetic and had poor appetites) (Hitzemann, 2000). In his essay, "Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders and Their elevance to Alcoholism," Hitzemann (2000) reports that, "Both fear and anxiety are alerting signals that warn the individual against impending danger and enable the individual to take defensive measures. For animals, the distinctions between fear and anxiety are vague" (p. 149). The distinctions between fear and anxiety are clearly irrelevant for humans who encounter such stressed animals, though.
According to Hodge and Stull (2000), dog bites cause an average of 17 human deaths, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 330,000 emergency room visits every year in the Untied States and a like number of people probably do not seek treatment or report the incident, but may nevertheless experience psychological trauma, anxiety, and missed work or school. Furthermore, dog bites…… [Read More]
ole of Family Physician
It is important for us to understand the role of a family physician before we begin our discussion on the importance of family physicians in any health care system of the community. Many reforms have been made in the health care systems of various communities all over the world. Almost all of these reforms lay their focus on the prevention as well as the treatment of any disease along with the promotion of health and management of conditions that have become a chronic problem for the patients. All of these areas are the center of the family physicians and therefore family medicine has a huge role to play in here.
In this paper, we shall look at the current health care system in Libya and see how the government and other organizations like WHO are playing their role to improve the health care system in the…… [Read More]
Morph = form or shape, ology = study of Language comprises of words and words have meanings. Meanings give value to words hence they must be given attention in body of knowledge. This is the reason; a study of foundation of meaning is developed. This foundation is called morpheme which is the basic and the smallest entity containing meaning or function in language. This whole study is known as Morphology (Kuthy, 2002).
What Are Morphemes?
It must be noted with concern that word is not the unit of meaning in language. It is because; a word may contain multiple words in meaning (Kuthy, 2002). Below are a few examples when words contain obvious, difficult and medium meanings.
a. obvious: dinnertime, homework, moonlight, classroom
difficult: tenth, walks, dog's, flipped
c. medium: quickly, fearless, fishing, momentary
Morpheme is the most basic element of meaning. If above mentioned words are carefully…… [Read More]
Man of the Crowd
By Edgar Allan Poe (1840)
The story significantly depicts not only the preoccupation of the 17th hundred London issues and a trend brought by the progressive industrialization of time, but speaks so much relevance in our modern time as well. The epigraph which sums up the very essence of the story explains the dynamic of a human being too busy to mingle with the crowd for fear of facing the haunting memory of a disturbed self, the lonely person, the conscience and the unsettling disturbances deep within. The epigraph "Such a great misfortune, not to be able to be alone" is rich in context within the story, but also a rich source of reflection of a human and societal struggle. I firmly believe in the relevance of the story not only in its significance to the theme and era when this story was written, but for…… [Read More]
Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum")
A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre
In this chapter, I examine similarities and differences between The City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre (1985) and Song of Kali by Dan Simmons (1985) with regard to the themes of the Western journalistic observer of the Oriental Other, and the fascination-repulsion that inspires the Occidental spatial imaginary of Calcutta. By comparing and contrasting these two popular novels, both describing white men's journey into the space of the Other, the chapter seeks to achieve a two-fold objective: (a) to provide insight into the authors with respect to alterity (otherness), and (b) to examine the discursive practices of these novels in terms of contrasting spatial metaphors of Calcutta as "The City of Dreadful Night" or "The City of…… [Read More]
healthcare problems facing this nation is that of migrant workers, primarily those from Mexico, who work both legally and illegally on this side of the border. While other immigrant populations are also underinsured and under-treated --most notably Asians -- the Hispanic problem is by the far the most significant because of the shear numbers and the structural poverty which create stagnant population pools too large to ignore.
By allowing this problem to continue, we face the more direct health threat of the Mexican migrant worker population becoming a breeding ground for infectious diseases that can spread quickly into the general population. While humanitarian reasons alone should call for our involvement in solving this problem, we should be aware that the problem is an economic one as well. The Mexican workers, especially since the passage of NAFTA, have become an intergral part of the U.. workforce in that they are performing…… [Read More]
Safety and Health Issues in Meat Processing Industry
In the meat processing industry, health and safety issues are of vital importance, in view of the several risks arising out of microbial contamination of meat and the occupational hazards faced by workers. Past experiences have shown that microbial reproduction in meat and meat products can reach alarming proportions traversing across countries and even continents. The infamous mad cow disease and the foot and mouth disease in cattle has rattled the British meat industry for a considerable period, resulting in loss of image, confidence and erosion of profits. North America's main problem is the widespread prevalence of eschericia coli in meat, more commonly known as the hamburger disease. It is well-known that meat is highly susceptible to attack of bacteria and virus and hence there is a constant need to address this risk. When microbial activity sets in, the quality of meat…… [Read More]
animal species studied for this report include the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and the American lack ear (Ursus americanus). The plant species studied are the Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) and the Prickly Pear cactus (Opuntia humifusa). Each of these species has been observed at the local zoo, and further research has been conducted to learn about the environment in which each species would live in a natural setting. The behavior which have been observed within the zoo have also been combined with the noted behaviors of these species from a natural setting to give a more complete range of information. From this study, I have learned that there are many similarities between the behavior that can be observed in both plants and animals in a captive setting and their natural behavior. However, there are also many notable differences, based largely on to what degree the zoological habitat varies from that…… [Read More]
Public Health Achievements
hat factors accounted for the control of tobacco in the U.S. Currently, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about 42.1 million Americans smoke cigarettes, which is about 18.1% of all adults (18 or over). About 20.5% of men smoke cigarettes and 15.8% of women smoke cigarettes (Liss, 2013).
the information environment -- mass media and counter-advertising. There is no doubt that media campaigns have a positive impact when it comes to anti-smoking campaigns. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that the first year of the federal government's national advertising campaign called "Tips from Former Smokers" "exceeded expectations; an estimated 1.6 million cigarette smokers attempted to stop smoking. Of those, about 100,000 actually succeeded in quitting, and that information came from a study published by the medical journal, The Lancet. Moreover, the campaign run by the CDC reportedly "inspired millions of nonsmokers to encourage…… [Read More]
World Health Organization
Advocating Universal Access to Primary Care
One major goal of primary health care is better health for all. Furthermore, the major international initiative to foster this goal is from the World Health Organization who has advocated since the late seventies to improve global public health by improving access. The WHO has created a coalition calls for a (WHO, N.d.):
"A new global coalition of more than 500 leading health and development organizations worldwide is urging governments to accelerate reforms that ensure everyone, everywhere, can access quality health services without being forced into poverty. The coalition emphasises the importance of universal access to health services for saving lives, ending extreme poverty, building resilience against the health effects of climate change and ending deadly epidemics such as Ebola."
The statement calls something other than common conceptions of what is referred to as "universal healthcare" in the West. However, "access"…… [Read More]
The city of Denver, not to mention the wider state of Colorado, is blooming in terms of demographics and population. Whether it be the scenic views or the legalization of recreational marijuana, Denver has seemingly become a "go to" place in terms of places to move. This quick report shall discuss the population of the town, whether the population is increasing or decreasing, the age distribution of the town and how that compares to the wider United States, the ethnic composition of the area, the educational level of the population and how it compares to the wider population of the United States and the public health problems that are prevalent in Denver. While Denver's cost of living and other factors might dissuade some from moving there, the good seems to outweigh the bad for more and more people.
As a metropolitan area, Denver has a population of…… [Read More]
When the nation was founded, hemp was a regular crop that the Founding Fathers all harvested. Cannabis was literally part of the fabric of the American Way: hemp was used for a variety of functions, from tea to textiles. As Robert Deitch notes, “we know colonial Americans were aware of the medicinal properties of cannabis. It was one of the few medicines they had, and they used it as commonly as we use aspirin today” (25). If cannabis was good enough for the first Americans, surely it stands some much warranted consideration—particularly in the light of the recent opioid epidemic that has claimed the lives of so many young in today’s day and age (Nelson, Juurlink, Perrone). People looking for a little relief are chasing after dangerous drugs that can kill. Marijuana, however, has never really been associated with overdosing and death. Just as the early Americans found, cannabis…… [Read More]