Research and Ethics Research Paper

Excerpt from Research Paper :

Ethical Principles in Research

While experimenting and during the research of several diverse subjects ranging from animal testing to human experimentation, from social and scientific transgression to scientific research, there are ethical principles that need to be adhered to and applied by the researchers. Study participants, who open up their lives to the researchers, commentators and also those followers during the period of one's research, rely and trust us so we can do our task efficiently without causing any harm.

The United States largest psychological organization is the American Psychological Association (APA) with a goal to convey the psychological knowledge among the masses. The application, usage, intent and the practical considerations are discussed in the overview of the ethics code. The Preamble and the Principles are a source of mentoring for the psychologists although they are not mandatory, the psychologists are advised to consider upon them as an action of ethics. The Standards of ethics set obligatory rules of conduct for the psychologists to follow. Most of them are in written form for the psychologists depending upon their jobs and the circumstances. The ethical ideals are not comprehensive but if a demeanor is not stated by an ethical standard, it does not mean that it is one among the two i.e. either ethical or unethical.

The Ethics Code of the Applied Psychological Association (APA) applies only to the psychologists of APA and on their activities which include their scientific research and their expert life as psychologists. The activities of the psychologists are not limited to its practice of psychology or to the psychological therapy, their research in the association, or the management of the subordinates, service towards the public, expansion of their instruments, educational recommendation, legal medical activities and management and assessment of designs of the organization. Ethics Code is applied to all these activities and is strictly followed by the members of the APA. Along with these comes the detailed information of oneself including name, address, internet access and other communications via electronics. I personally think that the code of ethics should only follow the ethics related to their association and not the member's private information.


The workers of Applied Psychological Association (APA) have some rules of ethics regarding their written work as well, which has to be followed at all times.

Firstly no psychologist can present even a portion of work which is cited frequently by other psychologist members of the organization (Ethical Principles, 2010).


Psychologists can only be given credit for their own original ideas and/or work or the work or a task done entirely on their own. The task which they are taking the authorship credit should have actually been executed by them. I would make sure that the work I am taking the credit for is entirely mine, taken from my sources as, following the ethics is necessary for every psychologist and plagiarism is considered to be a crime.


The professional work and any sort of scientific contribution of whichever individual is involved no matter what their present status is vaguely shown in the publication and .the primary authorship. Possession of any official position even if it is a chair of my department does not give me the license of taking the credit of authorship. Even if I have a minor participation in the writing, I will recognize it by properly mentioning my name in the footnotes or in the preface. The rules of ethics state clearly that I cannot take credit of what I have not performed and therefore I would make sure that the name of whosever reference I am using in my work is cited properly.


A student can be registered as a chief author in an article written by multiple authors, but under unique circumstances, which includes that the article should be specifically a doctoral dissertation of the student. The publication acknowledgment are discussed before-hand and as early as possible by the faculty advisors and the as long as the research it continues wherever it is applicable (Ethical Principles, 2010). I would, as a student, make sure that I, as well as my peers are well-aware of the acknowledgment page and state it correctly. All of us should be aware of the rules and the ethics stated regarding it.

Risk assessment:


The judgments based on the reports of recommendations, the analytical and evaluative declarations of the psychologists which include the verification of any crime are based solely on the information and evidence I use to authenticate my data (Ethical Principles, 2010).


I will be making my decisions of the psychosomatic traits of personalities after their proper examination. It is to be noted in 9.01c that it is important that the individual should be capable of reasoning and making their statements and assumptions properly. When in cases like this the individual is incapable and the efforts of psychologists are not coming to any use; they document their struggle on the case. In such a case I will elucidate my assumptions on the case but briefly write my commendations and suppositions regarding it (Ethical Principles, 2010). I would be definite that I examine my patient accurately according to the code of ethics. If my patient is unable to make his decisions I would make sure that the documentation in my file is clear and lucid.

Informed consent:


A consent form from the patient is obligatory to take while administering research on the patients, during their psychotherapy sessions or referring to the psychiatrist through any means of communication. The permission to continue the counselling is taken by asking the patient in any verbal way by the psychiatrist, which the patient understands is mandatory as stated by the governmental law or as written in the Ethics (Ethical Principles, 2010). The government law states quite clearly the law of taking the consent form from a patient and I would be confident to take verbal consent from my patient.


There are options for persons who are unable to give approval for their treatment and have no next of kin. (1) Psychologists provide a clarification, (2) ask the patients will regarding the treatment, (3) do what is best for their patient by considering his preferences, (4) if the permission has to be granted by the court of law one should seek permission from a person who is sanctioned lawfully. When the permission for the treatment is not required from the court or any legally sanctioned person then the psychologist takes the matter into his own hands by protecting his own patient by keeping in mind his rights and well-being. If my patient is unable to give his own permit form of starting his treatment I would go to his next of kin and do all that the code of ethics states as it is mandatory for the psychologist to follow the code of ethics strictly.

Privacy and confidentiality:

While dealing with your patient it is essential to maintain your patient's seclusion and once a psychologist has the patients private information it is his chief commitment to go to any extent to protect it. The confidentiality is stated by the law and it sets its limits as well (Ethical Principles, 2010). Keeping your patient records private is highly recommended in the code of ethics and I would ensure of following it as revealing the patient's information is a crime.

The patient should be aware of his private information being opened to his psychiatrist.


Psychologists in order to get legal information about their patients go to the people who are not allowed to give legal information. They use organizations with which they have developed a professional association to get appropriate information regarding them. (Ethical Principles, 2010). ). Therefore, as a psychologist I will mention it to my patient that how much information I will be needing for their case and how deep I will go into his/her past.


The conversation of confidentiality should be done in the beginning of the connection or afterwards as new conditions permit. . I would make my patient aware beforehand that his information is safe with me and I won't reveal it until the conditions allow me to.


Psychologists ought to take permission from their clients and patients or from their legal councils, before taking their images or recording their conversations (Ethical Principles, 2010). Before starting a session with my patient I would confirm that my patient allows me to take his pictures and his recordings. Code of ethics states very clearly that a patient should be aware and a psychologists should take his permission.

Diminishing interruptions on privacy:


Psychologists mention on the reports of their patients that only relevant information was taken to interconnect with them.


Information and private evidence is taken only for the sake of professional work and only from individuals relating to the work (ethical principles, 2010). I would ensure that my patient is well aware that his information is only being taken for professional reasons.



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