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National Institutes of Health Research Grant
This essay examines the application process for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) research grant through the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), Funding Opportunity Title Genomic Resource Grants for Community Resource Projects (U41), Funding Opportunity Announcement Number PAR-11-095.
The NHGRI was established originally as the National Center for Human Genome research in 1989 and led the NIH's contribution to the Human Genome Project. This project had as its primary goal the sequencing of the 3 billion DNA letters that make up the human genetic instruction book and was successfully completed in April 2003.
NHGRI's mission includes a broad range of studies aimed at understanding the structure and function of the human genome and the role it plays in health and disease. The Division of Extramural Research supports and administers the role of NIH in genomic research (NHGRI, 2011). According to the…
Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). Retrieved August 10, 2011 from: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PAR-11-095.html#_3._Additional_Information
eRA commons. (2011). Online registration. Retrieved August 10, 2011 from: https://commons.era.nih.gov/commons/registration/registrationInstructions.jsp
Grants.gov. (2011). Step 2: Register with CCR. Retrieved August 10, 2011 from: http://www.grants.gov/applicants/org_step2.jsp
National Human Genome Research Institute. (2011). Mission. Retrieved August 10, 2011 from: http://www.nih.gov/about/almanac/organization/NHGRI.htm
Research Database Matrix
National Institute of Health's Intramural Database Resources
Description: The stated objective of the NIH Intramural Database is to collect and disseminate data gathered from research projects conducted by the Intramural programs of the Institutes and Centers of the National Institutes of Health. This includes studies commissioned by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), and dozens of other national health research institutes. The database also employs a variety of human biospecimen data to index its database holdings, allowing search parameters to be refined according to blood type, cell, or genomic lines.
The NIH Intramural Database is relevant to my topic of interest because it contains dozens scholarly articles on the subject of clinical nursing, including several which pertain solely to the concept of teaching simulation in nursing schools.
The National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI®)
Description: Provided by Stanford University, HighWire is touted as the largest archive of free full-text scientific material in existence, as the archive currently assists with the online publication of over 2,300,000 articles which are free to view in their entirety. In addition to the typical search function that most large databases offer, HighWire's main page comes in the form of a scrollable, alphabetical list showing the archive's library of journal titles, with the majority focusing on medical and scientific topics. HighWire contains a total of 1,746 highly respected research journals, and in the vast majority of cases users are granted full access to the articles contained therein. The database's search function is also highly customizable, providing advanced research tools like Instant Index and Citation Map, while also including a convenient button to link HighWire searches to the widely used PubMed database.
The HighWire database is relevant to my subject of interest because it provides instant access to thousands of articles on the connection between bipolar disorder and nursing education, as well as journals which can be used to complement primary research. Psychological, psychiatric, child development, and other journals can be very useful resources when searching for supplementary material that connects to my field of study, and purely medical databases often omit these holdings from their subject-specific holdings.
• Legal and ethical issues relevant to nursing research
Any kind of breach done with regards to the legal aspects has the likelihood of becoming an issue for litigation. The usual legal concerns associated with nursing research can be split into three:
Ownership of Data:
This can be a legal issue for nursing research that is the topic of a contract and can also come about as a result of rivaling research grants.
This covers the instance where a nursing researcher is gathering research data in a place that is outside their work setting; the aspect of indemnity has to be taken into account. This is more often than not attained by having a contract between the researcher and the health care facility such as a hospital (Eaton, Cullen, and McMahon, 2014).
In detail, ethics committees have to understand the manner in which the…
Eaton, S., Cullen, W., & McMahon, D. (2014). What legal and ethical issues should primary care researchers consider in the development and conduct of research involving population health datasets: a discussion paper.
Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2012). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (9th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams
Research Participant Website. (2015). IRB Guidelines. Retrieved from: http://analysisofresearchreports.weebly.com/irb-guidelines.html
Research Participant Website. (2015). Legal Issues. Retrieved from: http://analysisofresearchreports.weebly.com/legal-and-ethical-issues-relevant-to-nursing-research.html
Werhane & Doering (1997) point out that it is virtually impossible to operate in a totally objective research environment. All researchers have a degree of bias. The goal is to minimize that bias as a variable in empirical research. Focusing on conflicts of interest and conflicts of commitment, Werhane & Doering (1997) raise important issues and address critical concerns. The issues of conflict of interest and conflict of commitment are salient especially in the world of business. The interface between science and business frequently presents such a conflict, such as in pharmaceutical research. Informed consent and other ethical precautions are sometimes misconstrued if not totally glossed over in research.
Each of these articles offers a unique perspective on research ethics. It is impossible to extricate the researcher from the research, note Werhane & Doering (1997). Bias is inevitable, but it is crucial to recognize when and how this bias manifests.…
Randall, D.M. & Gibson, a.M. (1990). Methodology in business ethics research: A review and critical assessment. Journal of Business Ethics 9(6): 457-471.
Resnik, D.B. (2010). What is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important? National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences -- National Institutes of Health. Retrieved online: http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/whatis.cfm
Werhane, P. & Doering, J. (1997). Conflicts of interest and conflicts of commitment. Chapter 6 in Research Ethics: A Reader. Stern J. (1997). UPNE.
Finally, I decided that the most feasible option was to type in 'education research,' given there seemed to be few books specifically related to education. I could then screen the books for titles related to quantitative research. A manageable 75 results were retrieved. These were fairly easy to screen for relevant content, because Safari helpfully offers a short excerpt from every book where search terms were located. I was drawn to a quotation on page 266 that read: "Quantitative details can hurt qualitative understanding" from the book by uth C. Clark and Ann Kwinn entitled the new virtual classroom: Evidence-based guidelines for synchronous e-Learning (Pfeiffer, 2007, ISBN: 978-0-787-98652-0). This book examined how quantitative research had been used to validate and refine different approaches to online education.
Database 3: Google Books
Of all of the three databases I used in this experiment, Google Books was the one with which I was…
Clark, Ruth C. & Ann Kwinn. (2007). The new virtual classroom: Evidence-based guidelines for synchronous e-Learning. Pfeiffer.
Newman, Isadore & Caroline Ridenour. (2007). Mixed methods research: Exploring the interactive continuum. SIU Press.
Sandelowski, Margarete & Julie Barroso. (2006). Handbook for synthesizing qualitative research. Springer Publishing Company.
Key terms to be considered in this process will be those concerning a
developed understanding of the purpose of the study from a health
perspective. Therefore, this section should provide the study with a clear
identification of those terms which will be needed for an understanding of
the research subject as a whole.
Health Belief Model is a theoretical model framing our study. This
model, which is often referred to in the justification for public
information campaigns, the identification of public health patterns and the
illumination of other important factors as regard private and public health
agencies, contends that there is a direct correlation between that which
individuals believe regarding health and health-related factors and the way
that they behave or orient lifestyle decisions. Such is to say that one
who, for example, believes that smoking tobacco products can lead to lung
cancer and mortality may behave by refusing to…
It is important when conducting research that the researcher adheres to a strong set of ethical guidelines. Ethics ensure that the research is conducted without causing harm to any person. hile modern research ethics began with the study of issues regarding the use of human subjects, it has evolved into a more comprehensive understanding of a wide range of norms of conduct (Resnik, 2010). Some of the different subject areas covered by research ethics norms are honesty, integrity, intellectual property, the use of human subjects, confidentiality and social responsibility. This paper will outline some of the ethical expectations of researchers with respect to each of these subjects.
Honesty and Integrity
The American College of Physicians' Ethics Manual (2011) states that "honesty and integrity must govern all stages of research, from the initial design and grant application to publication of results." hat this means is that at no point…
American College of Physicians (2011). Research ethics and integrity. American College of Physicians. Retrieved October 7, 2011 from http://www.acponline.org/running_practice/ethics/issues/research/
Resnik, D. (2010). What is ethics in research and why is it important? National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Retrieved October 7, 2011 from http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/whatis.cfm
Smith, D. (2011). Five principles for research ethics. American Psychological Association. Retrieved October 7, 2011 from http://www.apa.org/monitor/jan03/principles.aspx
Wing, S. (2002). Social responsibility and research ethics in community-driven studies of industrialized hog production. Environmental Health Perspectives. 110 (5) 437-444.
The little Albert experiment
The little Albert experiment is a famous psychology experiment that was conducted by a behaviorist John. B. Watson. The participant in the experiment was a nine-month-old boy and he was exposed to various stimuli that included a white rat, monkey, masks and burning news papers and the reactions of the boy were observed. Initially no fear was expressed by the boy at any objects shown to him. A loud noise was made when he was next exposed to the rat and it was natural for the boy to cry upon the loud noise. The white rat and noise were paired repeatedly and the boy began to cry whenever he saw the rat. It showed that fear would be conditioned (Cherry, 2010). This paper will examines various unethical research behaviors that were involved in the little Albert experiment, the injured people in the experiment and…
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2005). Protection of human subjects [Issues in Ethics]. Retrieved February 27, 2013 from http://www.asha.org/policy/ET2005-00176/
Cherry, K. (2010).The Little Albert Experiment. Retrieved February 27, 2013 from http://psychology.about.com/od/classicpsychologystudies/a/little-albert-experiment.htm
The responsibility evaluator, basic researcher, protects people harm. Since harm people a variety ways, concerned evaluators guard harm people a program." Please describe ways evaluators ensure harm participants evaluation.
"The first responsibility of an evaluator, as it is with the basic researcher, is to protect people from harm. Since harm can be done to people in a variety of ways, concerned evaluators guard against harm to all people associated with a program." Please describe at least two ways in which evaluators can ensure that no harm comes to the participants of an evaluation. Which one do you think is the most important, and why?
One of the first questions a researcher must ask him or herself is: what will be the ultimate value of the research being conducted? Of course, some research outcomes are quite uncertain, but if little risk is posed to the test population, such exploratory…
286). Employers have, since the Immigration Reform and Control Act of1986 (IRCA), been obligated to function under the laws that govern verifying applicant/employee citizenship, and which assigns costly fines to companies that do not comply with the 1986 guidelines of verification (Olds Som and Momblanco, 2006, p. 286). However, these rules were not enforced, and employers were not, for the most part, fined.
That has now changed. At present, because of the threat posed by international terrorism, and because of the burden on the states arising out of illegal immigration, which is collapsing some state social structures, which means that taxpayers are supporting the burden of illegal immigration in ways that make the arguments for workers who perform low income and unwanted jobs moot in the face of the cost of healthcare, education, legal and social services that have become burdened with supporting the illegal immigrant population.
Now, employers are…
Writing for Monthly Labor Review (1987), Richard R. Nelson provides a breakdown of the laws passed on a state level, that helped states be in compliance with the 1986 Act by which companies have been governed since the federal government passed the Immigration Reform and Control Act of1986 (Vol. 110, 1987, p. 49). This article was useful in helping the author of the research presented here to navigate through the Act, to find those parts of the Act that pertained specifically to the documentation of worker status.
2.4 Magazine Articles
John D. McCann, writing for Security Management (Vol. 38, 1994, p. 72), provides a good introduction for the discussion of
Ethical Principles in esearch
While experimenting and during the research of several diverse subjects ranging from animal testing to human experimentation, from social and scientific transgression to scientific research, there are ethical principles that need to be adhered to and applied by the researchers. Study participants, who open up their lives to the researchers, commentators and also those followers during the period of one's research, rely and trust us so we can do our task efficiently without causing any harm.
The United States largest psychological organization is the American Psychological Association (APA) with a goal to convey the psychological knowledge among the masses. The application, usage, intent and the practical considerations are discussed in the overview of the ethics code. The Preamble and the Principles are a source of mentoring for the psychologists although they are not mandatory, the psychologists are advised to consider upon them as an action of…
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct Standard 8 (2010): Research and Publication http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx
Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (U.S.), National Academy of Sciences (U.S.), National Academy of Engineering., & Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2009) On being a scientist: A guide to responsible conduct in research, (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12192
Students benefit from the commodity element of research assistance companies because they are the benefactors of the product. They are given opportunities to choose the best company and the companies work hard to attract their business by providing the best possible materials for them to draw from in their research.
n short the industry has exploded into a healthy commodity market and through that market the students using the services are benefiting.
The research assistance business has generated conditions for additional markets to emerge which in turn creates an environment by which the cognitive process of learning becomes a market.
Some of the new markets that research assistance companies provide are online universities, individual learning opportunities and of course employment for those who work in these areas as well as directly for the research companies (Graham, 2001).
The concept of Questia was to put a library online," Questia CEO Troy…
It is a win-win situation for everyone involved and as technology continues to improve the research assistance business will also improve.
Graham, Andrew, (2001) Online service helps college students with research. University Wire
Criminal Justice esearch Methods
There are a large number of research methodologies that can be used to investigate the effectiveness of criminal justice practices and reforms. The methodologies can be grouped into qualitative and quantitative, with the former representing an inductive approach when little is understood about a phenomenon (Driessnack, Sousa, & Mendes, 2007) and the latter representing a deductive approach intended to quantify outcomes under controlled conditions (Sousa, Driessnack, & Mendes, 2007). Quantitative methodologies can be further divided into non-experimental and experimental, while experimental can be divided into true-experimental and quasi-experimental. To develop a deeper understanding of the scientific methods of inquiry that can be applied to criminal justice research topics, several study designs will be reviewed and discussed.
esearch Methods and Examples
esearcher interested in understanding more about a phenomenon will typically interview the persons who are affected the most, thereby gaining a better understanding of the lived…
Carroll, R. (2013, November 4). California police use of body cameras cuts violence and complaints. The Guardian. Retrieved 27 Apr. 2014 from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/04/california-police-body-cameras-cuts-violence-complaints-rialto .
Conti, N. (2009). A visigoth system: Shame, honor, and police socialization. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 38(3), 409-32.
Driessnack, M., Sousa, V.D., & Mendes, I.A. (2007). An Overview of Research Designs Relevant to Nursing: Part 2: Qualitative Research Designs. Revisto Latino-Americana de Enfermagem 15(4), 684-8.
Rosenthal, J. & Brown, D. (2014, March 31). Curtis Young case shows need for body-worn cameras on police. The Star. Retrieved 27 Apr. 2014 from http://www.thestar.com/opinion/commentary/2014/03/31/curtis_young_case_shows_need_for_bodyworn_cameras_on_police.html .
Institutional Review Boards
hat is an IRB?
IRBs (institutional review boards) were convened to oversee research in organizations receiving federal funds and created to protect human participants from research that is risky, harmful, or does not respect the rights and dignity of human beings (Royse, 2010).
Identify the three types of IRB review.
The three types of IRB review are exempt, expedited, or full review.
If you were to create a plan to evaluate a program or intervention, what level of IRB review would it need? hy?
To evaluate a rehabilitation program for prisoners, a full review is required because exemptions cannot be granted for projects that involve minors, unless it is a regular school setting, prisoners, fetuses, or mentally disabled persons.
Imagine if your evaluation plan included the use of special populations. Identify ethical challenges you might face.
"Some of the most egregious violations of human subjects have taken…
Royse, D.T. (2010). Chapter 2: Ehical Issues in Program Evaluation. In D.T. Royse, Program Evaluation: An Introduction, 5th ed. Cengage Learning.
Derivatives -- Perceptions of Value and Use
Realistic & Empirical Research Approaches in inance
Empirical research (which originates from the positivist tradition) and qualitative research are sufficiently distinct in their philosophical grounding to ask very different types of research questions. Empirical research is a theory-building endeavor that seeks to add to theory by determining the degree to which the hypotheses in a study are true or false. Qualitative research does not begin with theory, as the researcher is interested in the "truth" that is inherent in subjective accounts and perceptions about phenomena. Several types of qualitative research exist, each with a tendency toward a particular methodology. or example, ethnography is often naturalistic research in which the presence of the investigator is a functional "instrument" in the research. Empirical research imposes great constraints on the capacity of the investigator to in any way influence the data or the experimental process, unless…
Factor analysis provided inductive support for the hypotheses in this empirical study of active users and controllers of derivatives (Bezzina & Grima, 2012). This empirical study used regression to identify groupings of personal attributes and demographic characteristics associated with the derivative use that is neither misunderstood or mishandled (Bezzina & Grima, 2012).
The challenge of applied research is this: Phenomena that occur in open systems are subject to the influence of generative mechanisms and structures that drive them, but they are not always manifestly present in readily observable patterns. In other words, the contexts in which research findings are applied to practice differ from context -- the more controlled environments -- in which the original research was conducted. This presents a replication problems and generalization
Market Research Tools
Nike wants to evaluate its perceived customer services. They want to use the following research tools. Personal Interview; Mail Surveys; Self-Administered questionnaires and Telephone Interviewing. Compare and contrast these research tools.
All of the research tools listed can be useful for eliciting information from retail customers. However, they all have specific benefits and weaknesses depending on the particular purpose and circumstances of their proposed use. In principle, there will be a trade-off between market research methods that allow for the greatest flexibility on the part of the entity collecting data and those methods that allow for the least flexibility, represented by lesser and greater standardization and uniformity, respectively. Therefore, the optimal market research method typically depends on the goals established for the research project, something that is highly consistent across different industrial and educational applications of research methods (Myers & Spencer, 2010; Pickering, 2011).
For example, personal…
Myers, D.G. And Spencer, S.J. 2010. Social Psychology. McGraw-Hill: New York.
Pickering, M. 2011. Research Methods for Cultural Studies. Edinburg University Press:
Sanford, et al. (2011), open-ended interviews and a qualitative method were used, in order to make sure the person giving the information understood that he or she was providing personal information in detail, as opposed to just choosing from a yes/no option.
The setting for the study was the homes of the people who were interviewed, the library, or places of employment. This kept them close to the people they needed to help, along with allowing them to feel more comfortable and relaxed while they were doing the interviews.
The sample of 20 people was adequate for the type of research design that was collected. It is often not necessary to have a large sample set for a qualitative study of this type.
The data collection procedure for this study was audiotaped interviews with open-ended questions. Memos and notes were also taken, and the interviews lasted from 45 minutes to…
Sanford, J., Townsend-Rocchicciolli, J., Horigan, A., & Hall, P. (2011). A process of decision making by caregivers of family members with heart failure. Research & Theory for Nursing Practice, 25(1), 55-70.
Schwarz, K., Mion, P., Hudock, D., & Litman, G. (2008). Telemonitoring of heart failure patients and their caregivers: A pilot randomized controlled study. Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing, 23(1), 18-26.
Interval # Ordinal # Nominal # atio
Childhood obesity has become a fundamental problem for policymakers in the United States. Obesity increases the risk of such health complications as Type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. As such, researchers have shifted their effort to studying the causes and risk factors for childhood obesity. This text presents a set of research questions and variables for a proposed study seeking to identify the causes of childhood obesity.
Childhood Obesity: esearch Questions and Variables
Childhood obesity is becoming a serious health concern for parents and policymakers alike in the U.S. Empirical evidence indicates that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children below has almost tripled over the last decade (Karnik & Kanekar, 2012). This increasing prevalence of obesity places our young generation at risk for cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, and other health complications associated with overweight (Karnik & Kanekar, 2012). For this…
Jekel, J. F. (2007). Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Preventive Medicine (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
Karnik, S. & Kanekar, A. (2012). Childhood Obesity: A Global Public Health Crisis. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 3(1), 1-7.
Norman, G. R. & Streiner, D. L. (2008). Biostatistics: The Bare Essentials. Lewiston, NY: PMPH-USA.
Community Sports Programs
Are Community Sports Programs a Viable Investment for Cities and Economies?
ecent years have seen states substantially increase their budgetary allocations to community sports programs, particularly youth programs. This trend is informed by the belief that such programs help to reduce negative vices among the youth and to consequently boost the welfare of adolescents and youth in the state. The following research questions seek to assess the feasibility of community sports programs as platforms for improving the welfare of the youth. They assess the said programs based on their effect on the various indicators of welfare among the youth.
Q1: How does state budgeting for community youth sporting programs compare with the rates of adolescent drug use and abuse?
This question seeks to measure the effect of state budgeting for sporting activities on drug and substance abuse among adolescents and young people. The amount of state budgeting…
Holliman, A. J. (Ed.). (2012). The Routledge Educational Companion to Educational
Psychology. New York, NY: Routledge.
Norman, G. R. & Streiner, D. L. (2008). Biostatistics: The Bare Essentials (3rd ed.). Lewiston,
planning turned out to be, include recommendations on how you might improve the process next time you are assigned a research project.
The process of this research project involved a review of literature, including three studies focusing on different aspects of tourism and economic development and different regions of the world. Next time, I might consider reviewing more studies for a broader understanding of the topic, but this was a good start. I also might consider widening the scope of the search by including different academic databases that might have studies published in foreign journals.
Ultimately, the three papers selected for the final research project revealed the variables that would be important to investigate in future research projects in this topic area. The process of analyzing those variables entailed writing down from each paper the findings and how they pertained to our exploratory research. Those variables include the need to…
My approach to research usually begins with something I have read. This can be a book, a journal article or a website. No matter what the medium, the text has to be something that sparks my interest: it has to be something that I want to know more about. Then, where I go from there, depends upon the medium that hooked my interest. If it is a website, I will follow links to more information written by others or to other works written by the same author. Typically, articles online will have hyperlinks pasted into the text, so that the reader can access references easily. This is always helpful when it is time to start gathering information. I will open several tabs in my browser at once and just keep gathering information that way. If it is a book, I will look up what else the author has done and…
How to Write a Research Paper
Research papers require one to spend a certain amount of time reading up on a subject, gaining an understanding of it, and then putting that understanding into words. The words have to be organized in a precise way so that information is communicated effectively from the writer to the reader. Moreover, there has to be a point to what is being stated. The writer has to have a reason for communicating; otherwise the reader will have no interest in sticking around. This paper will describe the process that goes into writing a research paper, from doing the research to creating an outline to writing the actual paper.
The first thing that has to be done is a subject has to be picked. This subject will be what is researched, and there are a variety of ways to do the research on the subject. One…
There is an art and a science to research. Indeed, that would be the focus of the first assignment and discussion for this class. One of the primary challenges when it comes to research is gaining the necessary access to the participants. There are ethics and considerations for both the studiers and the studied. This initial discussion post will address all the above. While it would be optimal in many cases to gain access to study subjects without them knowing about what is being looked at or them being concerned about privacy and other issues, these are considerations that must be addressed ethically.
In looking at the six-step checklist and other concerns, there are several things that become obvious and apparent. One thing would be what is commonly known as the Hawthorne effect. Indeed, there are concerns to be dealt with when it comes to the people being researching…
Fernandez, C. V., O\\'Rourke, P. P., & Beskow, L. M. (2015). Canadian Research Ethics Board
Leadership Attitudes to the Return of Genetic Research Results to Individuals and
Their Families. Journal Of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 43(3), 514-522.
Paradis, E., & Sutkin, G. (2017). Beyond a good story: from Hawthorne Effect to reactivity in
health professions education research. Medical Education, 51(1), 31-39.
In modern clinical research ethics, it is normally assumed that a certain group of people is more likely to be mishandled, misguided or taken advantage of while participating in research. These groups are given the umbrella term vulnerable. The researchers ought to specially protect these individuals (Solomon, 2013). During research, the vulnerable groups need quite a lot of attention as the study is being designed. Special recruitment consideration must be done for the vulnerable. The strategies of research should likewise be scrutinized to ensure they are both safe and efficient. Instances of ethical dilemma are common in researches involving vulnerable groups (Shivayogi, 2013).
Detailed safety monitoring plans should be should be developed with Data Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC). Where applicable, Observation Study Monitoring Boards should be used. These should be involved in both early and late trial phases of the research. The vulnerable subjects should be asked to make recommendations…
Guyatt, G. H., Oxman, A. D., Vist, G. E., Kunz, R., Falck-Ytter, Y., Alonso-Coello, P., & Schünemann, H. (2008). Grade: An emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ, 336, 924–6. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39489.470347.AD.
Llewellyn-Thomas, H. A. (2006). Measuring patients' preferences for participating in healthcare decisions: avoiding invalid observations. Health Expect, 4, 305–6. doi: 10.1111/j.1369-7625.2006.00418.x.
Shivayogi, P. (2013). Vulnerable population and methods for their safeguard. Perspect Clin Res, 4(1), 53–57. doi: 10.4103/2229-3485.106389
Solomon, S. R. (2013). Protecting and respecting the vulnerable: Existing regulations or further protections? Theor Med Bioeth, 34(1), 17–28. doi:10.1007/s11017-013-9242-8.
com. (2006) Nutritional information database retrieved 13 Dec
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Severson, Kim. (13 Dec 2003) "New York Gets Ready to Count Calories."
The New York Times. Retrieved 13 Dec 2006 at
Schlosser, Eric. (2005) Fast Food Nation. New York: Harper Perennial.
"Supersize Me." (2004). Directed by Morgan Spurlock.
"Overweight and Obesity."(2006) CDC: Council for Disease Control.
Retrieved 13 Dec
Mixed methods research design is popular in many research settings because it offers a set of advantages as well as a flexibility that cannot be matched by other available methods. This method combines some of the features from both quantitative and qualitative research methods to create unique methods that can integrate many theoretical or conceptual frameworks. This analysis will use a case study form of a mixed methods approach from studies that were performed in different academic fields to illustrate this form of research. The case study approach is popular in various environments due to the fact that it has more flexibility to explore and explain complex social phenomenon that are difficult to account for in strict quantitative approaches. Furthermore, it also allows room for the social constructivist approach that allows participants some freedom to add information that is relevant to their particular perspective to be added to the data.…
Mayo, J. (2002). Case-based Instruction: A Technique for Increasing Conceptual Application in Introductory Psychology. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 65-74.
O'Connor, B., & Cordova, R. (2010). Learning: The Experiences of Adults Who Work Full-Time While Attending Graduate School Part-Time. Journal of Education for Business, 359-368.
van der Voot, J., Glac, K., & Meijs, L. (2009). ''Managing'' Corporate Community Involvement. Journal of Business Ethics, 311-329.
Halcomb, Peters, and Mclennes (2015) aims at examining pre-registration nurses' experiences in community clinic assignments as well as the effect such assignment has on their education. The authors have determined that clinical assignments to community facilities may offer nursing undergraduates important opportunities for learning. The research was conducted using a qualitative study design.
The research work attempts at examining pre-registration nurses' experiences in community clinic assignments as well as the effect such assignment has on their education.
Statement of Purpose
For promoting the profession of primary healthcare, comprehending pre-registration pupils' experiences within primary care contexts at the time of clinical assignment is vital.
In spite of the observable advantages such assignment have for pupils, poor supervisor-student relationships, work climates that do not foster a sense of belonging, and the absence of adequate guidance and monitoring are proven to have strong links to exacerbated anxiety and stress levels, greater pupil attrition…
Reduced treatment mistakes and patient falls, together with patient perceptions of being better informed during shift change, was witnessed by researchers. The intervention incorporated a 3-hour nursing pupil handoff practicum, 2-hour clinical staff training, and a formative student assessment and feedback in the course of clinical experiences all through the 3rd semester. The pupil practicum was integrated into clinical orientation and clinical lab experience. Best practices in bedside hand-offs were addressed as well. All through the course of the practicum, emphasis was placed on the handoff receiver's active participation in safety communication (Avallone & Weideman, 2015). Numerous favorable results were recorded with regard to combined bedside nurse shift reporting practice, with a small number of downsides. Nursing outlook towards reporting during final data acquisition proved to be more favorable as compared to their outlook at the start of program implementation. If put into proper practice, bedside nurse reporting may improve patient safety results and nurse and patient satisfaction. But it is imperative to ensure nurse involvement in practice implementation and to continually check both report format uniformity and process support on nurses' and patients' part (Jecklin-Sand & Sherman, 2014).
Avallone, M., & Weideman, Y. (2015). Evaluation of a nursing handoff educational bundle to improve nursing student handoff communications: A Pilot Study. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 65 - 75.
Jecklin-Sand, K., & Sherman, J. (2014). A quantitative assessment of patient and nurse outcomes of bedside nursing report implementation. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2854 - 63.
International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Code on Maritime Security
The study will be based on the question that "What is the impact of the International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Code on Maritime Security." Answers will be sought to have this question addressed adequately.
The study feels that the ISPS Code has some impacts upon the Maritime Security in the world. Thus, the study seeks to uncover the various impacts that are realized by the Maritime Security as offered by the ISPS.
The influence and functionality of the existing ISPS Code run globally. Its effects, as part of its usefulness and importance, are felt by the Maritime Security among other agents of security in the world. Thus, the study will uncover the impacts caused by the ISPS Code on the Maritime Security in various parts of the world. The study will seek further knowledge from different materials; research…
Criminal justice researchers are usually faced with numerous anecdotal data that is supported with relatively little to no empirical support. In order to effectively explore nuances of the issues that face the society with regards to law enforcement, criminal justice researchers tend to rely on empirical data, which is considered useful. The dependence on empirical data in criminal justice is evident in the fact that most of the existing criminology journals are quantitative as compared to qualitative studies (Jacques, 2014). Empirical research data is data obtained from direct and indirect observation of a complex social issue whereas anecdotal data is data obtained from someone else's observation or experience of an issue. In the criminal justice field, empirical research data is used to inform evidence-based practices in this field because it's based on well-designed analytical approaches and studies. In some cases, empirical research evidence is used to confirm anecdotal data as…
.....mission of the Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF) exerts upon the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)
The Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF) was established with the main purpose of addressing and coming up with resolve for current issues being faced by professionals in the accounting field, which were not addressed by announcements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). Prior to the establishment of ETIF in 1984, the FASB constantly faced challenges of not being able to offer well-timed and sensible solutions to developing practice problems. The EITF was therefore designed to disseminate and propagate carrying out guidance within the structure of the Accounting Standards Codification to decrease multiplicity when it comes down to it on a well-timed basis. In their field of profession, accountants experience a wide range of issues that are not comprehensively addressed in accounting pronouncements, and, which necessitate prompt resolve. In addition, such professionals insist that…
.....contemporary, there is a great deal of dynamism and competition, and therefore it is fundamental for organizations to produce newfangled ideas of high quality to develop or sustain their competitive edge. Customarily, an approach of generating ideas has been verbal brainstorming, which encompasses a practice where groups of individuals, commonly in the similar space, work in tandem to form and interchange notions (Stevens et al., 2009). The design of the user interface of a system is vital and fundamental to the success of the software. The presentation and unveiling of concepts through an information system interface can play a significant part in facilitating and encouraging the integration of conceptions in the electronic brainstorming system (EBS), which as a result can give rise to enhancing the level of productivity. In delineation, EBS is a computer-based system that simplifies and enables brainstorming between the group members. The aspect in this case is…
Development Change Research Issue
Developmental change is a broad topic that incorporate several sub-topics relating to an individual's growth and development. The broad nature of this topic emerges from the fact that its an approach that is geared towards explaining how infants, children, and adults change over a period of time. The process of explaining individuals' developmental changes over time involves examining a wide range of theoretical areas including biological, cognitive, emotional, and social domains. Additionally, there are different research designs that are utilized in developmental research including longitudinal, sequential, and cross-sectional research approaches (Berk & Meyers, 2016). These different approaches are selected based on their effectiveness in exploring a particular issue or aspect of developmental change over time.
An example of a topic that could be examined using one of these research designs is masticatory performance in children across different age groups. This is an important topic of study…
infused my original assumptions with greater specificity over the course of the gathering of my information. At first, I conducted a literature review of my topic (human trafficking) to establish that there is a recorded tendency that women are more likely to be trafficked than men. But after exploring the data collection process further of these research studies, I began to understand that certain factors can affect even statistical evidence, such as the fact that certain forms of trafficking may be more likely to be detected than other forms. For example, women seem to be more apt to be trafficked into the sex industry. Since all forms of prostitution are illegal in most states, this makes it easier to detect than coerced labor in the agricultural and garment industries and in domestic service (Hepburn & Simon 2010). This highlighted that there will likely always be gaps in whatever data that…
Direct Instruction stands for society's equality and it works best.
Direct Instruciton should be used as a method for education because it has proven to be the most effective technique for actual learning and understanding. Since teachers are working directly with the student, they are can immediately respond to the needs of the student and adjust levels of comprehension based upon their different rates of comprehension. Additionally, the use of DI ensures that teachers do not "belabor" certain aspects of lessons and at the same time can either slow or speed up their lesson according to the student's needs. The focus is that this learning strategy places all of the emphasis upon the student and provides manevurability into the hands of the teacher. This creates high levels of confidence for the student because he feels that he is consistently accomplishing goals while increasing comprehension because the teacher adjusts to the…
Terrorist Threat to California through Mexican Drug Trafficking
The immigration challenges across all the United tates borders often invoke varied responses from both the average citizens and the law enforcement agencies. The cross border migration that has been of greatest concern is the Mexico to UA migration due to the myriad challenges this migration presents to the U..A. The Mexican population residing to the outh of the U.. has had a strained relationship with its northern neighbor over a long period of time owing to the inconsistency of its immigration policies, the distinctly lower socioeconomic status afforded to Mexicans on both sides of the border and the ravages afflicted upon both sides of the border by the U.. sponsored War on Drugs. Though all of these aforementioned factors are relevant, it is the war on drugs that forms the central concern of this research proposal since it has proven persistent…
Astorga, L. (2003). Drug Trafficking in Mexico: A First General Assessment. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Online at http://www.unesco.org/most/astorga.htm
DeMelo, D. (2005). Merton's Strain Theory. Criminological Theory. Online at < http://home.comcast.net/~ddemelo/crime/mert_strain.html >
Imperial Valley News (IVN). (2008). Mexican Drug-Trafficking Organization Members Indicted in Operation Money Train. Imperial Valley News.
Jeffrey, T.P. (2009). Drug Cartels Control Crossings. The Washington Times.
research databases in the Walden Library. Some may be more useful than others for finding articles related to your dissertation topic. Before you begin to search for articles, it is important to identify the databases that will be most useful. It also is important to use the best searching strategies. If you search using keywords that are too broad, you may be inundated with useless information. If you search using keywords that are too specific, you may miss articles that are pertinent to your dissertation topic. As you prepare for this assignment, be sure to visit the Walden Library web article "Searching Strategies" listed under the resources for this week.
Then provide a list of the research databases and/or scholarly resources you plan to search for your literature review. Finally, describe two techniques and/or strategies you think will be useful when searching for and identifying articles for your literature review.…
References Walden University. (2014a). Databases by name. Retrieved from http://library.waldenu.edu/722.htm . Walden University. (2014b). Keyword searching: Finding articles on your topic: Keyword search strategy. Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/c.php?g=80380
My dissertation topic is "Teen Pregnancy and Barriers explored within programs which benefit teens as they become teenage parents." The one thing we as parents are familiar with as well as our teens is the contraceptives, birth control, free clinics and information pertaining to STD's that
Qualitative research is an assortment of various approaches, which have differences and commonalities. In qualitative research, the truth is not considered as an objective but as a subjective reality where various individuals experience differently. The aim of qualitative research is to address any of the problems found in the society. Psychology, education, and sociology are the subjects in which qualitative research methods are used. Qualitative research methods attempt to know why human beings exhibit specific behaviors and make certain choices unlike in the quantitative research method where such details are not shown (Lewis, 2015). The contents of a research paper written using qualitative method vary depending on the methods incorporated and focus in the study.
The introduction is the first part of the process, which sets down the direction of the paper. It lays out exactly what the researcher is trying to achieve at the end of…
Brooks, J. S., & Normore, A. H. (2015). Qualitative Research and Educational Leadership: Essential Dynamics to Consider When Designing and Conducting Studies. International Journal of Educational Management, 29(7), 798-806.
Demeh, W., & Rosengren, K. (2015). The Visualization of Clinical Leadership in the Content of Nursing Education -- A Qualitative Study of Nursing Students' Experiences. Nurse Education Today, 35(7), 888-893.
Kilpatrick, J. E., & McCarthy, M. H. (2015). Global Education and School Leaders' Role in Equitable Access for All Students: Synthesis of Two Qualitative Studies from Massachusetts, USA.
Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. Health Promotion Practice, 1524839915580941.
Attention-Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
According to the American Psychiatric Association Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) is now referred to as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD. However, most lay people and some professionals will still refer to the condition as ADD, which are the names given to the condition in 1980. ADHD has been around for a longer period than most people actually recall or realize. Hippocrates, who lived from 460 to 370 BC, described a condition similar to ADHD. ADHD is a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder where there are substantial problems with executive functions that cause hyperactivity, attention deficits, or impulsiveness, which is inappropriate for the person's age. In order for a diagnosis to be made for the condition, the symptoms of ADHD must persist for six months or more. According to (McGoey et al., 2014), they define ADHD as a condition that causes a person to have trouble focusing…
Antshel, K. M., Faraone, S. V., & Gordon, M. (2012). Cognitive behavioral treatment outcomes in adolescent ADHD. FOCUS.
Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, W. E., Coles, E. K., Gnagy, E. M., Chronis-Tuscano, A., & O'Connor, B. C. (2009). A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Clinical psychology review, 29(2), 129-140.
Gudjonsson, G. H., Sigurdsson, J. F., Sigfusdottir, I. D., & Young, S. (2012). An epidemiological study of ADHD symptoms among young persons and the relationship with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(3), 304-312.
Harold, G. T., Leve, L. D., Barrett, D., Elam, K., Neiderhiser, J. M., Natsuaki, M. N., . . . Thapar, A. (2013). Biological and rearing mother influences on child ADHD symptoms: revisiting the developmental interface between nature and nurture. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(10), 1038-1046.
Sustainability in Pharmaceutical Pricing
How Can Pharmaceutical Public-Private Partnerships Help to Achieve the Dissemination of affordable medicines - The Case of Anti Malaria Drugs in Nigeria?
Many individuals from developing countries who could benefit from pharmaceuticals products do not receive them due to high costs. Antiretroviral therapy's failure in reaching more than scant numbers of individuals in developing nations, suffering from AIDS, has drawn extensive publicity. However, even far cheaper medications that can be delivered easily aren't reaching numerous individuals who require them. Over a fourth of children all over the world and more than half of the children in a few nations do not receive vaccines, which come under the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Expanded Program on Immunization. Even though these vaccines only cost a family under a dollar a dose, they still cannot afford the medicine. The lack of access to beneficial pharmaceutical products and the…
AUSPA 2012, Policy & Advocacy, Western Australian Council of Social Service Inc., viewed 10 June 2017,
Buckley, J & Seamus, T 2005, International Pricing and Distribution of Therapeutic Pharmaceuticals: An Ethical Minefield. Business Ethics, pp.127-141.
Hussein, A 2015, The Use of Triangulation in Social Sciences Research: Can Qualitative and Quantitative Methods Be Combined? Journal of Comparative Social Work, vol. 4., no.1.
Lampard, R & Pole, C 2015. Practical social investigation: qualitative and quantitative methods in social research. Routledge: Abingdon, UK.
.....standard indicators for which statistical time series data and targets are accessible, but also take into account social aspects, for instance, the fair apportionment of benefits and encumbrances of the energy transition amid social groups and even the participation of citizens in the transformation process. These social constructs are lacking in preceding approaches, which indicates a certain level of inefficiency. Taking this into account, the authors make the hypothesis that an all-inclusive indicator system is required as tool for analysis to examine the sustainability of the German energy system in addition to supporting the advancement of resilient political approaches for an efficacious energy transition (Rosch et al., 2017).
How would you describe the purpose of the study - What was the major purpose of the study -- descriptive, explanatory (investigating causal relationships)?
The purpose of this study is to make a contribution to the debate regarding indicators necessitated for making…
.....child's household income level growing up and how they spend their money when they become adults. Essentially, you want to know if there is any association between childhood wealth and spending in their later years asadults -- not only in the sample but also in the larger population from which the sample was drawn.THIS DATA IS COMPLETELY MADE-UP.
Below is the resulting contingency table with the actual frequencies.
Spending in Adulthood
Grew up 'poor'
Grew up 'rich'
Compute the expected frequencies (fe) for the table above. YOU MUST SHOW YOUR WORK.
Formula; Eij = Ti * Tj /N
fe11 = 65*67/140 = 31.11 fe12 = 65*73/140 = 33.89
fe21 = 45*67/140 = 21.54 fe22 = 45*73/140 = 23.46
fe31 = 30*67/140 = 14.36 fe32 = 30*73/140 = 15.64
2. State the null hypothesis and…
1. An operational definition helps the researcher maintain both internal and external validity. The researcher clearly defines terms, and shows how each variable is measured. In this way, concepts that are otherwise abstract like intelligence can be operationalized.
Intelligence needs to be operationalized because the researcher needs to show what specific type of intelligence is being measured, and how. An operational definition is “the particular method that we use to measure a variable of interest,” beyond the theoretical definitions that can be applied later (“Conducting Research in Social Psychology,” n.d., p. 1). Whereas the theoretical definitions of intelligence can be broad, like “the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge,” operational definitions are narrower in scope because they need to be easily measured (Legg & Hutter, 2006, p. 2).
For example, if mathematical intelligence is being measured, then an established mathematical skills test needs to be administered to research participants. Social skills intelligence…
"A population is thus an aggregate of creatures, things, cases and so on," ("Populations and Samples," n.d.). The population samples for this research will consist of product developers and engineers, market researchers, Apple employees, and consumers. Using a broad population base like this allows for the most thorough insight possible into how Apple can improve their innovation strategies. The product researchers, engineers, and developers are the people who are most in tune with what can be done, and what is within the pragmatic realm of possibility. For example, if product developers were asked what they would design if money were not an issue, they could help determine some new directions for Apple. Product researchers, engineers, and developers will be contacted directly by our research team. Our research team will phone or email a list of product researchers and developers working for different companies all over the world. The initial…
Easton, V.J. & McColl, J.H. (n.d.). Target population. Retrieved online: http://www.stats.gla.ac.uk/steps/glossary/sampling.html
"Populations and Samples," (n.d.). British Medical Journal. Retrieved online: http://www.bmj.com/about-bmj/resources-readers/publications/statistics-square-one/3-populations-and-samples
Examining Power Infrastructure Projects
With natural gas and oil resources dwindling and the greenhouse gas threat continues to grow, it will be crucial to examine alternatives for cleaner power. The project will explore two different categories of infrastructure projects, including the construction of water power plants and solar plants. The two projects will be from developing nations in order to help expose potential for changes for future projects. The hydroelectricity plant to be examined is the Brantas iver Basin Development Project in Indonesia, while the solar plant is the Ourzazate Solar Power Station project in Morocco. Ultimately, this will help this current research explore the strengths and weaknesses of both in order to provide recommendations not just for projects here in the United States, but also around the world that help strengthen growing economies.
Integrated power production construction projects are enormous endeavors and are quite complicated. There are…
Konate, Ibrahima, Arfquoi, Youssef, & Faller, Tanja. (2012). Project Ourzazate Solar Power Station. American Development Bank. Web. http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Project-and-Operations/Morocco%20-%20%20AR%20Ouarzazate%20Project%20I%20%282%29.pdf
Shimomura, Yasutami. (2011). Infrastructure construction experiences in East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa: A comparative study for mutual learning. SOAS International Workshop on Aid and Development in Asia and Africa. Web. http://www.jica.go.jp/uk/english/office/topics/pdf/topics111028_04_02.pdf
ole Of Leadership And Employees In Organizational Innovation
Organizational success in the current global environment characterized with significant challenges is highly dependent on innovation and creativity. Innovation and creativity contribute to the success of organizational interventions, thereby, contributing to its competitiveness. The current global environment is characterized by rapid adoption of new technologies, reduction in the life cycle of products, and globalization. As such, it implies the need for the organizations to become creative and innovative to compete, survive, lead, and grow in the wake of these challenges. Similarly, significant evidence shows that leadership and the employees play an important role in driving innovation and creativity within the organization. For instance, studies have shown that leadership styles such as transformational and transactional leadership styles, influences innovation, and creativity within the organization positively. However, limited knowledge on the contextual factors under which the effect occurs exists.
Similarly, empirical evidence…
Eisenbeiβ, S.A., & Boerner, S. (2010). Transformational Leadership and R&D Innovation: Taking a Curvilinear Approach. Creativity and Innovation Management, 19(4), 364-372.
Gumusluoglu, L., & Ilsev, A. (2009). Transformational Leadership, Creativity, And Organizational Innovation. Journal of Business Research, 62(4), 461-473.
Hu, H., Gu, Q., & Chen, J. (2013). How and when does transformational leadership affect organizational creativity and innovation?: Critical review and future directions. Nankai Business Review International, 4(2), 147-166.
Liao, S., & Wu, C. (2010). System perspective of knowledge management, organizational learning, and organizational innovation. Expert Systems with Applications, 37(2), 1096-1103.
nursing interventions purposed at assisting ambulatory surgical patients with the management of postoperative symptoms at home. The problem statement is easy to locate and is clearly stated. In addition, the problem statement does build a cogent and persuasive argument for the new study in the need for obtaining research data about nursing interventions.
The problem stated does have significance for nursing with respect to patient care given to patients subsequent to receiving ambulatory surgery. The research might contribute to nursing practice by outlining the proper and fitting nursing interventions needed to ensure that ambulatory surgical patients do not experience pain after the procedures.
There is a good fit between the research problem and the paradigm within which the research was conducted, in that, the research encompassed comparison between patients that received NCI intervention and those that experienced usual practice to examine the impact.
As pointed out, the research does provide…
learning for you in considering these materials. What variations in research approach to your dissertation topic might be suggested by them? What encouragement, related reading, or other ideas can you suggest?
"Experience" is a term increasingly bandied about in academic circles, partially in relation to the present interest in phenomenology among social scientists. Many attempts have been made to define the term over time, from a cultural studies and social anthropology standpoint. ut, scholars usually bring up this subject without any description of what is really meant by it. Even those scholars who have, earlier, discussed this issue could not come to any consensus with regard to defining 'experience'. A focus on experience of a sensory nature raises the methodological question of how to comprehend others' experiences considering experience's complexity. It is not possible to peek into their mind or underneath their skin for thinking or feeling the way others…
Creswell, J. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. California: Sage Publication.
Pink, S. (2008). Research Methods for Cultural Studies: Analyzing Visual Experience. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Robson, C. (2013). Real World Research. Wiley: Washington.
Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (2003). Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social & Behavioral Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage
Ndunda (2004) defines research as the systematic use of several techniques to generate credible information regarding problems. This process helps in providing reliable and verifiable information rather than assumptions regarding the issue or problem being examined. Based on this definition, the research process can be defined as collecting and analyzing information regarding a specific issue to generate reliable information that leads to accurate conclusions. In most cases, the research process helps in generating information that can be utilized in effective decision making regarding a specific issue or problem. In the field of education, the research process involves the use of different techniques/methods to analyze an issue and provide reliable information about it.
In light of the definition of the research process, there are several steps involved with conducting research in order to generate reliable information. The first step in conducting research is identifying the issue or topic, which needs…
Johnson, R. B., & Christensen, L. (n/s). Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research. Retrieved from University of South Alabama website: http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/lectures/lec2.htm
Ndunda M. (2004). Introduction to Educational Research. Retrieved from College of Charleston website: http://www.cofc.edu/~ndundam/NOTESSPRING2001/635chapt1.htm
Shuttleworth, M. (n.d.). Different Research Methods. Retrieved February 11, 2017, from https://explorable.com/different-research-methods
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
According to Lopez-Alvarado (2017) and Muijs (n.d.), research design decisions are linked to ontology and epistemology. Ontology refers to the researcher’s beliefs about whether reality is absolute or contextual, universal or relative. Whether the researcher is a realist or a relativist determines research questions and designs, with an increased tendency for relativists to focus on phenomenological and qualitative methods and a realist to use quantitative methods. Muijs (n.d.) describes quantitative research as using numerical data and mathematical methods, showing how a realist will use these types of methods to seek for an objective truth. Likewise, epistemology refers to how the researcher acquires knowledge, or what sources of knowledge are deemed valid. A researcher who believes in absolutism and realism will veer towards quantitative methods, which yield absolute and generalizable results. On the other hand, a researcher who values subjectivity would take a phenomenological and qualitative approach.…
The Challenges of Dual Credit: A Research Proposal
Dual credit or dual enrollment programs “are designed to boost college access and degree attainment, especially for students typically underrepresented in higher education,” (United States Department of Education, 2017, p. 1). With this lofty goal set, it should seem that dual credit programs would be reducing the educational achievement gap. After all, dual credit programs by definition allow all students the opportunity to potentially shorten the amount of time they spend in college, thereby reducing their tuition fees that enable the completion of a degree program. Yet recent research shows that college enrollment and completion gaps may be getting wider, based both on ethnicity and on socioeconomic class (Gewertz, 2017). The results of the RAND study reported by Gewertz (2017) may not be applicable specifically to the state of Hawaii, and yet educational attainment disparities do continue to exist and…
Upton Sinclair's The Jungle
The Use of Style to Craft an Argument: Upton Sinclair's the Jungle
"Sinclair uses language effectively, and in a variety of ways, to shape his characters and develop his themes" and thus effectively created a novel that outraged the public and created the beginnings of reform in American industry (Oatman 30). Upton Sinclair's most infamous novel, The Jungle, is a story of an immigrant worker forced into a society of extreme exploitation and disregard not only for workers conditions but also for the conditions of the products being made in the factories. Sinclair discusses one immigrants journey, as Jurgis comes in to the working system as an ignorant immigrant worker and nine is transformed into a person demanding social responsibility from the companies who care so little about their workers. In this context, Sinclair uses a number of stylistic devices in order to make his point…
Arthur, Anthony. "Changing America: Upton Sinclair Style." Radio Curious. 2006. Web. 3 Feb 2014. http://www.radiocurious.org/2006/09/06/anthony-arthur-changing-america-upton-sinclair-style-2/
Oatman, Eric F. Barron's Booknotes: Upton Sinclair's The Jungle. Barron's Educational Series. 1984
Olsson, Karen. "Welcome to the Jungle: Does Upton Sinclair's Famous Novel Hold Up?" Slate. 2012. Web. 3 Feb 2014. http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/books/2006/07/welcome_to_the_jungle.html
Sinclair, Upton. The Jungle. 1st World Publishing. 2006.
Practice Project on Diabetes Intervention Based on Evidence
Diabetes mellitus is a kind of health problem where depicted by an abnormal increase in the level of blood sugar. Diabetes mellitus can be defined as a disease with an inappropriate hyperglycemia and disordered metabolism caused by inadequate insulin secretion or an imbalance between insulin resistance and the right amount of insulin secretion. There are two main forms of diabetes mellitus: Type I, symbolized by total insufficiency, and the more rampant type II symbolized by high insulin resistance with defects of different rates of secretion of insulin (Nanda Nursing, 2011).
Modification of lifestyle, in specific recommendations to go along with a suitable dietary plan, has been widely adopted as the major treatment procedure for people suffering type II diabetes, following the belief that an adequate energy and nutrients intake will reduce the risks of possible complications by improving glycaemic control. Nevertheless,…
Coppell, K., Kataoka, M., Williams, S., Chisholm, A., Vorgers, S., & Mann, J. (2010). Nutritional intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes who are hyperglycaemic despite optimized drug treatment-Lifestyle Over and Above Drugs in Diabetes (LOADD) study: randomized controlled trial. BMJ.
Nanda Nursing. (2011, May 1). Nursing Intervention for Diabetes. Retrieved from Nanda Nursing Intervention: http://nanda-nursinginterventions.blogspot.com.ng/2011/05/nursing-intervention-for-diabetes.html
Nield, L., Summerbell, C., Hooper, L., Whittaker, V., & Moore, H. (2008). Dietary advice for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
Statistical Evidence Used to Support Early Study Termination
Study population, comprising two clusters, namely AIDS patients and those suffering from AIDS-related complex, was a factor that supported early termination of the study. Statistical evidence employed was that AIDS patients who suffered from pneumonia many times were included in the study. On the other hand, patients who suffered multiple Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) episodes were excluded from the study. Thus, the research, comprising 27 participants who had spent 24 weeks in the study, 152 participants with16 weeks' participation and others had completed at least 8 weeks' of participation. At this point, 19 recipients of placebo and 1 recipient of 1 AZT (Azidothymidine) died during the study (Fischl et al., 1987).
Are you for or against the early termination and why?
The idea of early termination is not considered favorable, since the study proved valuable in treating the clinical condition, virus replication…
A Priority Research Agenda. (2010). Retrieved October 24, 2015, from https://www.iasociety.org/Web/WebContent/File/Consensus_Statement_Asking_the_Right_Question_March_2010.pdf
Brookmeyer, R. (2010, January 11). Measuring the HIV / AIDS Epidemic: Approaches and Challenges. Retrieved October 24, 2015, from http://epirev.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/1/26.full
Fischl, M. A., Richman, D. D., Grieco, M. H., Gottlieb, M. S., Volberding, P. A., Laskin, O. L., ... & King, D. (1987). The efficacy of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. New England Journal of Medicine, 317(4), 185 191.
Knox, R. (2010, November 4). The Lucky Genetic Variants That Protect Some People From HIV. Retrieved October 24, 2015, from http://www.npr.org/sections/healthshots/2010/11/04/131064382/the-lucky-genetic-variants-that-protect-some-peopleagainst-HIV
Learning Styles and Academic Success
Furnham (2012) states that learning styles and personality traits can predict college academic performance outcomes (p. 117). The finding illustrates how related the individual personality and approach to learning is unique and impacts quality of education. This paper will show how research supports this finding and explain why learning styles are so connected to how and at what level a student will engage with the academic process.
According to Boyle, Duffy, and Dunleavy (2003), fit indices were used in combination with the four-factor model of Vermunt which monitors learning styles to show how there is a different and best fit for various students based on learning orientations. The orientation itself is derived from different ways that students have of processing material, mental capacities, and strategies for applying themselves to study and learning. What Boyle, Duffy and Dunleavy find is that there are four basic ways…
Boyle, E., Duffy, T., Dunleavy, K. (2003). Learning styles and academic outcome: The validity and utility of Vermunt's inventory of learning styles in a British higher education setting. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 73(2): 267-290.
Furnham, A. (2012). Learning style, personality traits and intelligence as predictors of college academic performance. Individual Differences Research, 10(3): 17-128.
Lopez, B., Rodriquesz, J., Esteban, P. et al. (2013). Learning styles and approaches to learning in excellent and average first-year university students. Euro Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(4): 1361-1379.
Uzuntiryaki, E. (2007). Learning styles and high school students' chemistry achievement. Science Education International, 18(1): 25-37.
Data Collection in Leadership
As a social science, leadership research may involve any type of quantitative or qualitative data collection method. Qualitative research data collection methods include observation, participant-observation, interview, and document or content analysis (“Data Collection Methods,” n.d.). Quantitative data collection methods used in leadership research may include surveys and experiments, which allow for statistical analysis, the establishment of causality between independent and dependent variables, and the tracking of results over time. Whereas quantitative data collection methods had once been the most commonly used in the social sciences, recent trends in leadership research have shifted towards qualitative methods (Antonakis, Schriescheim, Donovan, et al., 2003). Qualitative methods often reveal nuances, patterns, and ideas that quantitative methods overlook or take for granted, making mixed-methods approaches extremely attractive in emerging literature on leadership and organizational behavior.
Methods of data collection and research design trends eventually feed the formation of new theories in…
esearch instruments fall into two broad categories: those compiled by the researcher him or herself in the form of recorded observations, logs, and rating scales and those completed by the interview subject him or herself in the form of questionnaires and interviews. egardless of the instruments used, research studies should be guided by acceptable standards of validity and reliability. "Validity is the extent to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure and performs as it is designed to perform" ("Instrument, validity, reliability" 2014). Statistical tests are usually used to establish the external validity of an instrument. "External validity is the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized from a sample to a population" ("Instrument, validity, reliability" 2014). In contrast, internal validity is the extent to which the instrument is internally valid based upon the results obtained within the sample. An instrument may be…
Instrument, validity, reliability. (2014). Research Rundowns. Retrieved:
Korb, K. (2012). Select sampling technique. Conducting Educational Research.
Retrieved from: http://korbedpsych.com/R06Sample.html
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the erratic responses to the Hurricane Katrina disaster in 2005, critical incident management has become the focus of a growing body of research. In addition, there is an ongoing need for timely and effective responses to manmade and natural disasters, and improved approaches continue to be identified. To gain some fresh insights into current critical incident management, this paper reviews three studies concerning a coordinated multi-disciplinary response to a critical incident as well as the National Incident Management System. A review of a final article concerning response and management of a chemical, biological, radiological and explosive incident is followed by a summary of the research and a description concerning how the research contributes to knowledge in these areas.
eview and Analysis
Coordinated Multi-Disciplinary esponse to a Critical Incident.
In his study, "esponding to Bio-terrorism equires a Concerted Effort," Mughai…
The Porter Five Forces Model has also shown these strengths and their ability to provide the company with resilience in the face of significant competitive threats. Weaknesses include too much fo a dependence on the iPhone and iPad products, a lack of products at the low-end of the market, and a lack of control of the gray market in China for their products (Apple Investor elations, 2012). The opportunities for Apple are very significant and include selling more iPads and comparable products into the enterprise, greater market penetration into emerging markets including Brazil, ussia and China, in addition to the advances being made with Apple TV. Threats include extreme price competition at the low-end of the market; lack fo control in gray markets over their products, and their high dependence on key suppliers for advanced components for their future products (Apple Investor elations, 2012).
ecommendations for Future Strategies and Conclusion…
Apple, Investor Relations (2012). Investor Relations. Retrieved August 23, 2012 from Apple Investor Relations and Filings with the SEC Web site: http://www.apple.com/investor/
Robert E. Cole, Tsuyoshi Matsumiya. (2007). Too Much of a Good Thing? Quality as an Impediment to Innovation. California Management Review, 50(1), 77-93.
Douglas B. Holt (2003). What becomes an icon most? Harvard Business Review, 81(3), 43-49.
Kawasaki (1990) -- the Macintosh Way. Harper Collins. Reprint Edition. September, 1990
Products Liability esearch:
Mattel Inc. is a company that was founded in 1944 by Elliot and uth Handler that designs, manufactures, and markets a huge range of toy products. The firm is headquartered in California with its core product lines including Hot Wheels die-cast vehicles, Barbie fashion dolls, Disney toys, Fisher-Price preschool toys, and games like Scrabble. While Mattel also manufactures its toy products based on license agreements with movie makers, most of its toys are produced outside its huge market in the United States i.e. Southeast Asia. Actually, the firm's principal manufacturing facilities are located in several countries in Southeast Asia like Malaysia, China, Thailand, Indonesia, and even Mexico. Since its inception, the company has continued to experience significant growth that enables it to generate huge revenues. By 2007, its revenues had grown to $5.97 billion with its three largest customers accounting for 41% of sales across the globe.…
Andersen, M. (2009, October 16). Mattel Settles Lawsuit Over High Levels of Lead in Chinese
Toys. Retrieved June 10, 2012, from http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/retail/2009-10-14-mattell-lead-in-toys-settlement_N.htm
"CPSC Overview." (n.d.). U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Retrieved from Consumer Product Safety Commission website: http://www.cpsc.gov/about/about.html
Lacorte, V.L. (n.d.). Mattel, Inc.: The Lead paint Recall. Retrieved from Tuck School of Business
Research into the legalization of marijuana will seek to determine what people's views on the issue are. The population is going to be the entire United States, as we are seeking to determine national views about the issue. The sampling will be done at random, using databases of phone numbers and computer-generated dialing. The operators will only know of and gather non-personal information such as age bracket, gender and state of residence. The major downside to this form of sampling is that many younger people will not be sampled because they often do not have landlines.
Random sampling is the "purest form" of probability sampling in that it is free from researcher bias and is more likely to accurately reflect the total population as a result (StatPac, 2012). Landline ownership is a reasonable proxy for the total population, with the caveat noted above. However, other sampling methods are…
StatPac. (2012). Survey sampling methods. StatPac. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://www.statpac.com/surveys/sampling.htm
Statistics.com. (2012). Glossary of statistical terms: sampling frame. Institute for Statistics Education. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://www.statistics.com/index.php?page=glossary&term_id=851
CRS. (2012). Sample size calculator. Creative Research Systems. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://www.surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm