Role of Modernity in Religion Questionnaire

Excerpt from Questionnaire :

Civil Society Organizations

1) International NGOs, or civil society organizations, play an important role in global governance. Some of these are transnational bodies, comprised of many different nations, that act on behalf of the global community. Many specifically become involved in troubled areas of the world, representing the global community in areas such as conflict resolution.

One of the most important contributions that civil society organizations make in terms of governance is that they bring critical issues to public debate. This public debate will subsequently apply pressure to governments and key decision makers to address the issues at play (, 2017). Without these organizations, in many countries it is felt that there would be little transparency regarding the creation and implementation of budgets. CSOs essentially act at watchdogs for governments, providing governance that might not otherwise exist because of deficiencies in the government structure of certain countries.

There should be general consensus on their inclusion – they provide a critical check against fiscal abuse. If there are those within governments who prefer that the CSOs not be involved in the process, that does not surprise, but their views can hardly be taken seriously. Any reasonable person would agree that CSOs perform a vital service in terms of encouraging transparency.

2) Thussu (2006) describes subaltern flows as those that come from developing nations, rather than the more developed ones. The argument is that media from dominant global nations tends to hold a particular set of views, and that those views come to dominate global discourse. Contraflows that come from the global periphery may reflect different views and voices not otherwise normally heard in the context of global media. For the most part, subaltern flows have not been all that successful at challenging the dominance of Western media. For one, they tend to hold appeal within their own particular audience, be that a national or cultural audience. Within those communities, such media has typically been strong, but without a broader audience will only have limited impact. Another issue that that some of the more successful non-Western media outlets suffer from the same bias and ideology issues that Western media suffer from, whether it is the anti-Semitism of Al-Jazeera or the outright dubious nature of RT International.

There remains potential for subaltern flows, but at the same time they need to establish themselves as…

Sources Used in Document:

References (2017) The role of civil society organizations in supporting fiscal transparency in African countries. Results for Development. Retrieved November 6, 2017 from

Thussu, D. (2006). Contra-flow in global media. Media Asia. Vol. 33 (3-4) 123-129.

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