Seaports Vulnerability to Submersible Vessels Research Paper

Excerpt from Research Paper :

Seaports Vulnerability to Submersible Vessels


All countries of the world are struggling hard to provide peace to its residents and masses. After all the efforts and struggle, countries are still not completely safe from the dangerous attacks on the borders including dry ports and seaports. In America, it is a severe issue to understand how to secure and protect the seaports of the country. The topic of discussion is also related to the protection of seaports of the country from different types of attacks such as nuclear attacks and submersible vessels (Jaffee and Russell 1997).

It is very important to understand all the seaports security issues and then suggest roadmap for protection policies development as well as its implementation immediately. There are three large seaports in America such as Los Angeles, Long Beach, and Oakland. These are the largest seaports of America and these ports are most vulnerable to submersible vessels because of their big size. The major objective of this essay is to explore the level of vulnerability of all seaports around the country and realize the importance of security to the foreign policy makers. These all three seaports are most vulnerable to submersible vessels and if the attacks are successful then the results of those successful attacks will be very dangerous. In that situation, the global economy, health of the region as well as the prosperity and per capita income of individuals can be affected in a huge way (Crist 2003).

By attacking on seaports, the target of enemy is to restrict global trade, reduce international trade movement and the end results is the loss of the economy. When an open economy is affected due to attack on its seaports then the effects of those attacks are not only on the victim economy but the associated economies are also harmed and affected negatively (Chalk, et al. 2005).

This research paper will answer several important and essential questions related to the security of seaports such as what can happen if there is an heavy submersible attacks on a particular seaports. It will also solve the queries of people who have no idea about the security of all seaports of the country. The complete plan of security related to seaports have been understood, the alternatives any security plan fails (Crist 2003).

Seaports Security

After the incident of September 11, 2001, the United States stopped all its transportation systems such air traffic system, maritime transportation systems for several days for the purpose of security and avoidance of any such event. In that period, many policies were developed and -formulated for the control of events such as September 11. It was clearly in the mind of U.S. congress that airplanes and submersible can serve as weapons so they made policies for airplanes as well as ships. After the September 11 attacks, the focus and attention of government and public was to improve the air travel system than secure the seaports of the nations. Security of seaports was also very important so in 2002, U.S. congress passed the legislation. The purpose of this legislation was to measure the existing security system and develop more advance security systems to avoid any submersible attacks. The legislation also helped to implement several programs and policies for the security and reduce the vulnerability of seaports. Now, the question is whether the seaports are secured completely, what level o security has been financed. What practices and policies are followed to protect seaports of nation? The research paper will help to understand and get the answers of all these questions raised. In short, the research paper is solely realizing the importance of ports security and motivates policy makers to be alert about the submersible attacks and the consequences of these attacks on the country (Chalk, et al. 2005).

Port Vulnerability to terrorist Attack:

Ports are the main places for attacking from the side of terrorist. The big reason behind is the area of port is very large and mostly not much secured from the all side, they allow the terrorist to locate their place of escape. Because the port areas are open to in and out, so terrorist can easily find their ship of weapon and can move them from that place. Moreover, the cargo ships have very small crews and that make it easy for pirates to attack on them. And this is most probably reason that the pirate attack on cargo ships in the ports. Some owner of the cargo ships also consider that the piracy and terror are linked. There relations are linked with money, the pirate finance to the terrorist operation.

A cargo shipment becomes more complicated in the case of vulnerability to terrorist attack. A container consists on of a single company with multiple customers or sometime it consists on multiple companies with multiple customers. So it become more difficult a container which is loaded can be stay from the pirate.

Vulnerability to Submersible Vessel;

A small vessel design under the water is called submersible. It made for the deep water of the sea. This submarine is basically made for the military to rescue our seas and deep water from the terrorist. The marines are contains more than 100 peoples of military along with some foods and fresh water for the crew and also have nuclear power for rescue the sake of country. There are also some robot submersible, Titanic was discover through these robot submersible which specially create for the deep ocean research organizations.

Security Measurements

For the security of the ports there should be the coast guard for minimize the vulnerability to terrorist attack on the ports. The coast guard response to the security to ports their duties are to look after the navy ships and the cargo ships entering or until not leaving from the port. The guard should improve their quality and inspect on high level of interest the security for the sake of encounter to the terrorist attack.

Bureau of customer and Border protection are the U.S. program to counter the terrorist for the ports become safe. The customer and border protection are basically required the cargo information which effects the risks of terrorism. For this purpose U.S. organized a Neptune program which can identify the high and low risk of the ports. In this program the coast guard places the port where the high risk of threat lies.

Chemical community

For the chemical security community The U.S. established ocean watch program for the reporting of "activities that a person may be preparing and engaging in a violation to an act of terrorism" {70122(b)}. They also made a report for their security which called access control technologies. The Hazardous cargo also conducted a security program for the establishment of the security protection zone areas. For this purpose they also used TWIC program which allows the use of "secondary authentication to verify identification."

To reduce the danger and issues connected with the Hazardous cargo, the U.S. provides the security which completely trained with the education and security officers program to minimize the risk. For the assessment of vessels vulnerability they conducted coast guard, appropriate State and the law enforcement agencies to authorize the ports security.


The smuggling organizations are well established their main purpose is to recognize the latest technology for the enforcement operations and the drugs administration of USA. The drug smugglers are very much creative, their main goal is to make money by hock or by crock, they can do vulnerability, they smuggle drugs into the toys, furniture and even tennis shoes. The Import and export of drugs smuggler from the borders, road traffic and ports usually. In the borders the officers track the drug smuggler through the radios cells phone and global positioning system tracking device which help to track the drug smuggler position (Unknown, Department of Defense and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States Act, 2002).

The drug smuggler are also applied the same procedure for the deep water and U.S. ocean. The drug smuggler use this way and said that "it is very sophisticated operation that a semi-submersible carry huge amount of drugs and those vessels thousands of miles." According to the U.S. commando, it is easy for the drug smuggler to travel on the vessels at ocean surface because they are hardly visible by sight, they also can sink the board if they found at sea. In the era of 90s is become very easy to detect the drug cartels in Colombia who used the semi-submersible for drug smuggling. In 2006 the U.S. coast guard finds one cargo shipment carry several tons of cocaine (Force 1999).

According to the Act of 2008 Drug Trafficking Vessel Interdiction, "they amend the federal criminal code for impose the criminal for that purpose they made operations for the semi-submersible vessel who beyond the outer limit of a country without a nationality. This is a terrorism act of a single country or we can also say that a…

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