Diabetes Self-Management must first begin with understanding Diabetes Mellitus. Microaneurysm formation presents as the earliest expression of diabetic retinopathy. Chances for microaneurysms to form are due to the release of vasoproliferative influences, weakness within the capillary wall, or amplified intra-luminal pressures. Vascular permeability typically results from Microaneurysms. Vascular permeability can also lead to macular edema. "Vascular permeability in the macula can lead to macular edema and can threaten central vision. Obliteration of retinal capillaries can lead to intraretinal microvascular abnormalities (IRMAs). As capillary closure becomes extensive, intraretinal hemorrhages develop" (Zimmerman, 2013, p. 1).
Proliferative retinopathy progresses due to ischemia as well as release of vasoactive substances. This can be VEGF or vascular endothelial growth factor, which fuels new blood vessel creation as a development of non-proliferative retinopathy. Such vessels blow up through the exterior of the retina and develop on the posterior surface of the named vitreous humor. These kinds of vessels are very friable. Meaning, it can lead to vitrified hemorrhages. The vitrified humor may contract leading to retinal detachment.
Moving into neuropathy, the pathophysiology of neuropathy remains complex to examine. Diabetes is connected to dyslipidemia, low insulin, and hyperglycemia, as well as growth factor abnormalities. Such abnormalities are linked with glycation of nerves and blood vessels. Furthermore, autoimmunity can affect nerve structure. Nerve entrapment and trauma can lead to physical nerve damage plus axonal atrophy and loss, segmental demyelination, and progressive demyelination. The culmination of effects cause neuropathy. "Several agents including laminin B2, immunoglobulin FI (IGFI) and II, nerve growth factor (NGF), insulin, and neurotrophin-3 (NT3) are potential growth factors that may restore nerve function" (Zimmerman, 2013, p. 1).
Increased glomerular capillary flow often causes diabetic nephropathy that in turn promotes an amplified extracellular matrix production as well as endothelial damage, leading to augmented glomerular perviousness to macromolecules. Interstitial sclerosis and mesangial expansion follows leading to progression of disease and glomerular sclerosis. The macrovascular problems of diabetes come from hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and excess free fatty acid. These cause...
These elements act on the endothelium. It does this by first decreasing nitric oxide, increasing endothelin, and increasing angiotensin II, which causes vasoconstriction that generates hypertension as well as cell growth of vascular smooth muscle.
Second, is a decrease in nitric oxide, activation of nuclear factor-KB or NFKB, and an increase in angiotensin II. Furthermore, there is activation of triggered protein-1 that causes increased inflammation, resulting in the release of cytokines, chemokines, and expression of "cellular adhesion molecules." Last, are decreased levels of nitric oxide, increased levels of tissue factor, increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, as well as decreased prostacyclin; resulting in thrombosis, platelet activation, hyper-coagulation, and decreased fibrinolysis. Each pathway can ultimately lead to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the main cause of the macrovascular problems found in diabetes patients.
Current research offers some practical approaches to diabetes self-management. Internet-based programs may provide positive potential for inexpensive, practical, continuing disease self-management programs. Glasgow et al., reported 12-month results derived from an online-based diabetes self-management program, optional additional support, paralleled to improved typical care within a 3-arm applied randomized trial. 463 patients were randomized and only 77.3% accomplished 12-month follow-up. Main outcomes were vicissitudes in the health behaviors of physical activity, healthy eating, and medication taking. Ancillary results were hemoglobin A1C, lipids, body mass index, psychosocial factors, and blood pressure. The results were positive. "Internet conditions improved health behaviors significantly vs. usual care over the 12-month period (d for effect size = .09 -- .16). All…
Lee is only the first step in the process of building a team that is able to cover all aspects of Mrs. Lee's care. The team approach involving a social worker, nurse, physician, pharmacist, and physical therapist affords Mrs. Lee a full range of professionals attending to her various needs. Although Mrs. Lee has a number of problems that need to be addressed the one problem that must be addressed
Diabetes Self-Management: Exercise and Nutrition The Diabetes Association reports that it has been "…well documented that the average person who goes through a diabetes educational program reduces A1C levels by 1 and a half percentage points." (2011) In fact, the average individual who goes through the program is able to reduce their A1C levels "by 2 points." (Diabetes Association, 2011) The purpose of this study is to ascertain the effectiveness of the
Diabetes A recent study conducted by Okolie et al. determined that diabetes is a current concern to the healthcare industry and that it not only would be a continuing concern for decades to come, but it would also grow in magnitude, especially among the non-developed nations as compared to the developed nations of the world where it is already a more prevalent problem. The researchers wrote that diabetes was of a
Introduction/Background The basis of self-management is rooted in patient-centered care. The idea behind it is that the patient will feel empowered to take ownership of his or her care process. Patient collaboration helps to get to the heart of patient-centered care, as Chiaramonte et al. (2018) note. Patient-centered care is about putting the patient’s needs first and foremost in care providing process. It means that the patient is likely to have
A Concept Analysis in Behavior Management: Self-Management in Psych Nursing Introduction In nursing, when it comes to behavior management—i.e., helping individuals to alter their behavior in order to achieve a positive aim—various strategies are available. One concept of behavior management that has been handed down over generations of nursing practice is the concept of self-management. This concept analysis paper will analyze self-management by describing a history of the concept, its defining characteristics
Nursing Diagnosis Care Plan Assessment Data Analysis a) Patient is a 65-year-old male Mexican-born retired bus driver with a relevant past medical history of atrial fibrillation and deep vein thrombosis treated with Coumadin who presents with hematuria. Patient sought care after witnessing blood in his urine and feeling generally weak. In addition, the patient has history of hypertension, stroke, DVT, BPH, gout, depression, anxiety, chronic bronchitis and a remote history of chicken