Human Trafficking: A Growing Threat for All Undocumented Migrant Workers.
Human trafficking, despite the growing global awareness, has generated an international response that is fractured and disjointed. The issue of human trafficking in the current global world is a very tragic reality. . Despite a growing global awareness of this issue there still appears to be a fractured and disjointed international response regarding how to effectively deal with the problem. Although many countries have adopted interventions to limit the increasing cases of human trafficking, the prevalence of the crime is still high accompanied with few risks and high profits. Historical analysis of the vice shows that its origin dates back to two hundred years ago when the slave trade started between different communities and exchange of sex for favors that were considered contrary to the humanity. Reliable statistics of human trafficking across the globe are limited, but the number of people affected by the act is postulated to be reaching epidemic proportions across the globe. For instance, statistical information released by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC ) showed that the trafficking of human beings occurred in 127 states across the world and people were at least exploited in a total of 137. While there have been numerous initiatives to eradicate the vice, the challenges that impede the ability of the chosen strategies to yield the desired outcomes are immense. Comment by Rudy: I'd delete this phrase- it's redundant Comment by Rudy: This isn't cited in the reference section and there is no year of publication here
II. Factors Bearing: Human or Sex Trafficking
The motives contributing to the high rates of human or sex trafficking in the current contemporary society are diverse. The fact that human trafficking exists in different forms such as forcing the victims into prostitution, slavery, and debt bondage translates to the varied nature of the contributing factors to human trafficking. The unique factors and challenges involved include the following:following:
Lack of awareness among the vulnerable groups is a challenge for many the institutions involved in combating human trafficking.
Lack of awareness among the local populations of the adverse outcomes of human trafficking increases their risk of involvement in sex trafficking.
Marginalized ethnic minorities, indigenous communities, undocumented immigrants, and poor people with disabilities experience the effects of human trafficking.
Undocumented migrant workers are often reluctant to seeking the required support, thereby, worsening severity of the matter.
The lack of credible evidence on the local prevalence rate of sex or human trafficking contributes to the increasing rate and the difficulties of curbing the issue.
Violation of human rights among other factors play a role in contributing to the increasing rates of human trafficking.
As can be surmised from the previous factors there is a lack of understanding regarding human trafficking that be remedied by supplying information to affected parties. Gathering, updating, and exchanging information regarding human trafficking can be an important component in interventions designed to reduce it and educating potential victims.
First it may be useful to explain what differentiates the activity of human smuggling from human trafficking nd human sex trafficking. Aronowitz (2009) and Macias Konstantopoulos et al. (2013) described four major differences between the two:
1. Smuggled individuals always travel voluntarily, whereas people who are trafficked can either begin their trip voluntarily or may have been coerced or kidnapped.
2. People who are trafficked are used and exploited over a longer period than smuggled individuals.
3. There is interaction or mutual assistance between the trafficked person and organized crime.
4. People who have been trafficked are eligible for further criminal networking (e.g., enrollment in criminal enterprises for criminal purposes).
Human trafficking research is vital in ensuring adequate assistance, protection, and prevention of trafficked persons, as well as the criminals' prosecution. The ongoing research is critical in key areas like on the trafficked persons' characteristics and conditions of vulnerability. The techniques focus on the scope of problems of trafficked persons and the monitoring, evaluation and assessment of the rehabilitation and prevention efforts aimed at fostering the effectiveness of funded programs (Shelley, 2010). The conclusion is that the acknowledgement of the challenges that face anti-trafficking efforts today, there are abundant recommendations presented to Governments through regional, international and specialized advocacy organizations and agencies. Concerted efforts are necessary for helping nations reach and identify agreements on constitutes of good practice and ensuring that initiatives of anti-trafficking are useful. It is a practical approach to ensuring the appropriateness in the application of funds allocated to stop human trafficking...
Immigration & Customs Enforcement, 2005):
1. Trafficking of humans is the second largest form of criminal activity worldwide.
2. The mean cost of a human trafficking victim around the world is about $90.
3. The estimate of the number of human trafficking victims (slaves) worldwide is about 27 million.
4. Approximately half of the victims of human trafficking are under 18 years of age.
5. The mean age of female trafficking victims is between 12 and 14.
6. Human trafficking involves several forms of exploitation:
Involuntary servitude or slavery
7. Estimates vary, but it appears that most victims are sexually exploited in some manner (nearly 80%) and the rest are involved in some form of labor exploitation.
8. Greater than two-thirds of females and children trafficking victims experience added abuse from their "masters," abuse drugs or alcohol, and have mental health issues.
9. Women trafficked for sexual exploitation purposes display significantly higher rates of HIV, other STDs, TB, and severe reproductive system damage.
10. It appears that most these victims will not seek help because of the perception that they will be deported, charged with a crime, or that their traffickers will harm either them or their relatives.
11. There is only one shelter in the U.S. designed specifically to meet the needs of trafficking victims, and it currently only houses a total of seven to nine victims.
12. Research has indicated that Canada is both transit point and a destination point for human trafficking (especially Vancouver, Canada).
Inadequately trained and corrupt police officers are complicit in the sex trafficking syndicates and active violence against sexual workers (such as sex-trafficked victims; Grubb & Bennett. 2012). The agendas of anti-trafficking across different groups are major causes of conflict. For the mobility of sex workers and exercising their rights, sex workers join organizations and unions seeking to eliminate trafficking by them. However, the law enforcement agencies have policies of eliminating trafficking and prosecuting traffickers as their work infringes on the rights and agency of the sex workers. Such unions oppose police interference and intervention where police efforts seek to bring minor girls from brothels. They insist that the actions by police officers adverse impacts on sex workers (non-trafficked). This is realized as police officers within places of corruption and violence are situated within their respective operations (Lee, 2013). Comment by Robert Diemer: Who said? This is a statement of fact and all statements of fact must have an in-text citation. Comment by Rudy: As opposed to adding more references (I already added several) I tried to use the ref's you already had that would be consistent with the information in cases where you are asked for a citation
Critics insist that while sex trafficking formulates violent and economic crime; it solicits for law enforcement's intervention and prevention of violence against the victims (Grubb & Bennett, 2012). The Global Initiative focuses on the principle that human trafficking is a fundamental crime with excessive atrocity and magnitude. Governments cannot eliminate it on their employees because the global problem needs global and multi-stakeholder strategies to build on the national efforts across the world. It also paves way for implementation of the strategy where stakeholders require coordination efforts towards increasing awareness and knowledge, providing technical assistance, promoting effective responses (rights-based) and building capacity of non-state and state stakeholders (; U.S. Immigration & Customs Enforcement, 2005). The idea is to foster joint action partnerships for through ensuring all people take responsibility in the efforts. The encouragement and facilitation of coordination and cooperation promote the creation of synergies among anti-trafficking activities of international organizations global agencies and subsequent stakeholders in developing cost-effective and efficient, good practices and tools (Macias Konstantopoulos, et al., 2013). Comment by Robert Diemer: Who said? This is a statement of fact and all statements of fact must have an in-text citation. Comment by Robert Diemer: Who said? This is a statement of fact and all statements of fact must have an in-text citation. Comment by Chris seaton: Efficient;
The victims of human trafficking experience significant trauma impacts due to the repeated instances of relationship intimacy trauma across long durations. It contains elements of gang rape, forced prostitution, domestic violence, or sexual abuse. Complex trauma includes multifaceted depression conditions and anxiety, substance abuse, dissociation, self-hatred, somatic…
Governments and NGOs have committed much time, money, and effort to the reduction of human trafficking around the world. The United States enforced the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) in 2000 in order to track and shut down trafficking organizations. Following 9/11, the United States has additionally tightened security, making it more difficult for traffickers to transport individuals into the United States (Soderlund 4, 11). The Bush Administration has also
Typically, involuntary participants in the sex trade are children from extremely impoverished communities whose families sell them to human traffickers. In many other instances, victims are tricked through legitimate-sounding advertisements such as for work in foreign countries as nannies or service positions (waitresses, hostesses, etc.) Once their handlers have possession of their passports and identification papers, they may have no way of escaping from their control. In many cases, they
The stereotype that "the exotic is the erotic" has fueled the demand for foreign women to enter prostitution, further inflating the demand for trafficked women. This has been a traditional marketing angle in the sex industry, dating back to Roman times when the hetaerae, or foreign women, commanded the highest prices for sexual services. Today, there is an even broader selection of source countries for recruitment. War or a military conflict
Human Trafficking Sex trafficking and exploitation in Europe Sex trafficking in Europe Although globalization has been a boon in many positive ways to many people, it has also had the unintended consequence of facilitating the sex industry. According to the International Labor Office (ILO) "there are 12.3 million victims of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation worldwide at any given time. Forty-three percent are trafficked for purposes of commercial sexual exploitation," the majority
Sex Trafficking of Women Across Europe Sex trafficking is the transportation of women using deception, force, and coercion into slavery and exploitative conditions. Sex trafficking is associated with organized crime. In the global economy, selling of women for sexual bondage is the fastest growing criminal enterprise. The European Union has stated that the problem of sex trafficking is growing worse with each passing year. It is estimated that women account for
Sex trafficking is a broad term that encompasses a wide range of dehumanizing activities. By definition, sex trafficking involves the forced transportation and subsequent exploitation of human beings, especially women. Sex trafficking is a subset of a more general problem known as human trafficking, which can involve any type of slavery-like forced labor scenarios often but not necessarily involved in sex (The Project to End Human Trafficking). As the organization