Smokers Should Pay for Their Own Health Care Costs Incurred From Smoking Related Diseases Research Paper

Excerpt from Research Paper :

Smokers should pay for their own health costs.

Health care costs of smoking are expensive and smoking is reduced more to motivational determinants than to biological factors; the essay, therefore, recommends that smokers pay for their own health costs.

Smokers can abstain from smoking if they wish to. Self-efficacy is essential

"Analysis shows that the intention to stop smoking was dependent not only on the perceived health benefits but also on the subject's confidence that hey would succeed if they tried to stop… When the follow-up data are considered, reported attempts to quitting were strongly related to previously declared intentions " (Eiser et al., 1984, 321)

In a broadly quoted study that was conducted by Eiser and colleagues in 1984, researchers discovered that out of 1848 smokers surveyed, 797 had tried to stop smoking, 709 had reduced their consumption, and 164 had become abstinent. Analysis showed that success in quitting smoking was directly related to smoker's resolutions that they would do so and to smoker's belief that they would actually succeed in complete abstention.

(Smokers can therefore stop smoking if they are motivated and believe themselves able to)

2. Smoking may not be biological as claimed. Therefore smokers can abstain

"The relationship between smoking and psychiatric status may not be simply a biological one as several sociocultural and economic factors could influence smoking behavior…. As smoking is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, there is a serious need to review the neurobiological issue of smoking .. considering the influence culture and social practices could have upon the behavior." (Srinivasan & Tara, 2001, 68)

Addiction to smoking has been frequently attributed to biological causes and has, therefore, been said to be indeterminsitic and something that individuals cannot so readily stop without costly medical help. Srinivasan and Tara, (2001)…

Sources Used in Document:

Eiser, Pligt, Raw, & Sutton (1985) Trying to stop smoking. Affects of perceived addictions. Journal Behav. Med., 8

Srinivasan, T & Tara, R. (2001) Smoking in schizophrenia -- all is not biological Schizophrenia Research, 56, 67-74

Zohrabian, A & Philipson, TJ (2010) External Costs of Risky Health Behaviors Associated with Leading Actual Causes of Death in the U.S.: A Review of the Evidence and Implications for Future Research

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