148+ documents containing “smoking cessation”.
Smoking is a central factor in many pathological conditions. Nearly all smokers have at least some idea of the risks associated with the practice yet chose to smoke anyway. The adverse effects of tobacco use on cardiopulmonary function are well established and recognized; less evident, but equally important, is its impact on all aspects of physical therapist practice, including integumentary, musculoskeletal, and neuromuscular health (Pignataro, Ohtake, & Dino, 2012). Smoking can affect patients all the way from prenatal exposure through all phases of adulthood and thus cessation efforts stand a high likelihood of improving health outcomes.
Furthermore, it is less acknowledged the cigarette smoking affects both the innate and adoptive immune arms. Cigarette smoke was shown to augment the production of numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 GM-CSF and to decrease the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10; tobacco smoke via multiple mechanisms leads to elevated….
Arnson, Y., Shoenfield, Y., & Amital, H. (2010). Effects of tobacco smoke on immunity, inflammation and autoimmunity. The Environmnent, Geoepidemiological and Autoimmune Disease, 258-265.
Pignataro, R., Ohtake, P., & Dino, G. (2012). The Role of Physical Therapists in Smoking Cessation: Opportunities for Improving Treatment Outcomes. Physical Therapy, 757-766.
Ussher, M., Taylor, A., & Faulkner, G. (2012). Exercise interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Library.
Studies of six diverse communities in Chicago, poor women under welfare reform and Medicaid recipients as well as a focus group of seniors concerning smoking cessation showed that 1) populations do vary in their smoking behavior and ability to stop smoking and 2) programs must be developed to target specific demographics.
Although prior studies showed that poorer individuals have worse health, comparatively less research has been conducted specifically on a subgroup of this population -- single mothers receiving welfare. Kaplan et. al. (2005) hypothesized that the health of these women is not only at risk, but that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, made this problematic situation even worse. The researchers thus compared the health of single mothers from Michigan who were impacted by welfare reform with a nationally representative sample of women.
Results indicated that current smoking rates were higher and smoking cessation rates lower among….
Smoking Cessation -- Outline
Smoking vs. illegal drugs
Desire to return to smoking
The business of smoking cessation
Dangers and the Surgeon General's warning
Smoking Cessation Programs
Smoking cigarettes has been found to be even more addictive than using many illegal drugs. Because of this, those that choose to quit smoking often struggle with it, and many of them return to smoking, even after quitting for a long period of time. Some people that have stopped smoking years ago state that they still have the urge for a cigarette, especially when others around them are smoking. Smoking cessation has become a large and booming business as more and more people try to kick the habit to avoid many of the problems that smoking can cause, such as lung cancer and heart disease. Smokers, on average, die sooner than non-smokers, and they have higher instances of cancer and heart problems….
Leary, MR, & Miller, RS. 1986. Behavioral compliance and psychological change. In M.R. Leary & R.S. Miller, Social Psychology and Dysfunctional Behavior: Origins, Diagnosis, and Treatment (pp. 166-178). NY: Springer-Verlag Inc.
Legge, D., & Leeper, B. (2002). Management of heart failure: Use of biventricular pacing. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 16(3): 72.
Pearce, N. (2001). Environmental epidemiology: challenges and opportunities. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(1): 1-5.
Phillip Morris Online. (2005). Retrieved 20 August 2005 from www.phillipmorris.com.
Smoking Cessation Interventions
Psychosocial and Pharmacological Interventions on Smoking
Of the many causes of death in the world, coronary heart disease (CHD) remains one of the top global killers with an estimated 7.2 million people dying each year (Howell, 2011). The United States comprises a great majority of this mortality rate, which is approximately 450, 000 deaths in the United States alone (Capewell, et.al, 2010). Fortunately, since the 1970s CHD mortality rates in most industrialized nations have been reduced, especially in the younger populations (Capwell, et.al, 2010). A large majority of the American population, however, remains at heightened risk for developing cardiovascular disease, largely due to elevated cholesterol levels, even after smoking cessation. (Capwell, et.al, 2010). These increased cholesterol levels can result in hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and eventual development of atherosclerosis (Bass, 1991).
CHD is even more problematical in individuals that smoke. Over time smoking causes diseased arterial smooth muscle and, thus, is a….
Naturally the doctor-nurse-patient relationship is best applied when physicians are familiar with the evidence justifying smoking intervention and cessation. Doctors can give advice with authority and conviction, and they are frequently responsible for discussions and counseling regarding diagnosis and treatment. Burt, et al. (1974) showed their control group at 27.5% quit smoking in comparison to 63.2% in the study group. The doctor's effectiveness with the patient is compounded when the same knowledge and enthusiasm is applied by the nurse, (Burt, et.al., 1974). In many current medical settings physicians are responsible for prescribing medications for smoking cessation, and as such, they continue to play a key role in interventions and care. This is always a part of a multifocal approach to secondary prevention of myocardial infarction, a health issue that often motivates coronary patients to change their smoking habits. Physicians and nurses alike play a key role, during interviewing and counseling, in overcoming resistance a critical care patient's resistance to change. The importance of these intertwining relationships is also critical throughout the separate stages of smoking cessation. The first stage involves contemplation, when smokers are actually considering quitting smoking and changing their habit (Percival and Milner, 2002). The combined effort of doctor and nurse are important at any stage in the process, but the physician plays a key role in this first stage as he communicates directly with the patient regarding diagnosis and treatment (Percival and Milner, 2002). Physicians, as such, should be encouraged to effectively promote smoking cessation during discussions about diagnosis and prognosis. Ultimately, patients need assistance with smoking cessation, and treatment starts with healthy relationships between the patient, doctor, and nurse. The synergistic effect of involving more of the health care team has undoubtedly more influence in contributing to smoking cessation.
The doctor-nurse dynamic of introducing the concept of
Health Belief Model
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2012) smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. It is estimated that there are more than 43 million adults who currently smoke in the United States. Of these 53% are men and 47% are women. Tobacco use is responsible for causing many diseases and reducing the health of smokers in general. The adverse effects of smoking cigarettes account for approximately 443,000, or nearly one in five deaths in the United States annually. Tobacco use causes more deaths each year than all of the deaths caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), illegal drug use, alcohol use, motor vehicle injuries, and murders combined. An estimated 90% of all lung cancer deaths in men and 80% of all lung cancer deaths in women are the result of smoking as are 90% of all deaths from chronic obstructive lung disease….
Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Asian journal of social psyshology,2(1), Retrieved August 27, 2012, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=6&hid=109&sid=c8c83cd3-a0b1=49e0=8871-dffd0904343fd%40sessionmgr104
CDC. (2011, February 22). Tobacco use: targeting the nations leading killer at a glance. Centers for disease control and prevention. Retrieved August 27, 2012, from http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/aag/osh.htm
CDC. (2012, January 10). Smoking & tobacco use. Centers for disease control and prevention. Retrieved August 27, 2012, from http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/effects_cig_smoking/
"Definition of health promotion." (NDI). Definition of wellness. Retrieved August 27, 2012, from http://www.definitionofwellness.com/dictionary/health-promotion.html
The competition is tough all the way around, and companies are tight financially in making ends meet for all employees that are trying to help others survive around the globe (Peto, Darby, Deo, Silcocks, Whitley, & Doll, 2000).
Public health priorities are an issue that could arise at any given time in trying to get adults to stop smoking. For example, if an emergency occurs with someone who has received a gunshot wound, then they are less likely to pay attention to the details of smoking until the person is well again through much medical attention. Additionally, if he or she is focused on the vital organs at that time, and the person is in a comma, then it is possible that death is inevitable because of doctors and nurses not able to find out about smoking in one's past before this tragic event; although, a miracle could take place….
DiClemente, C.C., Prochaska, J.O., Fairhurst, S.K., Velicer, W.F., Velasquez, M.M., & Rossi, J.S. (1991). The process of smoking cessation: An analysis of precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 295-304.
Glassma, A.H., Helzer, J.E., Covey, L.S., Cottler, L.B., Stetner, F., Tipp, J., et al. (1990). Smoking, smoking cessation, and major depression. JAMA, 3.
Jorenby, D., Leischow, S., Nides, M., Rennard, S., Johnston, A., Hughes, A., et al. (2008). A Controlled trial fo sustained-release bupropion, a nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation. Massachsetts Medical Society, 9.
Kottke, T., RN, B., GH, D., & ML., B. (1988). Attributes of successful smoking cessation interventions in medical practice. A meta-analysis of 39 controlled trials. JAMA, 2883-2889.
When you see a sharp decline, this is an indication that the chances have increased that the person will have a heart attack. To determine effect of EPC's on heart disease in smokers, researchers would survey 15 different smokers. The results were that EPC's were lower in heavy smokers and increased if someone was a light smoker. When a person quit smoking, the underlying levels of EPC's would dramatically increase. As a result, researchers determined that those who quit smoking; will see a reduction in their chances of having a stroke. Those who are considered light smokers will have a lower chance of heart attack, in comparison with heavy smokers. This is significant, because it can be used to corroborate, the overall negative health effects of smoking on the individual. Where, the more they smoke, the greater the chances increase that they could have a heart attack. (Takahisa, 2004,….
Athonisen, N. (2005). The Effects of Smoking Cessation Intervention. Annals of Internal Medicine. 142 (4). 233 -- 239.
Critchley, J. (2003). Mortality Risk Associated with Smoking Cessation. Journal of American Medical Association. 290 (1). 86 -- 97.
Critchey, J. (2003). Smoking Cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003041.pub2
Fagerstrom, K. (2002). The Epidemiology of Smoking. Drugs. 62(9). 1 -- 9.
Arriving at a Solution and Selecting Intervention Strategies
Program Goal: To help smokers view smoking cessation as a positive life change, rather than as a deprivation.
Objective: Focus on personal responsibility in the program, emphasizing that the decision whether or not to smoke is a personal choice.
Implementing the Plan
Program Goal: Give participants skills to deal with stressful situations without smoking.
Objective: Send participants into stressful situations knowing that they will trigger the urge to smoke, tell the participants to expect conflict, and provide the tools for dealing with that conflict.
Evaluating the Outcomes of the Plan of Action
Program Goal: To maintain a 35%-45% rate of people who not only stopped smoking, but had not resumed smoking a year after the end of the program, which is the success rate seen in hospitals.
Objective: To attain full participation in follow-up surveys assessing whether or not participants had stopped smoking and were still smoke-free, this can be….
In fact these moderate quit rates are substantially higher than health care interventions (Salize et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2009).
Psychological interventions such as support groups, counseling sessions, and guided quit plans have been proven most effective when coupled with pharmacological interventions (Huang, 2005). Cessation programs need to be interactive and engage the participant in the treatment process as well as identifying individual characteristics that have led to the smoking behavior and tailoring interventions to meet these needs (ovina et al., 2009). Those programs that emphasized lectures, consultations, and group discussions were found to have a 40% quit rate with the majority of participants failing to reduce their daily cigarette consumption (Huang, 2005). Smoking cessation programs also exist in the workplace and focus on self-efficacy and social support achieved a 19% participant quit rate (Huang, 2005). Programs that utilized pharmacological interventions alone such as the transdermal nicotine patch have….
Apelber, B.J., Onicescu, G., Avila-Tang, E., & Samet, J.M. (2010). Estimating the Risks and Benefits of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Smoking Cessation in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 100(2), 341-348.
Barnett, P.G., Wong, W., & Hall, S. (2008). The cost-effectiveness of a smoking cessation program for out-patients in treatment for depression. Addiction, 103(5), 834-840.
Caponnetto, P. & Polosa, R. (2008). Common predictors of smoking cessation in clinical practice. Respiratory Medicine, 102, 1182-1192.
Carlens, C., Hergens, M., Grunewald, J., Ekbom, A., Eklund, A. Hoglund, C., & Askling, J. (2010). Use of Moist Snuff, and Risk of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 181(11), 1217-22. Retrieved July 23, 2010, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete.
One of the most important aspects in enhancing the effectiveness of healthcare services is to promote the professional role of the nurse to provide health promotion and disease preventive care. This can be achieved through collaboration with other healthcare professionals and consumer groups in the community in redesigning healthcare that can assist in achievement of the goals of Healthy People 2020. An example of a focus area that could benefit from such initiatives is smoking cessation or tobacco use. Smoking cessation is an initiative that is geared towards lessening tobacco use, which in turn reduces its health effects and death related to its use and smoke exposure. Actually, smoking cessation is associated with decreased illness, disability, and tobacco- or smoke-related deaths.
The need for smoking cessation is brought by the significant increase in scientific knowledge about the health effects of tobacco use ("Tobacco Use," 2013). Since the first Surgeon General's….
"About the American Heart Association." (n.d.). American Heart Association -- Our Mission.
Retrieved November 6, 2013, from http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/General/About-Us-American-Heart-Association_UCM_305422_SubHomePage.jsp
"Tobacco Use." (2013, April 10). Healthy People. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services website: http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=41
These clinic sessions are meant to be voluntary and no single employee is going to be forced to attend the sessions since we value our employee's decisions and vow not to violate any their rights. At the same time if the workplace becomes a 100% smoke free it will mean that there will be low premiums for the employees and this is good news for all of us in terms of the reduction in premiums paid for insurance. These clinics are also beneficial to the employee since they will help them kick the smoking habit entirely which is also an advantage to them.
I therefore urge all employees to attend the clinics since they will largely be beneficial to you as an employee, over and above the $255 bonus that will be extended by the organization to all those who will attend the entire clinic. Remember your welfare as employees is….
Program Evaluation Part II
A WE-ASED PROGRAM MODEL
Needs Assessment for a Smoking Cessation Program
Program planning and evaluation must be preceded and interrelate with assessment strategies (Marrs & Helge, 2014). This succession will meet the increasing demand for eventual accountability in the program. Needs assessment may also be aptly used in creating program standards both as part of formative evaluation and summative evaluation. The process of needs assessment is guided by the appropriate principles of organization development. These principles involve all organizational levels. They also align individual and organizational needs and goals (Marrs & Helge).
The assessment of needs must logically precede program development. Generally, available information in the preceding year is sufficient for use as baseline and in setting up program goals and objectives in the planning stage (CDCP, 2014). It will also be valuable in measuring and assessing program goals in the evaluation stage. Measurement of accomplishment may be undertaken….
CDCP (2014). Tobacco user cessation. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Prevention. Retrieved on September 27, 2014 from http://www.cedc.gov/workplacehealth.promotion/evaluation/topics/tobacco-use.htm
Huey, C. G, et al. (1998). A needs assessment of a web-based smoking cessation program.
Proceedings of the AMIA Symposium. American Medical Informatics Association:
Smoking Cessation Drugs
The majority of smokers who try to quit smoking do so from six to nine times during their lives. This research paper, which focuses on smoking cessation drugs, includes a survey the researcher conducted at three medical facilities. Forty participants relate details regarding their attempts to quit smoking.
"…Quitting smoking is one of the best things [one] can do for […his/her] health.
Most smokers try to quit 6-9 times in their lives"
- The U.S. Surgeon General ("Quitting can be…" 2009).
"I know I need to quit smoking."
"I'm trying to quit."
"I plan to quit…."
"Quitting smoking is hard…."
As most smokers "realize" the damage smoking cigarettes does to the human body, many smokers regularly verbalize the statements denoting their intentions to quit smoking. The truth, albeit, as the introductory quote for this research paper purports, even though quitting smoking constitutes one of the best things a person can do for his/her health, quitting….
"A new reason to stop smoking: research shows that quitting can reduce your diabetes risk, in addition to providing known health benefits." Healthy Years. Belvoir Media Group, LLC.
(2008). HighBeam Research. 13 Apr. 2009
Clute, Mitchell. "Calling it quits." Natural Foods Merchandiser. Penton Media OH & IL.
Smoking Cessation Program: An Overview
When creating a smoking cessation program after flagging patients as in need of treatment, it is important to use finite resources as wisely as possible. esources are finite for both the program designer and the patient in terms of time and money. One way create a better program is to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of effective smoking cessation programs to see what 'worked' and what did not. Studies have shown that one-on-one counseling is very effective in helping smokers quit. Smokers can discuss replacing smoking with more positive coping mechanisms such as exercise and how to emotionally deal with the inevitable 'slip ups' which occur. Counselors should be trained to give specific support to addicts, who will almost inevitably relapse as they struggle with negative and ambivalent emotions about quitting. The proposed program would match smokers with a counselor with whom they would meet weekly (either….
Smoking Cessation Program
Summarize how this project relates to the modules under review?
The impact and progression of a number of serious chronic diseases can be ameliorated by the lifestyle choices of people suffering from the diseases. Public health programs that facilitate positive lifestyle changes -- and actually help to bring about those changes -- are medically and economically important.
Summarize who will be affected by the project. Consumers or Clients?
Individuals who are Medicaid members and are chronic smokers will be invited to participate in the project. Clients who participate directly in program activities derive benefits from directly experiencing the program. In addition, interventions in the PIP projects must target the plan members and their families, the providers, the community, and the health plan. The study involved 50,284 smokers aged 18 to 64 years, including 655 smokers who were pregnant at the time of the study.
Summarize why this particular project was selected….
Sports - Drugs
Smoking Cessation Smoking is a central factor in many pathological conditions. Nearly all smokers have at least some idea of the risks associated with the practice yet chose to smoke…Read Full Paper ❯
Smoking Cessation Studies of six diverse communities in Chicago, poor women under welfare reform and Medicaid recipients as well as a focus group of seniors concerning smoking cessation showed that…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Smoking Cessation -- Outline Addictive Behavior Smoking vs. illegal drugs Desire to return to smoking The business of smoking cessation Dangers and the Surgeon General's warning Smoking Cessation Programs Pills Patches Nicotine Gum "Cold Turkey' Hypnosis Support Groups Smoking Education Tobacco Companies Parents Smoking Cessation Smoking…Read Full Paper ❯
Smoking Cessation Interventions Psychosocial and Pharmacological Interventions on Smoking Of the many causes of death in the world, coronary heart disease (CHD) remains one of the top global killers with an…Read Full Paper ❯
Smoking Cessation Health Belief Model According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2012) smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. It is estimated that there are more…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
The competition is tough all the way around, and companies are tight financially in making ends meet for all employees that are trying to help others survive around…Read Full Paper ❯
When you see a sharp decline, this is an indication that the chances have increased that the person will have a heart attack. To determine effect of EPC's…Read Full Paper ❯
Arriving at a Solution and Selecting Intervention Strategies Program Goal: To help smokers view smoking cessation as a positive life change, rather than as a deprivation. Objective: Focus on personal responsibility…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
In fact these moderate quit rates are substantially higher than health care interventions (Salize et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2009). Psychological interventions such as support groups, counseling sessions,…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Smoking Cessation: One of the most important aspects in enhancing the effectiveness of healthcare services is to promote the professional role of the nurse to provide health promotion and disease…Read Full Paper ❯
These clinic sessions are meant to be voluntary and no single employee is going to be forced to attend the sessions since we value our employee's decisions and vow…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Computers
Program Evaluation Part II A WE-ASED PROGRAM MODEL Needs Assessment for a Smoking Cessation Program Needs Assessment Program planning and evaluation must be preceded and interrelate with assessment strategies (Marrs & Helge, 2014).…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Smoking Cessation Drugs The majority of smokers who try to quit smoking do so from six to nine times during their lives. This research paper, which focuses on smoking cessation…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Smoking Cessation Program: An Overview When creating a smoking cessation program after flagging patients as in need of treatment, it is important to use finite resources as wisely as possible.…Read Full Paper ❯
Smoking Cessation Program Smoking Cessation Summarize how this project relates to the modules under review? The impact and progression of a number of serious chronic diseases can be ameliorated by the lifestyle…Read Full Paper ❯