Smoking Cessation Essays (Examples)

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Issue of Smoking

Words: 1185 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74445858

moking and Lung Disease

moking is a hazardous habit that has the ability to greatly affect the health of the smoker and those that are close to them. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate smoking and lung disease. The discussion will focus on possible community health nursing interventions/teaching strategies. We will also use Orem's nursing model to describe the community, its health issue/problem, and proposed interventions.

Community and Health issue

The community in question is Grady County which is located in Chickasha, Oklahoma. moking is a prevalent problem in this community and people are seemingly unaware of the health consequences related to smoking. The reason why this issue was chosen was due to my mother having evere Emphysema and the effects this disease has on her, also because of the impact that second hand smoking can have on non-smokers For example, I am Deathly Allergic to moking. My…… [Read More]

Sources, and Consumption Values of Teenagers: Implications for Public Policy and Other Intervention Failures. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 36(1), 50+.

American Lung Asociation. 2005. http://www.lungusa.org/site/apps/s/content.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E& b=34706& ct=910873

Cigarette Smoking and Cancer, 2004. National Cancer Institute. http://cis.nci.nih.gov/fact/10_14.htm

Nicotene Addiction. (National Institute on Drug Abuse. Research Reporthttp://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/NicotineRR.pdf
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Conventional Wisdom That Ciggerette Smoking

Words: 1195 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53288503

elping the elderly quit smoking is one of the most important responsibilities of the healthcare professional. The number of cessation programs designed for the elderly are severely limited, therefore the venues by which they actively quit smoking are not nearly as prevalent as other age segments. Most health care professionals have not received significant training in smoking cessation counseling in general, even though it is one of the most prevalent causes of health problems within America.

In the absence of having a strong primary care physician or a group therapy session to promote smoking cessation, alternatives include the use of cessation literature. Many channels of education have been attempted with some success in the elderly. In one recent test conducted by Rimer and Orleans using smoking cessation brochures, the results were extremely promising. In the study, three groups were established with the control group receiving cessation literature not specifically designed…… [Read More]

Huston, C.G., Shelton, D.M., Chrismon, J.H., et al. (1997). Cigarette smoking and smoking cessation among older adults: United States, 1965-94. Tobacco Control, 6(3): 175-80.

Hermanson, B., Omenn, G.S., Kronmal, R.A., et al. (1988). Beneficial sixteen year outcome of smoking cessation in older men and women with coronary artery disease. Result from the CASS registry. New England Journal of Medicine, 319(21):1365-9.

Rimer, B.K. And Orleans, C.T. (1994). Tailoring smoking cessation for older adults. Cancer, 74(7 Suppl):2051-4.
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Benefits After Quitting Smoking

Words: 1370 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13629470

enefits After Quitting Smoking

Among the many health risks that toll life, smoking is considered as the most preventable cause of mortality. Globally, smoking has been one of the principal factors that lead to diverse type of diseases, such as cancer, coronary heart disease, lung disease, and many others. The number of smokers worldwide grows everyday, both in developed and developing countries. According to Karl Fagerstrom's Epidemiology of Smoking, from a 1995 estimate, the rate of smoking-related mortality will grow from 3 million to 10 million annually by 2030.

In response to the risks that smoking causes to the increasing number of smokers', many health organizations worldwide conduct different programs that are hoped to minimize and prevent people from smoking. This includes the provision of enough information on the effects of smoking to one's health, as well as information on how to quit from the smoking habit.

Many research and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fagerstrom, Karl. "The Epidemiology of Smoking."

Fagerstrom Consulting (2002): 1-9.

Benefits of Quitting Smoking."

Texas Medical Association. 02 April 2004. http://www.texmed.org/cme/phn/ndt/benefits_quitting.asp
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Removing Smoking in the Workplace Increases Productivity

Words: 2301 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91781793

emoving Smoking in the Workplace Increases Productivity

The purpose of this proposed study is to determine if removing smoking from the workplace has increased workplace productivity. The writer will explore the question by using a survey study method. The participants will include workers across the nation in varying levels of work and careers. The proposed study is designed to measure whether or not there is an increase in productivity since employers began refusing to allow smoking in the workplace environment. There are several factors involved in the study including a look at five previously published studies regarding smokers and their habits. In addition the writer explores some of the different concerns for productivity that have been studied throughout the years with regards to smokers including secondhand smoke damage, absenteeism and dollars lost. This proposal suggests the direct question of affect on productivity from the time workplaces began to ban smoking…… [Read More]

References

Robert A. Logan; Daniel R. Longo, Rethinking Anti-Smoking Media Campaigns: Two Generations of Research and Issues for the Next. Vol. 25, Journal of Health Care Finance, 06-01-1999, pp 77-90.

Gonz-z; M.L. Ballester Calabuig., Tuberculosis Related to Labor Activity in an Area of Valencia, Spain. Vol. 62 no, Journal of Environmental Health, 07-01-1999.

Greene, Robert E.; Williams, Phillip L., Indoor air quality investigation protocols.. Vol. 59, Journal of Environmental Health, 10-01-1996, pp 6(9).

Dardis, Rachel; Keane, Thomas, Risk-benefit analysis of cigarette smoking: public policy implications.. Vol. 29, Journal of Consumer Affairs, 12-01-1995, pp 351(17).
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Quit Smoking Over the Next

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7080165

More important to creating that plan, is the eventual follow through.

The adverse health affects are a justifiable reason to quit smoking. An astounding 90% of lung cancer is directly associated with long-term smoking, (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008). Other adverse health risks include cardiovascular disease, and other respiratory diseases. These haunting reminders of the adverse affects of smoking only increase as the user smokes for a longer period of time. Both lung and heart disease rates for smokers explode as smokers continue smoking throughout their lives. The risks just get higher as the years continue to pile up, "If you smoke for a lifetime, there is a 50% chance that your eventual death will be smoking-related - half of all these deaths will be in middle age," (BBC News 2003).

I am now almost thirty years of age, and have been smoking for at least ten years.…… [Read More]

Quitting smoking is much more difficult than most might imagine. Of the thousands of people who try to quit each year, only a few remain successful in their fight against nicotine. Most smokers quit for a period of time, only to regain their habit after a brief separation. In fact, it is the first few months which prove the most critical, "Most patients relapse within the first six to 12 months of a smoking cessation attempt," (Mallin, 2002). Through other people's failures, physicians have also discovered that quitting without any plan of action leads to an even higher percentage rate of ex-smokers succumbing to their old habits. An overwhelming 95% of smokers who quit without implementing any sort of program to assist in their endeavors, actually stay smoke free, (Reynolds, 2002). These drastic figures attest to the importance of formulating a plan unique to one's position as the most efficient way to quit smoking. More important to creating that plan, is the eventual follow through.

The adverse health affects are a justifiable reason to quit smoking. An astounding 90% of lung cancer is directly associated with long-term smoking, (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008). Other adverse health risks include cardiovascular disease, and other respiratory diseases. These haunting reminders of the adverse affects of smoking only increase as the user smokes for a longer period of time. Both lung and heart disease rates for smokers explode as smokers continue smoking throughout their lives. The risks just get higher as the years continue to pile up, "If you smoke for a lifetime, there is a 50% chance that your eventual death will be smoking-related - half of all these deaths will be in middle age," (BBC News 2003).

I am now almost thirty years of age, and have been smoking for at least ten years. As I have continued to smoke over the years, I have added to my risk of being forced to endure the harmful affects related to cigarettes. Rather than continuing such a harmful habit, I have decided to change my behavior and lifestyle and so erase nicotine and tobacco from my life. I now realizing through assessing my need for change, (DiClemente, 1991) that I don't have much of a choice if I want to prevent myself becoming one of those terrifying statistics. I have found myself in the passing through the contemplation stage and now in the preparation phase of my desired change, (Mallin 2003). I no longer believe that the affects of smoking are overrated or that they will never extend to disrupt my life,
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Teen Smoking Behaviors Current Consequences

Words: 3189 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9699318

e. managerial, social, political, economic benefits are linked to the study's results) the proposed helpful outcomes are realistic (i.e. dealing with questions that can actually be answered through the type of data gathering and analysis you're proposing. The suggested helpful outcomes do not go beyond the data that's to be collected).

The increase in teen smoking may be abating, or may be taking a pause before it continues the climb seen in the past 10 years, from 1996 to 2005. In either case, reducing smoking at an early age has a lifelong effect on individuals' health, and can lead to better quality of life for millions of people who might otherwise take up smoking. A secondary benefit is that lessons learned may help to reduce the current 3.1 million teen smokers, many of whom try smoking and quit -- it would be useful to know why they started in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bobo, J.H. (2000). Sociocultural Influences on Smoking and Drinking. Alcohol Research & Health, 225-234.

Cooper, T.K. (2003). A prospective evaluation of the relationships between smoking dosage and body mass index in an adolescent, biracial cohort. Addictive Behaviors, 501-512.

Falba, T. (2005). Health events and the smoking cessation of middle aged Americans. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, n.p.

Gies, C.B. (2007). Effect of an Inpatient Nurse-Directed Smoking Cessation Program. Western Journal of Nursing Research, n.p.
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Dealing With Health and Smoking

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58865447

CVS enames Itself CVS Health as it Ends Sale of Tobacco Products

(1) Who are the major winners and losers in this story? Why do you think so?

The new CVS strategy definitely seems more consistent relative to health promotion. Promoting health and well-being includes smoking cessation and being smoke free. By selling tobacco products, many argued that CVS was sending mixed signals to their clients. However, the reorganization of the company, now referred to as CVS health, sends a clear message that they are in the health promotion business. Yet, by doing so, the company is also sacrificing a significant revenue stream in all their locations. It is too early to tell if the more consistent mission statement will overcome the loss in revenues that they will experience throughout the transition.

The general public should be a winner in this situation as well. Although some consumers might be inconvenienced…… [Read More]

References

CDC. (N.d.). Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking. Retrieved from CDC:  http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/effects_cig_smoking/ 

Tobacco Free. (N.d.). State Tobacco Taxes. Retrieved from Tobacco Free: http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/what_we_do/state_local/taxes/
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Nurses Perspectives on Smoking According to Researchers

Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64382206

Nurses Perspectives on Smoking

According to researchers, about 18% of all registered nurses in America smoke. In order to help these people quit the habit, and thus improve their health and the health of those around them, the authors stated purpose is to "develop a national program to assist nurses in smoking cessation." (Bialous, 2004, p. 387) To accomplish this goal, the researchers conducted a total of eight focus groups, in four states, consisting of current and former smokers in order to determine attitudes toward smoking, quitting, and to examine preferences towards types of programs.

Eight focus groups were conducted in four states, California, Kentucky, New Jersey, and Ohio. These states were chosen because California and New Jersey had low smoking prevalences, while the prevalence of smoking in Kentucky and Ohio were high. By using both low and high prevalence of smoking, the researcher can obtain a national average for…… [Read More]

References

Bialous, S.A., Sarna, L., Wewers, M.E., Froelicher, E.S., Danao, L. (2004

November/December). "Nurses' Perspectives of Smoking Initiation, Addiction,

and Cessation." Nursing Research, 53(6), 387-395.
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Bans on Smoking in American Cities New

Words: 1135 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45619639

BANS ON SMOKING IN AMEICAN CITIES: NEW YOK CITY & LOS ANGELES

Public Health

Moving with unexpected swiftness, New York state lawmakers passed a sweeping anti-smoking measure that makes New York the third state after California and Delaware to ban smoking in all workplaces, including restaurants, bars, and hotels. Within hours of the New York bill's passage, Governor George E. Pataki signed the tough measure, which exempts only America-Indian-owned casinos, cigar bars already licensed in New York City, fraternal clubs, outdoor areas of restaurants with no roof or awning, private homes, and personal but not company cars. New York's ban will take effect July 24 in areas where smoking now is permitted and where local ordinances are weaker. Although the law will not supersede the stricter measures previously passed in Westchester and Nassau counties, it will replace elements of New York City's new law, which took effect March 30.

Bans…… [Read More]

References:

Hahn, RN, E.J., Rayens, PhD, M.K., York, RN, PhD, N., Zhang, RN, M., Dignan, PhD, Delaimy, MD, PhD, W.K. (2006) Effects of a Smoke-Free Law on Hair Nicotine and Respiratory Symptoms of Restaurant and Bar Workers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 48(9), 906 -- 913.

Magzamen, S., & Glantz, PhD, S.A. (2001) The New Battleground: California's Experience with Smoke-Free Bars. American Journal of Public Health, 91(2), 245 -- 252.
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Banning Smoking in Restaurants in All States

Words: 2178 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13155519

Banning Smoking in Restaurants in All States

Through this study, the author aims to support a policy regarding ban on smoking in restaurants in all the 50 states of USA. The author is of the view that smoking should be banned in restaurants in all 50 states to lower the rate of second hand smoking related diseases in non-smokers

Due to bad impacts on secondhand smoke, it has been banned on public places and educational institutions in many states. For example, Utah fully banned smoking in restaurants in 1995 and California imposed a complete ban on smoking in restaurants and bars in 1998. No further complete smoking bans were passed by any state till 2002 when South Dakota totally banned smoking in workplaces, and Delaware totally banned smoking in workplaces, restaurants, and bars. As of 2002, the number of states where there is complete ban on smoke at workplace, restaurant…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Borland, R., Mullins, R. Trotter, L., & White, V.(1999). Trends in environmental tobacco smoke restrictions in the home in Victoria, Australia. Tobacco Control, 8, 266-271

Cunningham, R. (2006). National and subnational legislation requiring 100% smokefree restaurants and bars. Canadian Cancer Society. Retrieved on August 28, 2011 from www.smokefreeottawa.com/2006_en/pdfs/smokefreevacations.pdf.

Dockrell, M.J., Sandford, A., & Ward, S.(2007). Smoke-free public places and their impact on public health. Epert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research, 7(4), 309-313

Farrelly, M.C., Nonemaker J.M., Chou, R., Hyland, A., Peterson, K.K., & Bauer, U.E. (2005). Changes in hospitatilty workers' exposure to secondhand smoke following the implementation of New York's smoke-free law. Tobacco Control, 4(4), 236-224
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Smokers Should Pay for Their Own Health Care Costs Incurred From Smoking Related Diseases

Words: 599 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73033549

Smokers should pay for their own health costs.

Health care costs of smoking are expensive and smoking is reduced more to motivational determinants than to biological factors; the essay, therefore, recommends that smokers pay for their own health costs.

Smokers can abstain from smoking if they wish to. Self-efficacy is essential

"Analysis shows that the intention to stop smoking was dependent not only on the perceived health benefits but also on the subject's confidence that hey would succeed if they tried to stop… When the follow-up data are considered, reported attempts to quitting were strongly related to previously declared intentions " (iser et al., 1984, 321)

In a broadly quoted study that was conducted by iser and colleagues in 1984, researchers discovered that out of 1848 smokers surveyed, 797 had tried to stop smoking, 709 had reduced their consumption, and 164 had become abstinent. Analysis showed that success in quitting…… [Read More]

Eiser, Pligt, Raw, & Sutton (1985) Trying to stop smoking. Affects of perceived addictions. Journal Behav. Med., 8

Srinivasan, T & Tara, R. (2001) Smoking in schizophrenia -- all is not biological Schizophrenia Research, 56, 67-74

Zohrabian, A & Philipson, TJ (2010) External Costs of Risky Health Behaviors Associated with Leading Actual Causes of Death in the U.S.: A Review of the Evidence and Implications for Future Research
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Health Educational Tool Health Education Tool Family

Words: 1588 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91690431

Health Educational Tool

Health Education Tool

Family Background

Miss S. is an African-American who is 67 years old. She came to the United States at the age of 20 and currently performing the roles of housekeeping. Miss S. is married to Mr. S who is 69 years old, suffering from disability resulting from stroke. The two have five children: two girls and three boys. The older daughter is ailing thus the constant battles with colon cancer with metastasis. Members of the family are disturbed and require quality assistance and encouragement. According to the information from Miss S, the daughter is on acute rehab following the development of anaphylactic reaction resulting from the IV contrast dye during the CT scan of the abdomen. Miss S. is now extensive responsible for the two boys belong to her daughter. She is willing to corporate and offer valuable information in relation to her family.…… [Read More]

References

Anne Fothergill et al., (2004). Stress, Burnout, Coping, and Stress Management in Psychiatrists:

Findings from a Systematic Review. doi: 10.1177/0020764004040953 Int J. Soc

Psychiatry March 2004 vol. 50 no. 1 54-65

Watson J. Theory of human caring [acesso em 2006 Nov 11]. Disponivel em:
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Health Interventions

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22212376

Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website, the Healthy People 2020 Initiative was launched in 2010 in order to address a comprehensive assortment of health related issues concerning the American people and society (CDC, 2011). The initiative has four primary goals and objectives which includes; 1) attaining higher-quality and longer lives that are free from preventable diseases, disabilities, injuries and even premature death, 2) achieving equity in health, eliminating disparities, and improving the health of all groups of Americans, 3) creating social and physical environments that promote healthiness for all people, and 4) promoting quality of life along with health development and healthy behaviors throughout the stages of life. In all aspects of life, and certainly geared towards healthier American citizens, the idea and concept of becoming healthy by the year 2020 is a laudable exercise.

Tracking certain behaviors is generally accepted as one methodology in determining how effective (or ineffective)…… [Read More]

References

CDC (2011) Healthy people, accessed on April 8, 2015 at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/healthy_people/hp2020.htm

Kann, L.; Kinchen, S.; Shanklin, S.L.; Flint, K.H.; Hawkins, J.; Harris, W.A.; Lowry, R.;

Olsen, E.; McManus, T.; Chyen, D.; Whittle, L.; Taylor, E.; Demissie, Z.; Brener,

N.; Thornton, J.; Moore, J. & Zaza, S.; (2014) Youth risk behavior surveillance
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Nursing it Is Generally Agreed

Words: 1500 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27966345

, Binns, Colin W., and Alfonso Helman. (2006): "Which Women Stop Smoking During Pregnancy and the Effect on Breastfeeding Duration." Biomed Central. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/6/195

Torfs, Claudine P. And Roberta E. Christianson. (2000): "Effect of Maternal Smoking and Coffee Consumption on the Risk of Having a Recognized Down Syndrome Pregnancy." American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol. 152, No. 12: 1185-1191.

Solomon, Laura J. And Virginia P. Quinn. (2003): "Spontaneous Quitting: Self Initiated Smoking Cessation in Early Pregnancy." Nicotine and Tobacco Research. Vol. 6, Sup. 2; S203-S216.

leinman, Michael. (2000): "The Health Effects of Air Pollution on Children." Irvine: University of California.

Eichhammer P, and Johann M. harraz. (2003): "High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Decreases Cigarette Smoking." Journal of Clincial Psychiatry. 64:951-953.

In conclusion, the literature presented clearly shows that smoking during pregnancy does have an adverse affect on infants and fetuses and that through the proper treatment and counseling, these effects can…… [Read More]

Kleinman, Michael. (2000): "The Health Effects of Air Pollution on Children." Irvine: University of California.

Eichhammer P, and Johann M. Kharraz. (2003): "High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Decreases Cigarette Smoking." Journal of Clincial Psychiatry. 64:951-953.

In conclusion, the literature presented clearly shows that smoking during pregnancy does have an adverse affect on infants and fetuses and that through the proper treatment and counseling, these effects can be mitigated either before they happen or after the infant is born. However, the literature review shows that the research thus far conducted is limited in that there is no conclusive evidence as to the best method for preventing smoking during pregnancy. Therefore, all future research should be focused not on what the effects are, as this is already known, but how best to get pregnant mothers to cease smoking.
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Incontrovertible Evidence Surfaced in the

Words: 2955 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27024187

Smoking becomes a symbol of anti-cultural rebellion and even more so it takes on the symbol of something holy unrealistic and undesirable. The basic affect is to create a sense of empowerment as a result of smoking they feel that they are now better than they were before, in both a sense of adulthood as well as "counter-culture" mentality. Teenagers all desire to rebel against the normalcy of society, this is a natural response to the restrictions that society institutes upon teenagers. The decision to "go against the grain" is one that teenagers make in subtle and forthright ways, whether it takes the form of not doing homework or arguing with parents. Smoking has become such a controversial subject, through it's almost bombardment of health information and anti-smoking campaigns, that it epitomizes the one thing that youth can do to fight against the establishment. This becomes a crucial reason for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Canada Tries Tough Smoking Labels, http://www.discount-cigars-store.com/news/canada_tries_tough_smoking_labels.htm

Dichter, Earnest, Why Do We Smoke Cigarettes?, the Psychology of Everyday Living,1947

Facts & Figures: Cigarette Smoking in Canada, Individual and Population Health, Canadian University,2000.

Kaiserman, Murray J, the Cost of Smoking in Canada, 1991, Chronics Diseases in Canada, Public Health Agency of Canada, Volume 18, No.1 -1997
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Refined Solution a Solution Refinement for Individual

Words: 1076 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16361589

Refined Solution

A Solution Refinement for Individual Smoking Cessation

Original Issue:

Cigarette-smoking, tobacco addiction and nicotine dependency are widespread and permeating public health concerns. Indeed, the combination of the high rate of addiction to tobacco products and the clear empirical relationship between these products and a number of critical negative and even fatal health outcomes qualifies this is a substantial problem requiring a direct solution. According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI), "smoking is a leading cause of cancer and death from cancer. It causes cancers of the lung, esophagus, larynx, mouth, throat, kidney, bladder, pancreas, stomach, and cervix, as well as acute myeloid leukemia. Smoking also causes heart disease, stroke, aortic aneurysm (a balloon-like bulge in an artery in the chest), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (chronic bronchitis and emphysema), asthma, hip fractures, and cataracts." (NCI, p.1)

This constitutes a very compelling motive for pursuing resolution of the problem…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2011). Smoking Cessation. CDC.gov.

CDC Online Newsroom. (2011). New study shows smokers underutilize proven treatment and services for quitting. CDC.gov.

Jaslow, R (2011). Great American Smokeout spotlights smoking cessation: What works best? CBS News.

National Cancer Institute (NCI). (2011). Harms of Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting. Cancer.gov.
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Biohygenics LTD All Employees Biohygenics

Words: 338 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48968608



All of these multiple grievances underline the degree to which smoking is an ingrained and difficult habit to break. With sensitivity to these divergent concerns, the company has chosen to offer the smoking cessation clinic. The clinic will be part of the normal workday of all employees. Not only is it free of charge, but employees will not have to make up for the lost hours they must spend at the clinic.

This clinic is a wonderful opportunity for all employees to make a change. A healthier workplace is a happier, more productive workplace and everyone will benefit. Quitting smoking can add years to your life, reduce the insurance premiums of our organization due to lower healthcare costs, and reduce the number of sick days employees must take as a result of smoking-related illnesses.

If you have any questions or concerns, you may reach me at extension x4567 or email…… [Read More]

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Local Community Local Regional Community Health

Words: 1581 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77992869



Encouraging people to report violations for the sake of their health is a final service that nurses can perform to support the ban. People often do not like to report violations, because they feel like 'busybodies' but there is no way that state health inspectors alone can constantly police restaurant owners who illegally look the other way when customers light up. Nurses can remind the public that this legislation was the result of a voter-generated, rather than a politician-generated effort. It must be supported by the public to succeed.

One final criticism of the bill was that smokers will simply go across the border to smoke (Steinberg, 2007). However, proponents point out that, for smokers, there are other options, like patios, personal residences, and other places where they can smoke and not put hospitality workers' lives at risk. And once again, nurses can act as advocates, asking smokers to ask…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Basics: Smoke Free Arizona" (2007). Smoke Free Arizona. Retrieved 19 May 2007 at: http://www.smokefreearizona.org/

Exemptions." (2007). Smoke Free Arizona. Smoke Free Arizona. Retrieved 19 May, 2007 at http://www.smokefreearizona.org/exemptions.asp

Hedding Judy. (2007). "Smoking." About.com. Retrieved 19 May 2007 at http://phoenix.about.com/b/a/201522.htm

Reporting." (2007). Smoke Free Arizona. Smoke Free Arizona. Retrieved 19 May 2007 at http://www.smokefreearizona.org/reporting.asp
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Technology to Enhance Learning Distance and Online Applications

Words: 2163 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65833335

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Topic:Technology to Enhance Learning: Distance & Online Applications
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Application: Online Course Design Online education offers convenient and effective means by which nurses, nursing students, and other populations can gain valuable learning experiences. In this Application, you will design an online learning environment on a nursing-education topic of interest to you. If you would like to put your course online, you are invited to try Moodle, a free course management web application, but this is not a requirement of the assignment.To begin, review Chapter 6, EuroDesigning the Online Learning Environment," in Developing Online Learning Environments in Nursing Education (OEuro(TM)Neil, Fisher, &…… [Read More]

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Ending the Sale of Tobacco

Words: 520 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45104950

CVS enames Itself CVS Health as it Ends Sale of Tobacco Products

(1) Who are the major winners and losers in this story? Why do you think so?

There is a mix of winners and losers in this story and some parties could be considered both. For example, CVS is gaining a lot of support for its new focus on health, but it also does so at the expense of revenues. The video mentions that CVS's revenue will decrease from the organization stopping the sale of tobacco products at its retail chains.

The consumers could also be considered both winners and losers. The video mentions one individual who states that he will simply have to walk across the street to buy his cigars. However, other tobacco customers could be more significantly inconvenienced and have to travel further to buy tobacco products. However, depending on the perspective, some would argue that…… [Read More]

References

Boughton, J. (2014, January 16). Reflecting on the history of smoking cessation. Retrieved from MedPage: http://www.kevinmd.com/blog/2014/01/reflecting-history-smoking-cessation.html
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Health Behavior the Theories at a Glance

Words: 7053 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74310569

Health Behavior

The "Theories At A Glance" manual discussed a variety of healthy behaviors. Select two theories that can be used to explain why people behave the way they do. Discuss the basic premise and constructs of the theories you choose. Cite two examples of how each theory could be used to explain a health behavior.

Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)

The relationship that exists between behavior and attitudes, beliefs and intention is studied under TPB (Theory of Planned Behavior). TA (Theory of easoned Action) is also associated with TPB. According to TA and TPB, behavior is mainly determined by behavioral intention. These models show that the attitude of an individual affects behavioral intention. Hence, the behavior of a person towards the performance of some particular behavior is also influenced. In addition to this, beliefs concerning individuals who have close association (these people have the decision making power of approving…… [Read More]

References

Bandura A. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1986.

Bronfenbrenner, U 1994 'Ecological Models of Human Development', International Encyclopaedia of Education, Vol 3, Oxford, Elsevier.

Eddy Module 2. Dr. James Eddy. Social Learning Theory (SLT/SCT): Reciprocal Determinism, Expectations, Value Expectancies. Accessed March 18th, 2012 from: mms://mediasrv1.ccs.ua.edu/CCS-AO2/HHE520/tape2b/2b_clip1.wmv

Eddy Module 2a. Dr. James Eddy. SLT/SCT (cont'd): Observational Learning, Reinforcement, Self-Efficacy, Emotional Coping. Accessed March 18th, 2012 from: mms://mediasrv1.ccs.ua.edu/CCS-AO2/HHE520/tape2b/2b_clip2.wmv
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Ttm Improving Healthy Aging and

Words: 1742 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23705468

Lectures, on the other hand, provide information for helping people in Contemplation move into Preparation and Action." (Lach et al., p. 91)

Partners:

Partners for execution of this intervention should include local health organizations such as area clinics, hospitals and long-term care facilities as well as the local chapter of the AARP. Their support will provide the project with direct channels of communication for outreach and ongoing involvement in collective and individual health behavior changes.

Resources:

Resources will be gathered through public fundraising efforts and through the charitable donation of meeting facilities and health professional expertise.

orks Cited:

Adams, J. & hite, M. (2003). Are activity promotion interventions based on the transtheoretical model effective? A critical review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37, 106 -- 114. Retrieved from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1724627/pdf/v037p00106.pdf

Burbank, P.M.; Reibe, D.; Padula, C.A. & Nigg, C. (2002). Exercise and Older Adults: Changing Behavior with the Transtheoretical Model. Orthopedic…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Adams, J. & White, M. (2003). Are activity promotion interventions based on the transtheoretical model effective? A critical review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37, 106 -- 114. Retrieved from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1724627/pdf/v037p00106.pdf

Burbank, P.M.; Reibe, D.; Padula, C.A. & Nigg, C. (2002). Exercise and Older Adults: Changing Behavior with the Transtheoretical Model. Orthopedic Nursing, 4, 51-61.

Lach, H.W.; Everard, K.M.; Highstein, G. & Brownson, C.A. (2004). Application of the Transtheoretical Model to Heath Education for Older Adults. Health Promotion Practice, 5(1), 88-93.

Marquez, D.X.; Bustamante, E.E.; Blissmer, B.J. & Prohaska, T.R. (2008). Health Promotion for Successful Aging. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 3(1), 12-19.
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Economics Taxation on Tobacco Discussion

Words: 551 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70117030



3. Third world countries are more likely to rely more heavily upon excise taxes on gasoline, tobacco, and alcohol because those are products that sell very well around the world. These are also products that are in a number of cases, particularly tobacco, that are cheaper than essential items such as water or food. Taxes on tobacco help poor countries who would rely on the taxes more wealthy and more reliant upon tobacco.

4. People in lower and middle income countries are more likely to react to taxation on tobacco because for the consumers of that product in those countries, they will have less income for food and shelter for example. People in wealthier countries can afford the increase; they may hardly notice the increase and if it bothers them on principle, for example, they can afford other alternatives just as easily.

5. Whether or not a government uses consumptive…… [Read More]

References:

Berlinger, Joshua. "Why Smokers Shouldn't be Scared of the WHO's Global Recommendations for Cigarette Taxes." Business Insider, Web, Available from:  http://www.businessinsider.com/who-global-cigarette-tax-2012-9 , 2012. 2013 May 13.

Stolberg, Sheryl Gay. "Wealth Health Organization Calls for Higher Taxes on Tobacco." The New York Times, Web, Available from:  http://www.nytimes.com/2002/02/28/world/world-health-organization-calls-for-higher-taxes-on-tobacco.html , 2002. 2013 May 13.
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Psychology and Physiological Aspects of Substance Abuse

Words: 1227 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65984339

West (1997) stated that clinicians, researchers, policy makers and others who work in the area of addiction, with addicts or who have to deal with the consequences of addiction, cannot easily ignore the strong ethical dimension to the problem. Ethics is concerned with determining the nature of normative theories and applying these sets of principles to practical moral problems. It is concerned with how we should live, as individuals and societies, what is right and wrong, what is good and bad and what is just and unjust. The bases on which such judgments can be made have been subject to systematic enquiry since before the time of Plato. Utilitarianism is perhaps the strongest thread running through the analysis of ethical and policy decisions in the field of addiction.

(Weissman, 1997) reported the following findings regarding tobacco companies and their advertising, He reported that the tobacco companies are expected to meet…… [Read More]

References

Pollack, H., Lantz, P.M., & Frohna, J.G. (2000, March). Maternal Smoking and adverse birth outcomes among singletons and twins. American Journal of Public Health, 90(3), 395-400.

Schwartz-Bickenbach, D., Schulte-Hobein, B., Abt, S., Plum, C., & Nau, H. (1987, January). Smoking and passive smoking during pregnancy and early infancy: effects on birth weight, lactation period, and continue concentrations in mother's milk and infant's urine.. Toxicology Letter, 35(1), 73-81.

Weissman, R. (1997, July/August). The Great Tobacco Bailout. Multinational Monitor, 18(7/8), 9-18.

West, R. (1997, September). Addiction, Ethics and Public Policy. Addiction, 92(9), 1061-1071.
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Mental Patients' Physical Health Who Use Antipsychotic Medication

Words: 13284 Length: 32 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44641264

Antipsychotic Medication and the Physical Health Problems of the Patient With Mental Illness

More and more attention is now being given to the mental disorders especially in U.S. And due to this increase in attention an increase has also been noticed in the treatment of these mental health issues (Zuvekas, 2005). About 30% of the total U.S. population that is between the ages of 18-52 is being affected by mental health issues which make up a large part of the public health problem (Kessler et al., 2005; Narrow et al., 2002). The risk of morbidity and smaller life expectancy is very high in the patients who suffer from the mental health issues (Millar, 2008; Skodol, 2008). It has been observed from numerous researches that the chances of suffering from various health issues such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension are a lot more for the patients suffering from schizophrenia (Millar,…… [Read More]

References

Robson, D. And Haddad, M. (2012). Mental health nurses' attitudes towards the physical health care of people with severe and enduring mental illness: The development of a measurement tool. International Journal of Nursing Studies 49; 72 -- 83

Rosenberg, S., Goodman, L.A., Osher, F.C., 2001. Prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in people with sever mental illness. American Journal of Public Health 91, 31 -- 37.

Ruigomez, A., Rodriguez, L.A.G., Dev, V.J., Arellano, F., Raniwala, J., 2000. Are schizophrenia or antipsychotic drugs a risk factor for cataracts? Epidemiology 11, 620 -- 623.

Ryan, M.C., Thakore, J.H., 2001. Physical consequences of schizophrenia and its treatment: the metabolic syndrome. Life Sciences 71 (3), 239 -- 257.
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The Implementation of the Mipcd Project

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73135772

responsibilities as it relates to implementation of the MIPCD project. All four study arms should be described.

Disease Area

Implementation Steps

Barriers and Solutions

Diabetes Management

Diabetes is linked to cardiovascular mortality, neuropathy, stroke, amputation, periodontal disease, kidney failure, and blindness.

Attending a session with an endocrinologist or primary care appointment or filling medications for diabetes is required.

The number of deaths from chronic illnesses in the State of New York is slightly more than the U.S. average, principally on account of a greater number of deaths from heart disease. The characteristics of chronic illness include complex causality, long latency, various risk factors, functional disability/impairment, prolonged illness, and improbability of cure, in some instances.

They deeply impact the affected person's physical, mental and emotional well-being, and are linked to substantial economic costs.

Timely chronic illness detection and cure, in addition to a focus on self-management on the part of the…… [Read More]

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Employee Health Programs an Employee

Words: 1349 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27648689

Employees that wish to work in healthy environments are likely to be more motivated, and workers who are encouraged to be healthy will enjoy their work more, and become more productive.

"Some say it may be more effective just to award employees cash and prizes for weight loss rather than devote resources to long-term wellness programs" (Obesity, 2008, Consumer Affairs). However, this would seem to unjustly penalize poorer workers, as workers with "limited economic means may not have the ability to pay for gym memberships, smoking cessation drugs, or more nutritious food. Indeed, data from several studies confirm that those in lower socioeconomic classes have poorer smoking cessation rates and diets with less whole grains, lean meats and fresh fruits and vegetables" (Mhurchu 2010). Less affluent workers are less likely to work for companies like Google that provide amenities like on-site gyms or even gym memberships. Ironically, workers who are…… [Read More]

References

Capretta, Peter; Karen Davenport; Kevin Pho; Arthur Caplan; Gary Charness; & Uri Gneezy. (2010,

June 14l). Should people be paid to stay healthy? The New York Times. Retrieved February 27, 2011 at http://roomfordebate.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/06/14/should-people-be-paid-to-stay-healthy/

The Google Culture. (2010). Google. Retrieved February 27, 2011 at http://www.google.com/corporate/culture.html

Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Louise M. Aston, & Susan a. Jebb. (2010, February 10). Effects of worksite health promotion interventions on employee diets: a systematic review. BMC Public
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Management of Left Ventricular Heart

Words: 3436 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90872428

(NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)

The Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are stated to be "recommended as first-line treatment in all people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) "with or without symptoms of heart failure." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) Additionally it is stated that strong evidence exists that ACE inhibitors "...increase life expectancy in people with LVSD and reduce the risk of hospitalization -- the effect is greatest in those with more severe LVSD or more severe symptoms, but benefit occurs for all degrees of severity." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)

Prescribed for individuals who are intolerant of ACE inhibitors due to cough are

Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists which provide an alternative to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) There is stated to be evidence that AIIRAs supports life expectancy improvement and symptoms for those with heart failure due to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Clinical Practice Guideline for Heart Failure Due to Left-Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction (2000) Kaiser Diagnostic and Treatment Documents. February 2000. Online available at: http://*****/cajud/heart/leftven.html

Heart Failure: Age from 16 Years Onwards (2008) Clinical Knowledge Summaries. NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement. Online available at: http://www.cks.nhs.uk/heart_failure_chronic/evidence/references#

NHS Confederation and BMA (2005) New GMS contract. Department of Health. www.dh.gov.uk.

NICE (2002) Guidance on the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion for smoking cessation. Technology appraisal no.39. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. www.nice.org.uk [Accessed: 19/06/2007]. [Free Full-text]
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Profile of an Elderly Patient

Words: 1429 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85419760

Client Evaluation

The client is a 78-year-old female. She has been divorced for 30 years. She is retired. Her social class is upper middle class. Her medical history is free from significant trauma. She had six hospitalizations, all for childbirth, and one surgery; a cesarean section combined with a tubal ligation. She has two chronic health conditions: high blood pressure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She is a former smoker. She lives with an adult son and her other children live nearby. She was a domestic violence victim for the 20 years of her marriage and has some lingering physical problems (an improperly healed broken rib) and emotional problems from that period of abuse. Her parents, a younger brother, and two of her children predeceased her.

Medical Issues

The patient is not currently suffering from any acute medical issues. She does have two significant chronic medical issues: high blood…… [Read More]

References

Friedman, G.D., Asgari, M.M., Warton, E.M., Chan, J., & Habel, L.A. (2012).

Antihypertensive drugs and lip cancer in non-Hispanic whites. Arch Intern Med, 172(16): 1246-51. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.2754.

Goren, A., Annunziata, K., Schnoll, R.A., & Suaya, J.A. (2014). Smoking cessation and attempted cessation among adults in the United States. PlosOne, 9(3): e93014. doi: 10.371/journal.pone.0093014

Hoonhorts, S.J., Ten Hacken, N.H., Lo Tam Loi, A.T., Koenderman, L., Lammers, J.W.,
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Stroke Is One of the

Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36611783

Patients with aphasia struggle with language disorders including both oral and written communication problems. Also, clinical depression is found to be common among many stroke victims. [NINDS]

Stroke Prevention

Given the high stakes involving both mortality and morbidity, stroke prevention is considered a very vital health care policy. Prevention strategies are usually targeted on controlling the important 'first tier risk factors' which were mentioned earlier. First and foremost among these is to control hypertension. ased on evidence-based practices, the American Heart association recommends that antihypertensive treatment including the use of diuretics and class 1 ACEI drugs be standardized for all patients to prevent recurrent strokes as well as to serve as a proactive intervention against other cardiovascular complications. Since diabetes is considered a high risk factor for stroke, clinical practice also recommends that glucose levels for all diabetic patients with ischemic stroke be maintained near-normoglycemic levels. The AHA guidelines also…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Washington University, (2010) 'Stroke Information for Patients and Families: U.S. Statistics: ', retrieved Aug 2nd 2010, from, http://www.strokecenter.org/patients/stats.htm

2) Larry B. Goldstein, (2009), 'A Primer on Stroke Prevention and Treatment', Pub by American Heart Association.

3) NINDS, 'Post Stroke Rehabilitation Factsheet', retrieved Aug 2nd 2010, from, http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/stroke/poststrokerehab.htm

4) Ralph L. Sacco, MD, MS, @ Robert Adams MD et.al (2006), 'Guidelines for Prevention of Stroke in Patients with Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack', Stroke. 37:577, available online at, http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/37/2/577
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Absorb Them and Regurgitate Them at Face

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79736603

absorb them and regurgitate them at face value. To the contrary, part of conducting research is scrutinizing our research sources to determine their scholarly credibility. The importance of this ability is demonstrated in the discussion here, which considers two articles which are drawn from scholarly journals but which differ considerably in their scholarly credentials.

A study by Anderson & Keller (2002), published in the estern Journal of Nursing Research, concerns the therapeutic implications of smoking cessation. The primary objective of the study by Anderson & Keller is to draw a direct correlation between the transtheoretical model of health behavior and the variables associated with smoking cessation. The purpose is to promote an improvement of existing smoking cessation programs by finding ways to hone in on determinant independent variables. The transtheoretical model employed in the study is important to our discussion because, as the researchers acknowledge, this is a commonly employed…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Anderson, S. & Keller, C. (2002). Examination of the Transtheoretical Model in Current Smokers. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 24, 282.

Farimani, M.M. (2007). Islamic Philosophy and the Challenge of Cloning. Journal of Religion & Science, 42(1), 145-152.

University of California Berkeley. Critical evaluation of resources. Retrieved March 31, 2011, from http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/instruct/guides/evaluation.html
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Organization's Values Organizational Values Philip

Words: 1123 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55368110

Restructuring itself for a better fit with its environment, the company established a Youth Prevention Department, staffed by a senior vice-president in Philip Morris, U.S.A. To look for ways to help reduce smoking among teenagers" (Glover 2008).

The relative lack of sincerity of these claims and the transparent dishonesty of Philip Morris' claim to stop youths from smoking is manifest in the fact that the company recently filed a suit in federal court to overturn a San Francisco ordinance that would ban the sale of tobacco products in convenience drug stores. It proclaims this proudly on a September 2008 press release on its website: "Philip Morris USA sues to overturn controversial San Francisco sales ban on tobacco products." However, teens are more likely than other consumers to use these venues to purchase cigarettes than other consumers. Philip Morris defends its actions as the promotion of freedom for adult consumers, given…… [Read More]

Works Cited

About Altria. (2008). Official Website. Retrieved December 8, 2008 at http://www.altria.com/about_altria/1_2_companiesandbrands.asp

Fisher, Laurie (2000, April.) "Divestment in the tobacco industry." Cancer Causes & Control.

Glover, Willa. (2008). "An exploratory study of key factors of self-organization in organizational systems." Human and Organizational Systems: Fielding Graduate Institute.

Retrieved December 8, 2008 at http://www.geocities.com/cmogata/wwglover.html
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Broms Et Al 2010 Found That Evening

Words: 1176 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10078279

Broms et al. (2010) found that evening type people were more likely to become smokers, and less likely to cease their nicotine addiction.

The study was a cohort design that used random-effects model regressions over a longitudinal period of time in order to study the comparison of attraction to smoking and tendency to remain addicted between diurnal and non-diurnal participants.

A sample of 23289 same-sex adult twin individuals from Finland was used. Nicotine dependence was studied on a sub-sample of 676 individual twins. The subjects were split into four groups: morning type, somewhat morning type, somewhat evening type, and evening type. Past and present smoking patterns were assessed. The DSM-IV and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) were both used to assess nicotine dependence.

esearchers found that of the four categories, it was diurnal types who were most likely to be past and current nicotine smokers and addicted to smoking,…… [Read More]

References

Broms, U. et al. (2010) Evening types are more often current smokers and nicotine dependent - a study of Finnish adult twins Addiction. 106(1): 170 -- 177.

Creative Research Systems Significance in Statistics & Surveys

 http://www.surveysystem.com/signif.htm 

Twisk JWR. (2003). Applied Longitudinal Data Analysis for Epidemiology: A Practical Guide. Cambridge University Press; Cambridge, UK; New York:
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Management Pregnant Figureswomen Are a

Words: 1051 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27522233



Using a multidisciplinary team approach in order to treat a 14-year-old pregnant teenager who smokes a pack of cigarettes a day would involve using various services. These would include nurse practitioners, registered nurses, social workers, nutritionists along with other support staff. Using this approach would help address the challenges that young pregnant teenagers may face, both physically and socially. Through group discussions and interactions with other teens, young women and their partners empower and educate one another as they progress from pregnancy into parenting (Shetty, 2009).

This would require an approach that would involve midwives, nurses; community-based young people's services and targeted youth support services. The basis of the program would be to help the teenager to quit smoking in order to improve her overall health and that of her unborn child's. It should offer advice and support on childcare, parenting and health-related topics. An intervention program should be set…… [Read More]

References

American Academy of Pediatrics: Care of Adolescent Parents and Their Children. (2001).

Pediatrics, 107(2), 429-434.

Shetty, Anisha. (2009). Adolescent Update: The Teen Pregnancy Center. Retrieved September 8,

2009, from Children's Hospital St. Louis Web site:
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Memorial Herman Business Research Applications

Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16578268

Being able to merge the resources of a variety of different specialists is one strength of the Memorial Herman approach. In the future, as the interrelationship between the body and the brain, and psychological disorders and overall functioning has become an accepted part of mainstream science: studies such as these will be even more important for research institutes. Memorial Herman is clearly on the cutting-edge of the field in this regard.

Because of its impressive outreach, the hospital is also able to draw upon a wide array of specific populations, as in the case of studies such as the "Evaluation of cardiovascular effects of smoking cessation in HIV-infected patients" (Bell 2009). Few other hospitals would be able to draw from a large amount of HIV-positive patients who were smokers and willing to participate in research studies. The study may prove beneficial to the research subjects as well as to the…… [Read More]

References

About us. (2009). Memorial Hermann. Retrieved November 12, 2009 at http://www.memorialhermann.org/aboutus/

Bell, Tanvir. (2009). Evaluation of cardiovascular effects of smoking cessation in HIV-infected patients. Memorial Herman. Retrieved November 12, 2009 athttp://www.memorialhermann.org/locations/texasmedicalcenter/heartandvascularinstitute/content.aspx?id=5772

Frazier, Lorraine. (2009). Interactions among depressive symptoms and genetic influences on cardiac outcomes. Memorial Herman. Retrieved November 12, 2009

http://www.memorialhermann.org/locations/texasmedicalcenter/heartandvascularinstitute/content.aspx?id=5772