Smoking is a central factor in many pathological conditions. Nearly all smokers have at least some idea of the risks associated with the practice yet chose to smoke anyway. The adverse effects of tobacco use on cardiopulmonary function are well established and recognized; less evident, but equally important, is its impact on all aspects of physical therapist practice, including integumentary, musculoskeletal, and neuromuscular health (Pignataro, Ohtake, & Dino, 2012). Smoking can affect patients all the way from prenatal exposure through all phases of adulthood and thus cessation efforts stand a high likelihood of improving health outcomes.
Furthermore, it is less acknowledged the cigarette smoking affects both the innate and adoptive immune arms. Cigarette smoke was shown to augment the production of numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 GM-CSF and to decrease the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10; tobacco smoke via multiple mechanisms leads…… [Read More]
Studies of six diverse communities in Chicago, poor women under welfare reform and Medicaid recipients as well as a focus group of seniors concerning smoking cessation showed that 1) populations do vary in their smoking behavior and ability to stop smoking and 2) programs must be developed to target specific demographics.
Although prior studies showed that poorer individuals have worse health, comparatively less research has been conducted specifically on a subgroup of this population -- single mothers receiving welfare. Kaplan et. al. (2005) hypothesized that the health of these women is not only at risk, but that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, made this problematic situation even worse. The researchers thus compared the health of single mothers from Michigan who were impacted by welfare reform with a nationally representative sample of women.
Results indicated that current smoking rates were higher and smoking cessation…… [Read More]
Smoking Cessation -- Outline
Smoking vs. illegal drugs
Desire to return to smoking
The business of smoking cessation
Dangers and the Surgeon General's warning
Smoking Cessation Programs
Smoking cigarettes has been found to be even more addictive than using many illegal drugs. Because of this, those that choose to quit smoking often struggle with it, and many of them return to smoking, even after quitting for a long period of time. Some people that have stopped smoking years ago state that they still have the urge for a cigarette, especially when others around them are smoking. Smoking cessation has become a large and booming business as more and more people try to kick the habit to avoid many of the problems that smoking can cause, such as lung cancer and heart disease.…… [Read More]
Smoking Cessation Interventions
Psychosocial and Pharmacological Interventions on Smoking
Of the many causes of death in the world, coronary heart disease (CHD) remains one of the top global killers with an estimated 7.2 million people dying each year (Howell, 2011). The United States comprises a great majority of this mortality rate, which is approximately 450, 000 deaths in the United States alone (Capewell, et.al, 2010). Fortunately, since the 1970s CHD mortality rates in most industrialized nations have been reduced, especially in the younger populations (Capwell, et.al, 2010). A large majority of the American population, however, remains at heightened risk for developing cardiovascular disease, largely due to elevated cholesterol levels, even after smoking cessation. (Capwell, et.al, 2010). These increased cholesterol levels can result in hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and eventual development of atherosclerosis (Bass, 1991).
CHD is even more problematical in individuals that smoke. Over time smoking causes diseased arterial smooth muscle and,…… [Read More]
Health Belief Model
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2012) smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. It is estimated that there are more than 43 million adults who currently smoke in the United States. Of these 53% are men and 47% are women. Tobacco use is responsible for causing many diseases and reducing the health of smokers in general. The adverse effects of smoking cigarettes account for approximately 443,000, or nearly one in five deaths in the United States annually. Tobacco use causes more deaths each year than all of the deaths caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), illegal drug use, alcohol use, motor vehicle injuries, and murders combined. An estimated 90% of all lung cancer deaths in men and 80% of all lung cancer deaths in women are the result of smoking as are 90% of all deaths from chronic obstructive…… [Read More]
The competition is tough all the way around, and companies are tight financially in making ends meet for all employees that are trying to help others survive around the globe (Peto, Darby, Deo, Silcocks, Whitley, & Doll, 2000).
Public health priorities are an issue that could arise at any given time in trying to get adults to stop smoking. For example, if an emergency occurs with someone who has received a gunshot wound, then they are less likely to pay attention to the details of smoking until the person is well again through much medical attention. Additionally, if he or she is focused on the vital organs at that time, and the person is in a comma, then it is possible that death is inevitable because of doctors and nurses not able to find out about smoking in one's past before this tragic event; although, a miracle could take place…… [Read More]
When you see a sharp decline, this is an indication that the chances have increased that the person will have a heart attack. To determine effect of EPC's on heart disease in smokers, researchers would survey 15 different smokers. The results were that EPC's were lower in heavy smokers and increased if someone was a light smoker. When a person quit smoking, the underlying levels of EPC's would dramatically increase. As a result, researchers determined that those who quit smoking; will see a reduction in their chances of having a stroke. Those who are considered light smokers will have a lower chance of heart attack, in comparison with heavy smokers. This is significant, because it can be used to corroborate, the overall negative health effects of smoking on the individual. Where, the more they smoke, the greater the chances increase that they could have a heart attack. (Takahisa, 2004, pg.1422)…… [Read More]
Arriving at a Solution and Selecting Intervention Strategies
Program Goal: To help smokers view smoking cessation as a positive life change, rather than as a deprivation.
Objective: Focus on personal responsibility in the program, emphasizing that the decision whether or not to smoke is a personal choice.
Implementing the Plan
Program Goal: Give participants skills to deal with stressful situations without smoking.
Objective: Send participants into stressful situations knowing that they will trigger the urge to smoke, tell the participants to expect conflict, and provide the tools for dealing with that conflict.
Evaluating the Outcomes of the Plan of Action
Program Goal: To maintain a 35%-45% rate of people who not only stopped smoking, but had not resumed smoking a year after the end of the program, which is the success rate seen in hospitals.
Objective: To attain full participation in follow-up surveys assessing whether or not participants had stopped…… [Read More]
In fact these moderate quit rates are substantially higher than health care interventions (Salize et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2009).
Psychological interventions such as support groups, counseling sessions, and guided quit plans have been proven most effective when coupled with pharmacological interventions (Huang, 2005). Cessation programs need to be interactive and engage the participant in the treatment process as well as identifying individual characteristics that have led to the smoking behavior and tailoring interventions to meet these needs (ovina et al., 2009). Those programs that emphasized lectures, consultations, and group discussions were found to have a 40% quit rate with the majority of participants failing to reduce their daily cigarette consumption (Huang, 2005). Smoking cessation programs also exist in the workplace and focus on self-efficacy and social support achieved a 19% participant quit rate (Huang, 2005). Programs that utilized pharmacological interventions alone such as the transdermal nicotine patch have…… [Read More]
One of the most important aspects in enhancing the effectiveness of healthcare services is to promote the professional role of the nurse to provide health promotion and disease preventive care. This can be achieved through collaboration with other healthcare professionals and consumer groups in the community in redesigning healthcare that can assist in achievement of the goals of Healthy People 2020. An example of a focus area that could benefit from such initiatives is smoking cessation or tobacco use. Smoking cessation is an initiative that is geared towards lessening tobacco use, which in turn reduces its health effects and death related to its use and smoke exposure. Actually, smoking cessation is associated with decreased illness, disability, and tobacco- or smoke-related deaths.
The need for smoking cessation is brought by the significant increase in scientific knowledge about the health effects of tobacco use ("Tobacco Use," 2013). Since the first…… [Read More]
These clinic sessions are meant to be voluntary and no single employee is going to be forced to attend the sessions since we value our employee's decisions and vow not to violate any their rights. At the same time if the workplace becomes a 100% smoke free it will mean that there will be low premiums for the employees and this is good news for all of us in terms of the reduction in premiums paid for insurance. These clinics are also beneficial to the employee since they will help them kick the smoking habit entirely which is also an advantage to them.
I therefore urge all employees to attend the clinics since they will largely be beneficial to you as an employee, over and above the $255 bonus that will be extended by the organization to all those who will attend the entire clinic. Remember your welfare as employees…… [Read More]
Program Evaluation Part II
A WE-ASED PROGRAM MODEL
Needs Assessment for a Smoking Cessation Program
Program planning and evaluation must be preceded and interrelate with assessment strategies (Marrs & Helge, 2014). This succession will meet the increasing demand for eventual accountability in the program. Needs assessment may also be aptly used in creating program standards both as part of formative evaluation and summative evaluation. The process of needs assessment is guided by the appropriate principles of organization development. These principles involve all organizational levels. They also align individual and organizational needs and goals (Marrs & Helge).
The assessment of needs must logically precede program development. Generally, available information in the preceding year is sufficient for use as baseline and in setting up program goals and objectives in the planning stage (CDCP, 2014). It will also be valuable in measuring and assessing program goals in the evaluation stage. Measurement…… [Read More]
Smoking Cessation Drugs
The majority of smokers who try to quit smoking do so from six to nine times during their lives. This research paper, which focuses on smoking cessation drugs, includes a survey the researcher conducted at three medical facilities. Forty participants relate details regarding their attempts to quit smoking.
"…Quitting smoking is one of the best things [one] can do for […his/her] health.
Most smokers try to quit 6-9 times in their lives"
- The U.S. Surgeon General ("Quitting can be…" 2009).
"I know I need to quit smoking."
"I'm trying to quit."
"I plan to quit…."
"Quitting smoking is hard…."
As most smokers "realize" the damage smoking cigarettes does to the human body, many smokers regularly verbalize the statements denoting their intentions to quit smoking. The truth, albeit, as the introductory quote for this research paper purports, even though quitting smoking constitutes one of the…… [Read More]
Smoking Cessation Program: An Overview
When creating a smoking cessation program after flagging patients as in need of treatment, it is important to use finite resources as wisely as possible. esources are finite for both the program designer and the patient in terms of time and money. One way create a better program is to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of effective smoking cessation programs to see what 'worked' and what did not. Studies have shown that one-on-one counseling is very effective in helping smokers quit. Smokers can discuss replacing smoking with more positive coping mechanisms such as exercise and how to emotionally deal with the inevitable 'slip ups' which occur. Counselors should be trained to give specific support to addicts, who will almost inevitably relapse as they struggle with negative and ambivalent emotions about quitting. The proposed program would match smokers with a counselor with whom they would meet weekly…… [Read More]
Smoking Cessation Program
Summarize how this project relates to the modules under review?
The impact and progression of a number of serious chronic diseases can be ameliorated by the lifestyle choices of people suffering from the diseases. Public health programs that facilitate positive lifestyle changes -- and actually help to bring about those changes -- are medically and economically important.
Summarize who will be affected by the project. Consumers or Clients?
Individuals who are Medicaid members and are chronic smokers will be invited to participate in the project. Clients who participate directly in program activities derive benefits from directly experiencing the program. In addition, interventions in the PIP projects must target the plan members and their families, the providers, the community, and the health plan. The study involved 50,284 smokers aged 18 to 64 years, including 655 smokers who were pregnant at the time of the study.
Summarize…… [Read More]
The current community philosophy regarding smoking among teens is foundational to the development of a comprehensive risk behavior intervention standard. Smoking behaviors among teens in the community are highly visible, while other risk behaviors are more hidden, it is therefore clear that smoking cessation in this age group could prove a substantial beginning in both the secondary prevention of long-term adult smoking and for the overall goal of reducing concurrent risk taking behaviors among teens.
ALA N-O-T training fee
Copies of Packet Materials based on an enrolment rate of 20 students per school (serving 5 schools = n 100)
Labor Student Nurse 75 hours x $14 per hour
Nursing Process Intervention and Evaluation
Topical Outline for Each Objective
Plan For Evaluation
Obtain Buy In from School Board on N-O-T program
Cognitive awareness of N-O-T effectiveness and relative low cost…… [Read More]
Auriculotheraphy Smoking Cessation Pilot program is seeking a grant to develop a cessation program focused on helping low and middle income persons quit smoking by providing auriculotheraphy treatment at a low costs.
In 1964 the surgeon general determined that smoking is hazardous to a person's health. Studies show that tobacco is responsible for approximately six million deaths each year. Tobacco contains nicotine and toxics that produce cancer. Though warnings are in place to alert people of the dangers and risks associated with tobacco use, the number of deaths continue to increase each year. eports claim that the poor and the poorest tend to smoke the most.
Auriculotheraphy is a form of acupuncture. The procedure involves stimulation of the outer ear to relieve health problems in parts of the body. The procedure reduces tension and allows the body to relax while increasing the circulation. Dr. Paul Nogier, a neurologist, developed the…… [Read More]
The use of pharmacotherapy, including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), has been shown to increase the likelihood of a successful quit attempt. Smoking cessation has numerous health benefits, including an increase in longevity, even among smokers who quit later in life. Effective smoking cessation policies, including increased NRT availability and use, would be expected to reduce smoking-attributable deaths in the United States. Some concerns have arisen about the safety of long-term NRT use, which could reduce the cessation-related benefits of NRT-aided quit attempts. Hemodynamic effects of nicotine intake have been described, which may have implications for cardiovascular disease risk. However, tobacco smoke contains many toxic compounds that can damage the cardiovascular system, including combustion products such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides; thus, it is not clear what fraction of smoking-related cardiovascular risk may be attributable to nicotine intake. Further, clinical trials have generally shown NRT use to be safe. Concerns…… [Read More]
1. Explain the difference between the terms factors and treatments. Give an example
Within an experimental setting, the term factor which is also referred to as an independent variable is a variable that is explanatory and can usually be manipulated by the one conducting the experiment. Every factor typically has different values meaning that there are two or more levels for the factor. On the other hand, treatment can be defined as a combination or amalgamation of these factor levels. That is, it is a mixture of the different values of the independent variable (Heath, 2002).
2. What are some potential problems of a poor experimental design?
One of the potential problems of a poor experimental design is biasedness. This is largely for the reason that such a design fails overlooks and fails to take into consideration the rules of randomization and facilitates augmented experimental mistakes. In addition,…… [Read More]
Developmental perspective was the concept that the nursing students participating in this study were typically younger than they patients they were caring for. This made it difficult for them to ask the "older" patient questions about a lifestyle they had been practicing for many years.
Environmental constraints were noted that prevented the participants in the study from fully implementing best practice guidelines. The primary of which was time. They noted that because of other duties and paper keeping requirements, they had little time to properly present the best practice guidelines. Some noted that they had little time to do expected things such as breathing, much less introduce the patient properly to best practice guidelines.
During their third year of training the nurses were introduced to a comprehensive program concerning cigarettes and cessation programs. In addition they had already been taught more efficient time management training. With these new tools they…… [Read More]
Outcomes to be Assessed:
The primary objective is to see that subjects of the program cease smoking and remain abstinent from tobacco use. This will be the primary outcome to be assessed therefore. Individuals in both the experiment and control groups would be consulted at the six-month juncture and the one year point in order to determine how many among them have remained abstinent from tobacco use in that duration and up to that point.
Other outcomes to be assessed would be long-term health factors relating to the use of tobacco. According to statistics compiled and sponsored by the T.J. Samson Community Hospital in Glasgow, Kentucky and most recently updated in the spring of 2006, habitual smokers of cigarettes are "fourteen times as likely to die of lung cancer" and twice as susceptible to fatality by heart disease. (T.J.S.C.H, 1) This means, according to the Community Hospital, that…… [Read More]
psychosocial smoking cessation interventions for coronary heart disease patients effective?
The association with smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been well documented. To prevent further heart attacks, as well as to preserve their life, smokers have been consistently and strongly advised to quit smoking, and associations such as the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Task Force have drafted recommendations and reams of advice to assist patients in doing so. Nevertheless, many patients diagnosed with CHD continue to smoke despite the possibility of interventions and programs (many of them free) helping them to stop. Mortality can be reduced by as much as 36% if smokers with CHD determine to stop smoking 3-5 years after diagnosed (Critchley, 2003) aside from which dramatic reductions in cardiac attacks have been discovered when smokers have stopped smoking for as short a time as a year (Quist-Paulsen, & Gallefoss, 2003). The Coronary…… [Read More]
Nursing Counseling and Smoking Cessation Among Inpatients
The work of Li, et al. (2014) reports a study that examines the facilitators and barriers to effective smoking cessation as it relates to counseling services provided to inpatients by nurse counselors.
The study reports that the Taiwanese Health Promotion Administration reports that 4.8 million smokers exist in Taiwan and that nearly 50% of these smokers were interested in quitting smoking. Smoking cessation is beneficial to both smokers and those whom they love and are loved by in that smoking cessation not only saves lives of those who quit smoking but in addition results in reduction in the costs of personal and health care. According to the report, THPA's implementation of the "New Smoking Cessation Policy on the 1st of March 2012 to expand smoking cessation counseling services to both outpatient and inpatient settings." (Li et al., 2014, p. 5) Li et al.…… [Read More]
I have also noticed I have a tendency to eat more, as I worried about. Part of that is the oral gratification missing when I do not smoke, but I have also found that food simply tastes better now that I am not smoking, and I find myself eating more, as a result. I am attempting to monitor this so I do not gain weight, as so many people do in the course of their intervention.
Another con is that I have been irritable, suffered from headaches, and have been short with some of the people trying to aid me in my intervention. I know this is common during smoking cessation, but it makes the process more difficult, and makes me feel dreadful as well.
However, the pros of my action stage are quite compelling. I do feel better about myself, and my psyche is improving each day I continue…… [Read More]
Besides the most serious medical consequences, smoking causes bad breath, yellowing of teeth and is considered equally damaging to the skin in terms of premature aging and wrinkles as overexposure to the sun. Finally, the increased awareness of the dangers of second-hand smoke have already led to laws prohibiting smoking in the workplace, in restaurants and other public areas, and even in residential buildings. In general, smoking is becoming something that many people consider evidence of poor decision making or even low intelligence.
The decision to start smoking is just not consistent with good judgment and intelligent choices. The fact that so many people who already smoke wish they had never started and the difficulty they experience in trying to quit should be enough proof to anybody that starting is a very bad idea. Healthcare costs are one of the most expensive bills that Americans pay and a substantial amount…… [Read More]
Phone numbers are displayed liberally. A stop-smoking hotline is listed with a toll-free telephone number. Links to sponsoring organizations like the Centers for Disease Control allow visitors to read more, and a "Get expert help" section invites viewers to use instant messaging to communicate with a "National Cancer Institute smoking cessation counselor."
Illustrations are used sparingly. No negative illustrations such as those depicting lungs decayed by cancer are included, keeping the imagery on the Web site positive and inoffensive. Most of the illustrations included on smokefree.gov are photographs depicting men and women exercising and enjoying the great outdoors. The images refresh themselves often, like a slide show. The smiling faces on the models imply that quitting smoking will make anyone feel healthier and more alive. Inclusion of people from various ethnic groups in the smokefree.gov photo database is helpful in reaching a broad audience. Background of the Web…… [Read More]
moking and Lung Disease
moking is a hazardous habit that has the ability to greatly affect the health of the smoker and those that are close to them. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate smoking and lung disease. The discussion will focus on possible community health nursing interventions/teaching strategies. We will also use Orem's nursing model to describe the community, its health issue/problem, and proposed interventions.
Community and Health issue
The community in question is Grady County which is located in Chickasha, Oklahoma. moking is a prevalent problem in this community and people are seemingly unaware of the health consequences related to smoking. The reason why this issue was chosen was due to my mother having evere Emphysema and the effects this disease has on her, also because of the impact that second hand smoking can have on non-smokers For example, I am Deathly Allergic to moking. My…… [Read More]
elping the elderly quit smoking is one of the most important responsibilities of the healthcare professional. The number of cessation programs designed for the elderly are severely limited, therefore the venues by which they actively quit smoking are not nearly as prevalent as other age segments. Most health care professionals have not received significant training in smoking cessation counseling in general, even though it is one of the most prevalent causes of health problems within America.
In the absence of having a strong primary care physician or a group therapy session to promote smoking cessation, alternatives include the use of cessation literature. Many channels of education have been attempted with some success in the elderly. In one recent test conducted by Rimer and Orleans using smoking cessation brochures, the results were extremely promising. In the study, three groups were established with the control group receiving cessation literature not specifically designed…… [Read More]
enefits After Quitting Smoking
Among the many health risks that toll life, smoking is considered as the most preventable cause of mortality. Globally, smoking has been one of the principal factors that lead to diverse type of diseases, such as cancer, coronary heart disease, lung disease, and many others. The number of smokers worldwide grows everyday, both in developed and developing countries. According to Karl Fagerstrom's Epidemiology of Smoking, from a 1995 estimate, the rate of smoking-related mortality will grow from 3 million to 10 million annually by 2030.
In response to the risks that smoking causes to the increasing number of smokers', many health organizations worldwide conduct different programs that are hoped to minimize and prevent people from smoking. This includes the provision of enough information on the effects of smoking to one's health, as well as information on how to quit from the smoking habit.
Many research and…… [Read More]
emoving Smoking in the Workplace Increases Productivity
The purpose of this proposed study is to determine if removing smoking from the workplace has increased workplace productivity. The writer will explore the question by using a survey study method. The participants will include workers across the nation in varying levels of work and careers. The proposed study is designed to measure whether or not there is an increase in productivity since employers began refusing to allow smoking in the workplace environment. There are several factors involved in the study including a look at five previously published studies regarding smokers and their habits. In addition the writer explores some of the different concerns for productivity that have been studied throughout the years with regards to smokers including secondhand smoke damage, absenteeism and dollars lost. This proposal suggests the direct question of affect on productivity from the time workplaces began to ban smoking…… [Read More]
More important to creating that plan, is the eventual follow through.
The adverse health affects are a justifiable reason to quit smoking. An astounding 90% of lung cancer is directly associated with long-term smoking, (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008). Other adverse health risks include cardiovascular disease, and other respiratory diseases. These haunting reminders of the adverse affects of smoking only increase as the user smokes for a longer period of time. Both lung and heart disease rates for smokers explode as smokers continue smoking throughout their lives. The risks just get higher as the years continue to pile up, "If you smoke for a lifetime, there is a 50% chance that your eventual death will be smoking-related - half of all these deaths will be in middle age," (BBC News 2003).
I am now almost thirty years of age, and have been smoking for at least ten years.…… [Read More]
e. managerial, social, political, economic benefits are linked to the study's results) the proposed helpful outcomes are realistic (i.e. dealing with questions that can actually be answered through the type of data gathering and analysis you're proposing. The suggested helpful outcomes do not go beyond the data that's to be collected).
The increase in teen smoking may be abating, or may be taking a pause before it continues the climb seen in the past 10 years, from 1996 to 2005. In either case, reducing smoking at an early age has a lifelong effect on individuals' health, and can lead to better quality of life for millions of people who might otherwise take up smoking. A secondary benefit is that lessons learned may help to reduce the current 3.1 million teen smokers, many of whom try smoking and quit -- it would be useful to know why they started in the…… [Read More]
CVS enames Itself CVS Health as it Ends Sale of Tobacco Products
(1) Who are the major winners and losers in this story? Why do you think so?
The new CVS strategy definitely seems more consistent relative to health promotion. Promoting health and well-being includes smoking cessation and being smoke free. By selling tobacco products, many argued that CVS was sending mixed signals to their clients. However, the reorganization of the company, now referred to as CVS health, sends a clear message that they are in the health promotion business. Yet, by doing so, the company is also sacrificing a significant revenue stream in all their locations. It is too early to tell if the more consistent mission statement will overcome the loss in revenues that they will experience throughout the transition.
The general public should be a winner in this situation as well. Although some consumers might be inconvenienced…… [Read More]
Nurses Perspectives on Smoking
According to researchers, about 18% of all registered nurses in America smoke. In order to help these people quit the habit, and thus improve their health and the health of those around them, the authors stated purpose is to "develop a national program to assist nurses in smoking cessation." (Bialous, 2004, p. 387) To accomplish this goal, the researchers conducted a total of eight focus groups, in four states, consisting of current and former smokers in order to determine attitudes toward smoking, quitting, and to examine preferences towards types of programs.
Eight focus groups were conducted in four states, California, Kentucky, New Jersey, and Ohio. These states were chosen because California and New Jersey had low smoking prevalences, while the prevalence of smoking in Kentucky and Ohio were high. By using both low and high prevalence of smoking, the researcher can obtain a national average for…… [Read More]
My friend has been a smoker for five years. She is a pack-a-day smoker. Not only is this habit expensive (she may spend upwards of $50 a week on this habit), but it is also not very good for health, as numerous studies have shown (Agaku, King, Dube et al., 2014). I would like to help her quit smoking so that she can save her health, save money, and just be an altogether more enjoyable person to be around. (It is not that much fun being around a person who smokes all the time). To solve this problem, I have applied the six-step problem solving process. This paper will review the steps and explain what I did step-by-step to help my friend quit smoking.
Step One: Define the Problem
The problem my friend was having was that she was smoking a pack a day and did not know how…… [Read More]
BANS ON SMOKING IN AMEICAN CITIES: NEW YOK CITY & LOS ANGELES
Moving with unexpected swiftness, New York state lawmakers passed a sweeping anti-smoking measure that makes New York the third state after California and Delaware to ban smoking in all workplaces, including restaurants, bars, and hotels. Within hours of the New York bill's passage, Governor George E. Pataki signed the tough measure, which exempts only America-Indian-owned casinos, cigar bars already licensed in New York City, fraternal clubs, outdoor areas of restaurants with no roof or awning, private homes, and personal but not company cars. New York's ban will take effect July 24 in areas where smoking now is permitted and where local ordinances are weaker. Although the law will not supersede the stricter measures previously passed in Westchester and Nassau counties, it will replace elements of New York City's new law, which took effect March 30.
Bans…… [Read More]
Banning Smoking in Restaurants in All States
Through this study, the author aims to support a policy regarding ban on smoking in restaurants in all the 50 states of USA. The author is of the view that smoking should be banned in restaurants in all 50 states to lower the rate of second hand smoking related diseases in non-smokers
Due to bad impacts on secondhand smoke, it has been banned on public places and educational institutions in many states. For example, Utah fully banned smoking in restaurants in 1995 and California imposed a complete ban on smoking in restaurants and bars in 1998. No further complete smoking bans were passed by any state till 2002 when South Dakota totally banned smoking in workplaces, and Delaware totally banned smoking in workplaces, restaurants, and bars. As of 2002, the number of states where there is complete ban on smoke at workplace, restaurant…… [Read More]
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website, the Healthy People 2020 Initiative was launched in 2010 in order to address a comprehensive assortment of health related issues concerning the American people and society (CDC, 2011). The initiative has four primary goals and objectives which includes; 1) attaining higher-quality and longer lives that are free from preventable diseases, disabilities, injuries and even premature death, 2) achieving equity in health, eliminating disparities, and improving the health of all groups of Americans, 3) creating social and physical environments that promote healthiness for all people, and 4) promoting quality of life along with health development and healthy behaviors throughout the stages of life. In all aspects of life, and certainly geared towards healthier American citizens, the idea and concept of becoming healthy by the year 2020 is a laudable exercise.
Tracking certain behaviors is generally accepted as one methodology in determining how effective (or ineffective)…… [Read More]
, Binns, Colin W., and Alfonso Helman. (2006): "Which Women Stop Smoking During Pregnancy and the Effect on Breastfeeding Duration." Biomed Central. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/6/195
Torfs, Claudine P. And Roberta E. Christianson. (2000): "Effect of Maternal Smoking and Coffee Consumption on the Risk of Having a Recognized Down Syndrome Pregnancy." American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol. 152, No. 12: 1185-1191.
Solomon, Laura J. And Virginia P. Quinn. (2003): "Spontaneous Quitting: Self Initiated Smoking Cessation in Early Pregnancy." Nicotine and Tobacco Research. Vol. 6, Sup. 2; S203-S216.
leinman, Michael. (2000): "The Health Effects of Air Pollution on Children." Irvine: University of California.
Eichhammer P, and Johann M. harraz. (2003): "High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Decreases Cigarette Smoking." Journal of Clincial Psychiatry. 64:951-953.
In conclusion, the literature presented clearly shows that smoking during pregnancy does have an adverse affect on infants and fetuses and that through the proper treatment and counseling, these effects can…… [Read More]
Smoking becomes a symbol of anti-cultural rebellion and even more so it takes on the symbol of something holy unrealistic and undesirable. The basic affect is to create a sense of empowerment as a result of smoking they feel that they are now better than they were before, in both a sense of adulthood as well as "counter-culture" mentality. Teenagers all desire to rebel against the normalcy of society, this is a natural response to the restrictions that society institutes upon teenagers. The decision to "go against the grain" is one that teenagers make in subtle and forthright ways, whether it takes the form of not doing homework or arguing with parents. Smoking has become such a controversial subject, through it's almost bombardment of health information and anti-smoking campaigns, that it epitomizes the one thing that youth can do to fight against the establishment. This becomes a crucial reason for…… [Read More]
A Solution Refinement for Individual Smoking Cessation
Cigarette-smoking, tobacco addiction and nicotine dependency are widespread and permeating public health concerns. Indeed, the combination of the high rate of addiction to tobacco products and the clear empirical relationship between these products and a number of critical negative and even fatal health outcomes qualifies this is a substantial problem requiring a direct solution. According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI), "smoking is a leading cause of cancer and death from cancer. It causes cancers of the lung, esophagus, larynx, mouth, throat, kidney, bladder, pancreas, stomach, and cervix, as well as acute myeloid leukemia. Smoking also causes heart disease, stroke, aortic aneurysm (a balloon-like bulge in an artery in the chest), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (chronic bronchitis and emphysema), asthma, hip fractures, and cataracts." (NCI, p.1)
This constitutes a very compelling motive for pursuing resolution of the problem…… [Read More]
All of these multiple grievances underline the degree to which smoking is an ingrained and difficult habit to break. With sensitivity to these divergent concerns, the company has chosen to offer the smoking cessation clinic. The clinic will be part of the normal workday of all employees. Not only is it free of charge, but employees will not have to make up for the lost hours they must spend at the clinic.
This clinic is a wonderful opportunity for all employees to make a change. A healthier workplace is a happier, more productive workplace and everyone will benefit. Quitting smoking can add years to your life, reduce the insurance premiums of our organization due to lower healthcare costs, and reduce the number of sick days employees must take as a result of smoking-related illnesses.
If you have any questions or concerns, you may reach me at extension x4567 or email…… [Read More]
Encouraging people to report violations for the sake of their health is a final service that nurses can perform to support the ban. People often do not like to report violations, because they feel like 'busybodies' but there is no way that state health inspectors alone can constantly police restaurant owners who illegally look the other way when customers light up. Nurses can remind the public that this legislation was the result of a voter-generated, rather than a politician-generated effort. It must be supported by the public to succeed.
One final criticism of the bill was that smokers will simply go across the border to smoke (Steinberg, 2007). However, proponents point out that, for smokers, there are other options, like patios, personal residences, and other places where they can smoke and not put hospitality workers' lives at risk. And once again, nurses can act as advocates, asking smokers to ask…… [Read More]
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Topic:Technology to Enhance Learning: Distance & Online Applications
Application: Online Course Design Online education offers convenient and effective means by which nurses, nursing students, and other populations can gain valuable learning experiences. In this Application, you will design an online learning environment on a nursing-education topic of interest to you. If you would like to put your course online, you are invited to try Moodle, a free course management web application, but this is not a requirement of the assignment.To begin, review Chapter 6, EuroDesigning the Online Learning Environment," in Developing Online Learning Environments in Nursing Education (OEuro(TM)Neil, Fisher, &…… [Read More]
CVS enames Itself CVS Health as it Ends Sale of Tobacco Products
(1) Who are the major winners and losers in this story? Why do you think so?
There is a mix of winners and losers in this story and some parties could be considered both. For example, CVS is gaining a lot of support for its new focus on health, but it also does so at the expense of revenues. The video mentions that CVS's revenue will decrease from the organization stopping the sale of tobacco products at its retail chains.
The consumers could also be considered both winners and losers. The video mentions one individual who states that he will simply have to walk across the street to buy his cigars. However, other tobacco customers could be more significantly inconvenienced and have to travel further to buy tobacco products. However, depending on the perspective, some would argue that…… [Read More]
The "Theories At A Glance" manual discussed a variety of healthy behaviors. Select two theories that can be used to explain why people behave the way they do. Discuss the basic premise and constructs of the theories you choose. Cite two examples of how each theory could be used to explain a health behavior.
Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)
The relationship that exists between behavior and attitudes, beliefs and intention is studied under TPB (Theory of Planned Behavior). TA (Theory of easoned Action) is also associated with TPB. According to TA and TPB, behavior is mainly determined by behavioral intention. These models show that the attitude of an individual affects behavioral intention. Hence, the behavior of a person towards the performance of some particular behavior is also influenced. In addition to this, beliefs concerning individuals who have close association (these people have the decision making power of approving…… [Read More]
Lectures, on the other hand, provide information for helping people in Contemplation move into Preparation and Action." (Lach et al., p. 91)
Partners for execution of this intervention should include local health organizations such as area clinics, hospitals and long-term care facilities as well as the local chapter of the AARP. Their support will provide the project with direct channels of communication for outreach and ongoing involvement in collective and individual health behavior changes.
Resources will be gathered through public fundraising efforts and through the charitable donation of meeting facilities and health professional expertise.
Adams, J. & hite, M. (2003). Are activity promotion interventions based on the transtheoretical model effective? A critical review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37, 106 -- 114. Retrieved from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1724627/pdf/v037p00106.pdf
Burbank, P.M.; Reibe, D.; Padula, C.A. & Nigg, C. (2002). Exercise and Older Adults: Changing Behavior with the Transtheoretical Model. Orthopedic…… [Read More]
3. Third world countries are more likely to rely more heavily upon excise taxes on gasoline, tobacco, and alcohol because those are products that sell very well around the world. These are also products that are in a number of cases, particularly tobacco, that are cheaper than essential items such as water or food. Taxes on tobacco help poor countries who would rely on the taxes more wealthy and more reliant upon tobacco.
4. People in lower and middle income countries are more likely to react to taxation on tobacco because for the consumers of that product in those countries, they will have less income for food and shelter for example. People in wealthier countries can afford the increase; they may hardly notice the increase and if it bothers them on principle, for example, they can afford other alternatives just as easily.
5. Whether or not a government uses consumptive…… [Read More]
West (1997) stated that clinicians, researchers, policy makers and others who work in the area of addiction, with addicts or who have to deal with the consequences of addiction, cannot easily ignore the strong ethical dimension to the problem. Ethics is concerned with determining the nature of normative theories and applying these sets of principles to practical moral problems. It is concerned with how we should live, as individuals and societies, what is right and wrong, what is good and bad and what is just and unjust. The bases on which such judgments can be made have been subject to systematic enquiry since before the time of Plato. Utilitarianism is perhaps the strongest thread running through the analysis of ethical and policy decisions in the field of addiction.
(Weissman, 1997) reported the following findings regarding tobacco companies and their advertising, He reported that the tobacco companies are expected to meet…… [Read More]
responsibilities as it relates to implementation of the MIPCD project. All four study arms should be described.
Barriers and Solutions
Diabetes is linked to cardiovascular mortality, neuropathy, stroke, amputation, periodontal disease, kidney failure, and blindness.
Attending a session with an endocrinologist or primary care appointment or filling medications for diabetes is required.
The number of deaths from chronic illnesses in the State of New York is slightly more than the U.S. average, principally on account of a greater number of deaths from heart disease. The characteristics of chronic illness include complex causality, long latency, various risk factors, functional disability/impairment, prolonged illness, and improbability of cure, in some instances.
They deeply impact the affected person's physical, mental and emotional well-being, and are linked to substantial economic costs.
Timely chronic illness detection and cure, in addition to a focus on self-management on the part of the…… [Read More]
Employees that wish to work in healthy environments are likely to be more motivated, and workers who are encouraged to be healthy will enjoy their work more, and become more productive.
"Some say it may be more effective just to award employees cash and prizes for weight loss rather than devote resources to long-term wellness programs" (Obesity, 2008, Consumer Affairs). However, this would seem to unjustly penalize poorer workers, as workers with "limited economic means may not have the ability to pay for gym memberships, smoking cessation drugs, or more nutritious food. Indeed, data from several studies confirm that those in lower socioeconomic classes have poorer smoking cessation rates and diets with less whole grains, lean meats and fresh fruits and vegetables" (Mhurchu 2010). Less affluent workers are less likely to work for companies like Google that provide amenities like on-site gyms or even gym memberships. Ironically, workers who are…… [Read More]
(NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)
The Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are stated to be "recommended as first-line treatment in all people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) "with or without symptoms of heart failure." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) Additionally it is stated that strong evidence exists that ACE inhibitors "...increase life expectancy in people with LVSD and reduce the risk of hospitalization -- the effect is greatest in those with more severe LVSD or more severe symptoms, but benefit occurs for all degrees of severity." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)
Prescribed for individuals who are intolerant of ACE inhibitors due to cough are
Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists which provide an alternative to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) There is stated to be evidence that AIIRAs supports life expectancy improvement and symptoms for those with heart failure due to…… [Read More]
Patients with aphasia struggle with language disorders including both oral and written communication problems. Also, clinical depression is found to be common among many stroke victims. [NINDS]
Given the high stakes involving both mortality and morbidity, stroke prevention is considered a very vital health care policy. Prevention strategies are usually targeted on controlling the important 'first tier risk factors' which were mentioned earlier. First and foremost among these is to control hypertension. ased on evidence-based practices, the American Heart association recommends that antihypertensive treatment including the use of diuretics and class 1 ACEI drugs be standardized for all patients to prevent recurrent strokes as well as to serve as a proactive intervention against other cardiovascular complications. Since diabetes is considered a high risk factor for stroke, clinical practice also recommends that glucose levels for all diabetic patients with ischemic stroke be maintained near-normoglycemic levels. The AHA guidelines also…… [Read More]
absorb them and regurgitate them at face value. To the contrary, part of conducting research is scrutinizing our research sources to determine their scholarly credibility. The importance of this ability is demonstrated in the discussion here, which considers two articles which are drawn from scholarly journals but which differ considerably in their scholarly credentials.
A study by Anderson & Keller (2002), published in the estern Journal of Nursing Research, concerns the therapeutic implications of smoking cessation. The primary objective of the study by Anderson & Keller is to draw a direct correlation between the transtheoretical model of health behavior and the variables associated with smoking cessation. The purpose is to promote an improvement of existing smoking cessation programs by finding ways to hone in on determinant independent variables. The transtheoretical model employed in the study is important to our discussion because, as the researchers acknowledge, this is a commonly employed…… [Read More]
Restructuring itself for a better fit with its environment, the company established a Youth Prevention Department, staffed by a senior vice-president in Philip Morris, U.S.A. To look for ways to help reduce smoking among teenagers" (Glover 2008).
The relative lack of sincerity of these claims and the transparent dishonesty of Philip Morris' claim to stop youths from smoking is manifest in the fact that the company recently filed a suit in federal court to overturn a San Francisco ordinance that would ban the sale of tobacco products in convenience drug stores. It proclaims this proudly on a September 2008 press release on its website: "Philip Morris USA sues to overturn controversial San Francisco sales ban on tobacco products." However, teens are more likely than other consumers to use these venues to purchase cigarettes than other consumers. Philip Morris defends its actions as the promotion of freedom for adult consumers, given…… [Read More]
Broms et al. (2010) found that evening type people were more likely to become smokers, and less likely to cease their nicotine addiction.
The study was a cohort design that used random-effects model regressions over a longitudinal period of time in order to study the comparison of attraction to smoking and tendency to remain addicted between diurnal and non-diurnal participants.
A sample of 23289 same-sex adult twin individuals from Finland was used. Nicotine dependence was studied on a sub-sample of 676 individual twins. The subjects were split into four groups: morning type, somewhat morning type, somewhat evening type, and evening type. Past and present smoking patterns were assessed. The DSM-IV and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) were both used to assess nicotine dependence.
esearchers found that of the four categories, it was diurnal types who were most likely to be past and current nicotine smokers and addicted to smoking,…… [Read More]
Using a multidisciplinary team approach in order to treat a 14-year-old pregnant teenager who smokes a pack of cigarettes a day would involve using various services. These would include nurse practitioners, registered nurses, social workers, nutritionists along with other support staff. Using this approach would help address the challenges that young pregnant teenagers may face, both physically and socially. Through group discussions and interactions with other teens, young women and their partners empower and educate one another as they progress from pregnancy into parenting (Shetty, 2009).
This would require an approach that would involve midwives, nurses; community-based young people's services and targeted youth support services. The basis of the program would be to help the teenager to quit smoking in order to improve her overall health and that of her unborn child's. It should offer advice and support on childcare, parenting and health-related topics. An intervention program should be set…… [Read More]
Being able to merge the resources of a variety of different specialists is one strength of the Memorial Herman approach. In the future, as the interrelationship between the body and the brain, and psychological disorders and overall functioning has become an accepted part of mainstream science: studies such as these will be even more important for research institutes. Memorial Herman is clearly on the cutting-edge of the field in this regard.
Because of its impressive outreach, the hospital is also able to draw upon a wide array of specific populations, as in the case of studies such as the "Evaluation of cardiovascular effects of smoking cessation in HIV-infected patients" (Bell 2009). Few other hospitals would be able to draw from a large amount of HIV-positive patients who were smokers and willing to participate in research studies. The study may prove beneficial to the research subjects as well as to the…… [Read More]
Business & ociety Questions
Business & the Environment
The UP Green Fleet
A United Parcel ervice (UP) store is located in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. The company has established a number of initiatives that are environmentally friendly, not the least of which is the conversion of a portion of their fleet to hybrid electric vehicles. In fact, as of February 2011, the UP delivery fleet using alternative fuel and technology had driven 200 million miles since the alternative fuel vehicle fleet (AFV) was established. That's the equivalent of circling the globe more than 8,600 times or the equivalent of nearly three round trips to Mars. At the time the 200 million mark was accomplished, UP had more than 1,900 AFV vehicles and had placed an order for an additional 62 vehicles. All things being equal, UP believes the AFV will accomplish another 200 million miles mark by the year 2017. The UP…… [Read More]
Nurses, who have first hand knowledge and understanding of how to live healthy and how to take proper care of themselves, are far better equipped to teach others about these concepts. Certain populations can benefit greatly from prevention, especially those who are prone to specific types of diseases or conditions.
One of the most common behaviors that leads to many chronic and often very damaging health conditions is smoking. Smoking can cause a multitude of diseases and conditions from emphysema to heart disease to lung cancer (Chapman, 2007). The list goes on and on. But smoking is 100% preventable and nurses need to understand not only how to treat these smoking-related diseases but how to more importantly discourage and prevent people from smoking in the first place. Many nurses agree that this behavior leads to many of the worst case scenarios for people with pre-existing chronic conditions. It is therefore…… [Read More]