Statistics Term Paper

Excerpt from Term Paper :

A level of quality assurance should be indicated within the confines of any study or related matter provided in literature used to inform, mimic, or develop in the means of school counseling.

Retrospective Studies = Research conducted by reviewing records or information about past events elicited through interviews with persons who have, and controls who do not have, a disease under investigation (UP, 2002). This term may apply to the study of habits or past behavior of subjects to who school counseling focus is directed. In observance of such habits and past behavior, proper and necessary approaches to certain students/subjects can effectively be taken.

Single-blind Design = Typically, a study designed in which the investigator, but not the subject, knows the treatment assigned. Occasionally, the subject, rather than the investigator, knows the assignment (UP, 2002). As in the Double-blind Design, this approach of study may be of such listed or referenced within informative literature and writing under the categories of school counseling approaches.

Therapeutic Intent = the research physicians' intent to provide some benefit to improving a subject's condition (UP, 2002). This term can obviously be implied toward the intentions of school counselors in their directives with students.

Therapeutic Research = Research involving an intervention that has the likelihood of providing a therapeutic, diagnostic or preventive benefit to the subjects (UP, 2002). As most overarching goals in counseling students is to provide benefit or furthering assistance to their future, the means of therapeutic research are evident in much of the literature and writings providing such information.

Survey Research Terms Provided by Readex Research:

Mean = "The arithmetic mean is a commonly used term and is usually the one meant when reference is made to "the average." The mean is computed merely by adding the numbers in a series and dividing the total by the number of items in the series. Adding our nine numbers and dividing by nine, results in mean of 10" (Readex, 2006). The term mean can often apply to the subject/s of counsel within school counseling. The mean or average number of students in need of financial assistance is one example of such application to school counseling.

Median = "A median is the value which lies at the middle of a distribution: that is, 50% of the values are above and 50% below. The median represents the "typical" response and is not influenced by extreme values" (Readex, 2006). The term median can often apply to the success rate of students, which helps to determine the necessity and proximately of a schools counseling efforts. A success rate can be associated to many topics, such as academic achievement, behavioral growth, test scores, etc.

Trim Mean = "This average is obtained by trimming the largest and the smallest 10% (this percentage can vary) of the numbers in a series and then calculating the arithmetic mean for the remaining numbers. The trim mean is a more conservative and stable estimate of the true population mean because it is less influenced by extreme values" (Readex, 2006). This term may be applied to the same categories or references as used in the term of mean, but will allow for a possibly more accurate calculation of the subject/s within the context of school counseling.

Sampling Error = "Maximum Sampling error (MSE) is the + figure you see associated with surveys. It is based on the number of responses the survey yields. The more responses your results are based on, the more precise those results are. Unfortunately, the relationship isn't linear, instead, in order to cut the MSE in half, you need to quadruple the number of responses. For example, you might see the following statement in a research report: "Results are subject to a maximum sampling error (MSE) of + 5% at the 95% confidence level." This MSE tells you that the chances are 95 in 100 that the results are within 5 percentage points, higher or lower, of the true percentage for the entire population" (Readex, 2006). Sampling error may be attributed to many of the research studies conducted within the school counseling field. Many surveys are utilized to determine proper or necessary methods of counsel, which may differentiate according to the type, level, or location of the school. The sampling error helps to provide clarity in the possibility of invalid or unreliable information provided through the results of such surveys.

Standard Deviation = "The standard deviation measures the variability associated with a survey's estimate of a population mean. It is analogous to the sampling error associated with percentages: that is, 95% of the time we expect the true (unknown) population mean to be within plus-or-minus two standard deviations of the mean calculated from the sample. A standard deviation that is large in proportion to the mean indicates a high level of statistical instability; trending and projections against such estimates should be undertaken cautiously" (Readex, 2006). This term is an important term when notated within the text of a survey through any publication, literature work, or writing. In correlation to school counseling, the standard deviation can help to determine the amount of significance that should be given to the survey or research poll taken regarding its subject.

Statistical information is extremely significant when considering the research and data collected and provided through literature and writings that discuss counseling. The statistical information is most often questionable to the extent of the informative methods by which the statistics are comprised. Statistics can either be an imperative or detrimental resource for the conveyance of research and study matter. They can provide helpful information depending upon their accuracy, which is dictated by the methodology used in their collection. However, statistics can be a detrimental source of information if they are inaccurate or collected in a manner of poor methodology.

The following is a list of common statistical terms and their connotations to school counseling:

Glossary of Statistical Terms as provided by U.S. National Institute of Health and Berkeley University:

Age-Adjusted Rate = "A statistical method allowing comparisons of populations that takes into account age-distribution differences between populations. Most incidence and death data in SEER are age-adjusted, although some tables, in contrast, present the crude rate. Age-adjusting takes the 2000 U.S. population distribution and applies it to other time periods under consideration. This assures that such rates do not reflect any changes in the population age distribution. Rates can be adjusted for the distribution of other characteristics such as race/ethnicity" (U.S. NIH, 2007). This term is usually only applied to medicine, but can be accounted into the measures of statistical collection for means of counseling approaches. Therefore, it is applicable to a school counseling connotation.

Annual Percentage Change (APC) = "The average annual percent change over several years. The APC is used to measure trends or the change in rates over time. The calculation involves fitting a straight line to the natural logarithm of the data when it is displayed by calendar year" (U.S. NIH, 2007). The average annual percentage change is applicable to the consideration for trend changes in student bodies. The calculation of change should be considered in the research conducted through outdated material.

Axioms of Probability = "There are three axioms of probability: (1) Chances are always at least zero. (2) the chance that something happens is 100%. (3) if two events cannot both occur at the same time, the chance that either one occurs is the sum of the chances that each occurs. For example, consider an experiment that consists of tossing a coin once. The first axiom says that the chance that the coin lands heads, for instance, must be at least zero. The second axiom says that the chance that the coin either lands heads or lands tails or lands on its edge or doesn't land at all is 100%. The third axiom says that the chance that the coin either lands heads or lands tails is the sum of the chance that the coin lands heads and the chance that the coin lands tails, because both cannot occur in the same coin toss. All other mathematical facts about probability can be derived from these three axioms. For example, it is true that the chance that an event does not occur is (100% - the chance that the event occurs). This is a consequence of the second and third axioms" (Stark, 2007). This term is very prevalent to any statistical collection, including those collected in literature and writings pertaining to counseling, or school counseling directly. This term provides the information that should be considered when evaluating and analyzing the significance of all statistical matter.

Bias = "A measurement procedure or" estimator is said to be biased if, on the average, it gives an answer that differs from the truth. The bias is the average (" expected) difference between the measurement and the truth. For example, if you get on the scale with clothes on,…

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