Interviewing techniques. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a proven approach that can be useful in counseling young adults with substance abuse disorders. In this regard, Kress and Hoffman (2008) cite the ambivalence of many young substance abusers concerning changing their behavior and report that, "Originally developed to treat substance abuse issues, MI has surged in popularity. In one review of the substance abuse literature, 73% of the studies in which MI was applied resulted in statistically significant effects, demonstrating its impact in facilitating client behavioral change" (p. 311).
Assessment tools. A number of assessment tools are available that can be used in the diagnosis and formulation of clinical interventions for young adults suffering from substance abuse disorders, including the Life History Chart, the Young Adult Behavior CheckList (YABCL; Achenbach, 1997), and structured interview questions in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Mcconaughy et al., 2000).
Physical findings. Because substance abuse can exact a heavy toll on the body besides the mind, a comprehensive physical examination is a prerequisite to the formulation of effective clinical interventions for substance abuse (Havivi, 2005). This clinician adds that, "Besides the interview, the initial assessment may include a laboratory evaluation, with