Substance Abuse Case Study: Multi-Axial Diagnosis
Substance Abuse Case Study: DSM-V-TR Multi-Axial System Diagnosis
Substance Abuse Case Study: DSM-V-TR Multi-Axial System Diagnosis
Al (A.L.) is obviously in enough distress that his family felt the need to drag him, kicking and screaming, to the emergency room. Despite having a normal appetite, concentration, energy levels, interest, and sleep patterns, the alcohol abuse, deep despondency, and acute family concern suggest that this behavior is abnormal for Al and the family as a whole. This type of behavior would also be abnormal for the general public, therefore a multi-axial system diagnosis is warranted.
Axis I: 305.00 alcohol abuse; 309.28 adjustment disorder with mixed anxiety and depressed mood, acute; 309.21 separation anxiety disorder
Axis II: 317 mild mental retardation
Axis III: none
Axis IV: marital difficulties
Axis V: GAF = 55, current.
When Al was brought to the emergency department (ED)…… [Read More]
There were also facilities that conducted both random tests and tests based on reasonable suspicion (Drug and Alcohol Treatment in Juvenile Correctional Facilities, 2002).
In addition, of the facilities that responded to the survey 17% tested residents at the time that they were admitted to the facility, and 8% of the facilities tested the juveniles when they were released (Drug and Alcohol Treatment in Juvenile Correctional Facilities, 2002). The survey also found that drug testing was more likely to occur in correction facilities that offered substance abuse treatment (Drug and Alcohol Treatment in Juvenile Correctional Facilities, 2002). In addition, 75% of the facilities that offered substance abuse treatment conducted drug testing during the previous year, and 38% tested juveniles on a random basis (Drug and Alcohol Treatment in Juvenile Correctional Facilities, 2002).
The report also explains that treatment in juvenile corrections facilities differs greatly from state to state. The report…… [Read More]
Substance Abuse: Driving Under the Influence (DUI)
According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 16,694 people died in 2004 in alcohol and drug related traffic collisions, representing 40% of all traffic related deaths in the United States. ("2004 Traffic Safety ... " 2005) In addition about half of the one million people injured in road accidents were also due to driving under the influence (DUI). These are startling statistics, which underscore the enormity of the problem posed by the vast number of people who drive while intoxicated. Another point of concern regarding drunk driving or DUI is that repeat or hardcore offenders are the cause of a large proportion of traffic accidents with one out of eight intoxicated drivers in fatal crashes having had a prior DUI/DWI conviction within the past three years. (Pena, 2005) As a result, a number of programs have sprung up around the country…… [Read More]
However, in understanding the factors that exist in most substance abuse cases, preemptive solutions to the problem such as education and awareness, as well as early interventions in recently-onset cases can help to curb the issue significantly.
The key to preventing substance abuse, as proposed by researchers and laymen alike, is awareness and education regarding substance abuse. Beginning in schools, religious organizations, and at home, individuals are better adept at understanding the struggles that stem from substance abuse, and such knowledge can help to eliminate a problem before it arises.
For those individuals who find themselves in the throes of substance abuse as adolescents, research has further found that early intervention or punishment can help to put the severity of the problem into the forefront of the abuser's mind in order to show the consequences of such abuse. For instance, increasing evidence has shown that specific, immediate and…… [Read More]
Research that the authors report in the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy -- a peer-reviewed journal -- shows that adolescents abusing substances cause "stress-related symptoms" in parents (Yuen, et al., 2011, p. 250). The stress parents experience includes: depression, anxiety, fear of danger, guilt, anger, despair as well as grief associated with failure in the parental role" (Yuen, 250). And so prior to bringing parents into intervention strategies (to assist with their children's abuse issues) -- which has been proven to be effective in many previous studies -- Yuen explains that parents may need training in terms of allowing them to become "…more emotionally independent from their adolescents' behavior" (259).
A peer-reviewed article in the Journal of Traumatic Stress (Kingston, et al., 2009, p. 65) reports that the "Cumulative exposure to multiple traumatic events" -- child sexual abuse (CSA), for example -- has been linked to "…earlier…… [Read More]
Substance abuse can be defined simply as a maladaptive use of any harmful substance for the purposes of mood-altering and not limited to the use of prohibited drugs or the misuse of prescription and over-the-counter drugs with an intention other than that for which it is recommended or in a way or in quantities other than instructed (Bennett & Holloway, 2005).
Drug related crimes are brutal criminal acts that are committed by persons under the influence of the abused substance. These crimes may include crimes that occur due to the victim's or offender's drug use, crimes that emerge subsequent to the reprobate's need to support his or her drug routine, and crimes that happen as a result of drug trafficking and circulation are all referred to as drug-related crimes. These crimes can be categorized as victim/offender related crimes, economic related crimes and system related crimes
A victim/offender related crime consists…… [Read More]
Substance Abuse Group Psychotherapy Proposal for a Diverse Homeless Population
We find several problems associated with substance abuse people in our environment. esearches show that men are more likely to develop a substance abuse personality. As a result they lose jobs and homes. Uncountable homeless families depend on substance abuse men. A variety of group treatments are employed to meet the needs of such people during the recovery process. This essay is a substance abuse psychotherapy proposal for a diverse homeless population. A group of male gender, having age in between 35 to 44, can be treated employing an activity.
A Substance Abuse Group Psychotherapy Proposal for a Diverse Homeless Population
Substance abuse is a killing habit and it often begins early in the lives of men. During the teen or young adult years, men often start using drugs and alcohol. Initially it is just limited as a casual or…… [Read More]
Substance Abuse Treatment Analysis of David uffin
Most people today probably recognize his signing voice from his hits such as "My Girl," but few may remember David uffin of The Temptations music group from the latter half of the 20th century. Like many of his contemporaries, uffin fell victim to the ravages of drug abuse during the height of his career, leaving his millions of fans with a musical void in their lives. To gain some further insights into his untimely death from an overdose of cocaine, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to develop a background and an overview of uffin, his use of drugs, and an appropriate screening instrument that could be used to evaluate a similar client's stage of dependence, change or recovery. An application of this diagnostic tool to uffin's unique circumstances is followed by a discussion concerning possible placement…… [Read More]
Substance abuse is a significant problem for all Americans. esearch has revealed increased risk factors including exposure to drugs among African-American males, making a race-specific intervention program necessary to ensure recovery success rates (Wallace & Muroff, 2002). Moreover, psychological counseling and intervention programs need to be culturally sensitive if they are to be successful. Variables such as communication styles, worldviews, family values, gender roles and norms, urban vs. rural living environment, and socio-economic class status will all impact attitudes toward treatment, treatment decisions, and treatment outcomes. Moreover, comorbidity issues also vary by racial category, including comorbidity with alcohol abuse, anxiety, depression, personality disorders, and affective disorders (Ziedonis, ayford, Bryant & ounsaville, 1994). esearch comparing prevalence of substance abuse between white and black patients is contradictory in nature, with Nauert (2011) claiming that "substance abuse issues are more prevalent among African-Americans than other groups," but Broman, Neighbors & Jackson (2008) finding…… [Read More]
In principle, the common philosophy of all Twelve Step-based programs emphasize the psychological acceptance of the problem, the extent of its detrimental effects on the lives of addicts and their families, acknowledgement of the inability of the addict to solve the problem without help, and the development of self responsibility and a social support network to help them overcome residual (or recurring) negative impulses or behaviors. Much of that is achieved through the group discussion format that allows individuals with very similar problems and experiences to express their feelings and frustrations openly and in a confidential setting.
While there are differences, those types of substance abuse programs are particular applications of the more general group therapy technique in combination with specific underlying therapeutic philosophies (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).
Patient-centered substance abuse programs typically emphasize one-on-one counseling in behavioral, cognitive, or psychodynamic (psychoanalytical) psychological approaches. In many respects, the goals of…… [Read More]
his site contains no information directly related to the problem of substance abuse within the profession. he industry related information on the workplace environment is geared towards serving the nursing professional, and especially protecting their rights in the various nursing workplace settings. It begs the question of why, when substance abuse is a problem in the profession, the site offers no resources to the nursing professional as to where they might confidentially turn to for help with substance abuse problems, nor does it encourage the nursing professional who might be suffering such a condition to seek help. his might be as a result of the very public exposure that is inherent in its internet setting, and suggests that perhaps the industry considers substance abuse and guidance for the nursing professional who might seek help to be a condition or problem that is not best addressed on such a public forum…… [Read More]
801). According to Green (2006), "Research on how gender influences substance use and substance-abuse-related problems has established clear differences between women and men in several important areas. Women typically consume less alcohol than men when they drink, drink alcohol less frequently, and are less likely to develop alcohol-related problems than men. Similarly, women are less likely than men to use illicit drugs and to develop drug-related problems" (p. 55).
Relationship between alcohol/substance abuse and physical/mental health issues. According to the World Health Organization's (WHO) Guide to Drug Abuse Epidemiology (2000), "Psychoactive substances cause problems that result from complex interactions between: (a) substances with diverse, toxic, psychotropic and addictive properties; (b) individuals with varied vulnerabilities and resiliency; and (c) complex sociocultural environments" (p. 117). For young adults with an alcohol or other substance abuse disorder, the likelihood of suffering from the other addictive disorder was seven times higher than in the…… [Read More]
He has been called upon to train Child Protective Service personnel, Foster Grandparents, State Workforce Commission employees, and County Probation officers. Within the past 3 years, the coordinator has trained over 700 people.
They also assist service providers in the development of required policies and procedures and provide guidance to staff during the review of compliance with state and federal guidelines. Areas of training and support in pursuit of this goal include planning, developing, and providing training as part of staff development programs; assessing the effectiveness of methods such as classroom and on-the-job training, conferences and workshops; developing testing and evaluation procedures; arranging for ongoing technical training and personal development classes for staff members; monitoring, evaluating and recording the effectiveness of training activities and programs; assessing training needs through surveys, interviews with employees, interest groups, or consultation with managers and instructors; and training using a variety of instructional techniques such…… [Read More]
Part 1: Treatment Planning and Individual Treatment
Assessing for substance abuse can be tricky, given the client’s potential for denial, their perception of social stigma related to substance abuse, and even the therapist’s own biases. Therefore, structured interviews and collateral interviews offer “a more complete picture of both the user and the impact they are having on others in their environment,” (Chapter 5, Slide 4). A diagnostic interview will yield information pertinent to a DSM diagnosis.
Milo clearly has a history of substance use behaviors that make this case easier to diagnose. The DSM-IV offers clear guidelines for diagnosis. Diagnostic criteria for substance abuse include a “maladaptive pattern” over a twelve-month period including recurrent situations that lead to failure to fulfill obligations at school, work, or home, and physically hazardous situations. Milo’s case study reveals hazardous situations (blackouts while driving), and the building up of tolerance to alcohol,…… [Read More]
When it comes to the ACA code relating to substance abuse, the rules and guidelines are pretty clear. There is a high amount of expectations when it comes to ethics and doing the job in the right way. The ACA makes it quite clear that there are certain lines or boundaries that should not be crossed when it comes to counseling, substance abuse-related or otherwise. A wonderful item that the author found from the ACA would be the preamble to the ACA’s code of ethics. The precepts of this code include promotion of social justice, practicing in a competent and ethical manner and safeguarding the integrity of the counselor/client relationship (ACA, 2014).
Given the guidelines put forth by the ACA, there are certain characteristics that would obviously be optimal for counselors to have. One would be the ability to work with people of other cultures, religions, races, ethnicities…… [Read More]
The determining factors and the relationship between substance abuse and addiction include time, the build-up of tolerance, the development of craving, and the experience of withdrawal so that the individual no longer wants to ever be without the drug. One who abuses substances is likely to get into legal or social trouble; one who is addicted is one who no longer cares about the repercussions and cares only for the high that the substances promise (Doweiko, 2015).
In my own experience, abuse can turn into addiction as the will gradually gives in to the craving. For instance, I have seen people become alcoholics as they start off just enjoying alcohol. Then they begin enjoying it too much and they get a DUI. Then they realize that they need to straighten out their lives, but eventually things do not go well for them and they end up turning to alcohol…… [Read More]
Interventions to Reduce Adolescent Substance Abuse
The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the relevant literature to describe current government initiatives for addressing substance abuse by adolescents in the United States. An analysis of what is being done as well as what is not being done is followed by an examination of gaps in the current initiatives. In addition, a discussion concerning the health advocacy groups that have attempted to advocate for this health issue and the possibility of collaboration with one of these groups is followed by an analysis concerning how collaboration with existing advocacy groups can further the efficacy of the program to address this public health issue. Likewise, a discussion concerning the public health theory/model/framework which can be used to guide a program and intervention of the public health issue and a description concerning the proposed intervention to address this public health issue…… [Read More]
As Masini (2010) shows, animal-assisted therapy can be quite useful in helping patients engaging in substance abuse treatment. Masini (2010) highlights the benefits of equine-assisted psychotherapy in particular, as do Hauge, Kvalem, Berget, Enders-Slegers & Braastad (2014), who note that engaging clients with horses can facilitate the perception of having a stronger social support. As social support is a necessary part to overcoming or battling substance abuse, the animal-assisted intervention can be seen as a positive influence (Birtel, Wood & Kempa, 2017; Muela, Balluerka, Amiano, Caldentey & Aliri, 2017).
Animal-assisted therapy can have a positive effect on engagement and retention of individuals in substance abuse treatment. Kelly and Cozzolino (2015), for example, have shown that at-risk youth have been aided by animal-assisted therapy in their attempts to overcome issues of substance abuse. Animal-assisted therapy represents a “goal-oriented adjunct to traditional therapy programs” (Kelly & Cozzolino, 2015, p. 421).…… [Read More]
Prevention of Substance Abuse among Youth: Seeking to Understand Perspectives
To understand an effective way to prevent substance abuse among youth, it is important to explore the perspectives of stakeholders and individuals who play a role in applying preventive strategies. For that reason, this study uses qualitative design to explore the perspectives of high school teachers toward successful teen substance abuse prevention program. This paper discusses the background of the problem, provides a problem statement, purpose statement, and research question, and reviews literature pertaining to theory, research and methodology. An annotated bibliography is included at the end.
Background to the Problem
As Murthy (2016) points out, there is a serious need to address the opioid epidemic that is scourging the nation today. Youths are among the most vulnerable population when it comes to substance abuse because they are most likely to be affected by peer pressure and media, where…… [Read More]
Substance Use and Abuse
Social Effects of Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse
A psychoactive substance is any chemical that has the ability to impact the central nervous system and interfere with the way the brain functions. Stimulants (cocaine, dextroamphetamine, methamphetamine), sedatives (heroin, alcohol), and hallucinogens (psychoactive mushrooms, PCP) are some examples of psychoactive substances. Abusing psychoactive substances not only affects the user but it also impacts those who are around the user. The abuser’s close family members and friends are the most affected by psychoactive substance abuse. The individual's family, relationships, life, employment, education, personality, and health are adversely affected (Narvaez et al., 2015). There are various variables that will determine the extent to which each of these is affected. Some of the variables are a psychoactive substance used and the personality of the user. Social effects of abusing psychoactive substance are quite obscure, unlike psychological and physical effects. Psychoactive…… [Read More]
Overview of Tanya’s Case
Tanya was physically and sexually abused as a child. This caused her to experience depression and anxiety. As a way of coping with her situation and the symptoms she felt, she turned to drugs and alcohol. However, this only exacerbated the situation, as she began chasing ever-fleeting and harder-to-obtain highs. She ran away from home as a teenager and ended up on the streets selling her body for money or drugs and finally selling drugs herself. Years went by like a blur, as her addiction to cocaine, crack, heroin and alcohol took its toll on her body. She had no support system, continued to be abused by those in her environment and was finally arrested for possession.
Tanya went through withdrawal in prison, which made her feel worse than anything before. It was “like hell” for her (The Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute,…… [Read More]
ASI Interview Narrative
JL is a 30-year-old white male, unmarried client. JL lives in Covington, KY, at 101 Main St. with his mother. They attend the local Catholic parish down the block most Sundays. He has lived there with his mother 3 months since his release from prison, where he served 10 months for parole violation (drug possession). He lives in the garage behind the house and does not share the main house with his mother. He has access in and out of the garage through the rear of the property. The garage is fixed up with a bathroom, kitchen, bed and TV and serves as a self-contained unit. JL was brought to Gateway by his older sister. JL is youthful in appearance though with a thin beard and semi-hollow cheeks. He appears to be adhering to standard hygiene. JL was not making a court-mandated appearance but rather…… [Read More]
Caron Treatment Centers
Caron Treatment Centers are more than just rehab centers as they offer integrated behavioral health treatment. Their treatment philosophy is aimed at easing the pain of individuals and families by restoring hope, health, relationships, and spirituality(Caron, n.d.). With an understanding that addiction is complex, Caron Treatment Centers not only deal or treat drug and alcohol problems but every related issue that families and patients might face. Caron Treatment Centers realize that drug and alcohol problems are not isolated and this is why the centers will address the issues together with substance abuse. Some of the underlying issues might be depression, trauma-related disorders, anxiety, and eating disorders.
Caron treatment centers tailor addiction treatment to each individual patient because they understand that each patient is different and their needs are not similar. Employing the latest evidence-based practices from medicine and psychology allows the centers to advance and use the…… [Read More]
This is also a condition when a person does not think beyond what is observed in the surroundings. So children should be given exercise to create new thoughts which are devoid of substances in their surrounding or mentality. The most effective method of cognitive approach is to teach recovery techniques to a client that assist to overcome the condition, rather than find methods to change the mentality of a person directly. This is attained by self-monitoring, self-assessment and self consequation. Each step is followed by the other till the patient reach a significant point of recovery. Self consequation is the final stage when a person appreciates himself for the significant change in the behavior. (Mennuti; Arthur, 2006)
Blow, Frederic C. (1999) "Substance Abuse among Older Adults: Treatment Improvement
Protocol" Diane Publishing.
Mennuti, osemary B. Arthur, F. (2006) "Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions in Educational
Settings: A Handbook for..." outledge.
Onken, Lisa S;…… [Read More]
Research has shown that people who experience high stress remain more at risk for alcohol abuse (Violanti, Choir Practice:..., n.d.).
A prevention approach has the long-range potential to reduce alcohol abuse. Police departments should note that proactive prevention strategies designed to prevent alcohol abuse are more economical and practical than curing those who abuse alcohol.
Jared. (2008, October 28). Substance abuse among public safety officers. Retrieved April 4, 2009, from Treatmentsolutionsnetwork.com: http://www.treatmentsolutionsnetwork.com/blog/index.php/2008/10/28/substance-abuse-among-public-safety-officers/
Law enforcement wellness association. (n.d.). Retrieved April 4, 2009, from cophealth.com: http://www.cophealth.com/index.html
National Crime Prevention Council. (n.d.). Workplace substance abuse. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from Philadelphia police department: http://www.ppdonline.org/prev/prev_work_abuse.php
Page, D. (2005, September). Drug screening of police: on the high road. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from officer.com: http://www.officer.com/print/Law-Enforcement-Technology/Drug-Screening-of-Police -- on-the-High-Road/1$26,232
Violanti, J. (n.d.). Choir Practice: Alcohol abuse in policing:. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from Central Florida: Police stress unit: http://www.policestress.org/choir.htm
Violanti, J. (n.d.). Dying from the job:…… [Read More]
Substance Abuse Assessment
There are a variety of assessment or diagnostic instruments which can determine substance abuse. It is interesting to compare and contrast the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Chemical Dependency Assessment Profile (CDAP), and the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI).
Michigan Alcoholism Screening
The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (Mast) is a "binary-choice, 25-item test which is considered the most widely used test of its type for adults (Hodgson, 2002)."
This can be attributed to the time it takes to administer the test, which is approximately 5 minutes, and how easy it is to score. The MAST consists of a "questionnaire that requires a 'yes' or 'no' response and addresses drinking patterns, social, occupational, and medical aspects of drinking, and previous attempts at treatment. The three primary questions in the survey instrument are: 1) Have you ever attended a meeting of Alcoholics Anonymous?; 2) Have you ever gone…… [Read More]
Continued use of research
Continued use of research in professional life:
Stable housing for substance abusers
Substance abuse is strongly correlated with a wide array of risky behaviors, including a failure to live in some form of stable housing, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors. This is significant, because stable housing situations in the form of rehabilitation centers or 'halfway' homes are often used as bases of treatment for addicts. However, a review of the existing literature indicates that simply providing housing for addicts should not be regarded as a panacea or as an automatic form of treatment for addiction. In fact, the results are mixed regarding a correlation between substance abuse and the ability to obtain stable housing. For the purposes of this review, a definition of 'stable housing' will be defined as "not having lived on the street" versus "living in a shelter or single room…… [Read More]
In modern society, substance abuse refers to a maladaptive pattern of using a substance that is unnecessary for health. It is not limited to mood-altering or psycho-active drugs (marijuana, alcohol, etc.), but is defined as any substance that is habitual, interferes with one's life, and causes a large range of dependencies within human culture. It is a public health cost and issue, and comes under a number of categories (Lowinson, 2005). In the Healthy People 2020 initiative, one of the goals is to "reduce substance abuse to protect the health, safety and quality of life for all, especially children." For this review, we will use Tobacco Addiction as a model.
Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of disease, death, or disability in the United States. More deaths are caused yearly from tobacco use than any other substance abuse, motor vehicle injury, HIV, or murder combined (Anti-Smoking,…… [Read More]
Furthermore, the study focused only on a population of children of one particular stage of life. However, the test methods are fairly comprehensive and indicate valid outcomes.
c. Design and Methods: Mothers and children were taken into a room and told to play. There were a number of toys available for the play session. After some time playing, mothers were removed from the room and the children's behavior observed for a period of 2 minutes, before the mothers were returned. Various tables denoted the results of these interactions in terms of verbal interaction, separation reactions, and other variables.
d. Method of Analysis: The data were analyzed by means of a comparative table. The group of mothers were divided into two main groups: those who exposed their unborn children to cocaine, and those who did not. The group who did use the drug during pregnancy were further divided according to the…… [Read More]
Covert participant anthropological observations of AA and NA meetings indicate that in practice the use of theological components of the program is even more explicit than the 12 steps might indicate. During the meeting the members hold "each other's hands, and lead the membership into a recitation of the Lord's Prayer. Affixed to the Lord's Prayer is an AA ending: 'Keep coming back; it works'" (Alexander & ollins, 1984, p.7). Anthropologists and critics alike have commented upon the 'cult-like' nature of AA and NA: new adherents are encouraged to leave their jobs and cut family ties to facilitate their path to sobriety; there is a ritualistic aspect to the group's meetings; a demand for purity on the part of the membership; and required adherence to all of the group's rules (Alexander & ollins, 1984, p.8). The emphasis on the need to confess and tell one's stories, the need to prioritize…… [Read More]
' If a person does not disclose their drinking behavior if they seek outside help, they may be misdiagnosed as having an anxiety disorder. Mixing alcohol and medications for anxiety disorders can have lethal consequences, as well as prolonging a process of addiction." (Losinno, p. 1)
This denotes that especially in the face of trauma, those who are predisposed to dissonant responses and unhealthy coping mechanisms will struggle at a higher level to be liberated of chemical dependency. ith respect to treatment, outreach to specific risk groups such as those who are proven to be vulnerable to PTSD should be seen as a primary intervention strategy. Military veterans, families that have suffered the loss of a loved one, victims of system abuse and victims of traumatic injuries are all targeted candidates for this type of intervention.
3. Discuss genetic impact of chemical dependency? hat is the likelihood of some individuals…… [Read More]
Q4. Participants at treatment facilities might be disproportionately affluent and white, given that historically, individuals of color suffering from addictions have more often been relegated to prisons, rather than received support and assistance. Public as well as private treatment facilities may need to be compared, to ensure a more representative sampling.
Benshoff, John J., Laura K. Harrawood, & Darwin Shane Koch. (2003, April-June). Substance
abuse and the elderly: unique issues and concerns. Journal of Rehabilitation. 69.
In this study, the authors used a literature review format to examine a variety of previous studies of substance abuse amongst the elderly. In general, while individuals tend to age out of illicit drug use, alcohol abuse remains a risk throughout an individual's lifespan, given the lack of social and cultural taboos. Broad-ranging studies have found that alcohol abuse amongst the elderly is a silent epidemic, and both late and early-onset…… [Read More]
However, a different kind of problem may arise, when the counselor himself was a user and an addict, and has recovered fully from his addictions, to move on to become a legal counselor of others like him. (NIDA, Introduction and overview)
Take for example, the case of when a drug abuse and substance abuse counselor was among the fifteen people who were arrested recently in Harlem. The police charged this particular individual with being a part of a fifteen-member gang of cocaine and crack distributors on Long Island. Andrew J. Maloney, the United States Attorney for the Eastern District of New York, identified the counselor as Al ichardson, 40 years old, who was allegedly a distributor in a drug-selling ring, in which each 'runner' in the enterprise, or in other words, the individual who makes the actual sale of the drug, cocaine or crack, sold as much as $2,000 a…… [Read More]
Substance abuse is a common affliction among the elderly population. Several factors may contribute to the prevalence of alcoholism and drug abuse among older adults, including loneliness, poor health, and depression. The most rapidly growing segment of the American population is the elderly, and whether or not alcohol can be considered beneficial or detrimental in this population depends on the doses being consumed (Ferreira and Weems, 2008). However, the population of older adults is increasing and so is the proportion of elderly individuals demonstrating alcohol abuse (Ferreira and Weems, 2008).
It is estimated that by 2030 the proportion of adults comprising the elderly population (65 years and older) will reach 20%, which marks double the current number (Duncan et al., 2010). Interestingly, substance abuse in general has shown increases in the elderly population, with a steady increase in primary substance abuse problems other than alcohol observed in the elderly population…… [Read More]
The inclusion of alcohol and drug education is a vital component of most drug and alcohol abuse interventions, for both the users and non-user. (Montagne et al., 1992). This education can be offered as a preventive measure to beginners of abuse of substances of to the vulnerable group to save the future generations from the menace and the whole society from the drug's association with crime. Alternatively, it should be offered to be taught as part of the educational curriculum in schools
ecent literature reviews have not found enough evidence to convince many researchers that drug and alcohol awareness programs have great impact on changing substance and drug use, attitude and behavior (Eliany et al., 1993). Although it is of great effort, it has been observed that education alone is not enough to change the actual behavior of alcohol and drug use (Tobler et al1976), in the actual examination of…… [Read More]
Treatment is also viewed as a tool to address an adolescent's use of one substance, whereas prevention programs address the risks of multiple substances (Sussman, 2011). Prevention programs that have provided some evidence of effectiveness include school-based educational programs and family-based programs (Sussman, 2011). Educational programs typically focus on social influences that lead to substance abuse, and work to build personal and social skills to help avoid abuse in social situations (Sussman, 2011). Family involvement in prevention is also effective within compliant families and can complement educational efforts. Programs providing motivation, skills, and enhancing decision making ability show the greatest potential to alter attitudes that influence behavior change, and prevent the use of drugs and alcohol (Sussman, 2011).
There are an estimated 1.4 millions teens with an alcohol or drug problem and only 10% are receiving treatment, compared to 20% of adults (Sussman, 2011). There is a general lack of…… [Read More]
Introduction to the Characteristics and Extent of Alcohol, Tobacco or Other Drug Use.
Addiction means physical dependence on a drug, with withdrawal symptoms when its use ceases, and in this sense, alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hashish, opiates and amphetamines are all addictive drugs. In addition, these drugs also cause psychological dependency since they enhance a person's sense of pleasure, sociability, sexuality and emotional satisfaction, and also mask pain, low self-esteem and anxiety (Wilson and Kolander, 2011, p. 6). Student surveys are "likely to underreport the overall level of substance use and abuse by young people," and since black and Hispanic students have higher dropout and absenteeism rates, this affects survey results as well (Mosher and Akins, 2007, p. 136). Hard drug users and addicts are also more likely to be homeless, which means that their true numbers are always unknown.
All studies and surveys confirm that marijuana…… [Read More]
The bottom line when using Reality Therapy is to lead the student to a place where he may take "more effective control" of his life (Mason, 6). The acronym DEP describes the procedures of Reality Therapy: (wants and needs); D (direction and doing); E (self-evaluation); and P (planning towards the goal) (Mason, 6).
A number of healthy behaviors are to be presented for -- and taught to -- the student within the Reality Therapy procedures. Those include issues dealing with survival and health; love and belonging; self-worth and power; freedom; and fun (Mason, 8). Following the presentation of those behaviors (and within each category there are bullet points that bolster that particular theme) the counselor / teacher is advised to "engage all colleagues in an ongoing honest discussion of both the cost of the work and the quality needed…" in a Lead Management Framework (LMF) (Mason, 9). Moreover, the LMF…… [Read More]
The bill includes no provisions for other types of expanded access to prenatal and post-natal care for impoverished women, or expanded funding for drug treatment of pregnant women outside of prisons. It seems like a convenient way to test the constitutionality of Roe v. Wade, as if the bill is contested, the issue of legal abortion will certainly arise in the appellate courts, perhaps even in the Supreme Court. But even if abortion does not become the primary focus of the bills proponents and opponents, the bill also raises the troubling civil rights issue of special litigation that penalizes substance-abusing women who can become pregnant more than women who cannot, or men.
I understand that some members of the hospital staff are hopeful that the bill will enable some women to enter drug treatment more easily. However, as no additional funding for such treatment is provided in the bill, it…… [Read More]
The author takes care to distinguish between stereotyping and fact, pointing out the need to examine both Native American and Hispanic-Americans not as monolithic groups but as diverse and heterogeneous ones. Yet Weaver accomplishes the research objective without denying the relevance of cultural factors that impact attitudes toward assimilation and oppression. The main weakness of the research is that Weaver spends far more time addressing Native American substance abuse issues than Hispanic and could easily have narrowed down the report.
Two questions for stimulating group discussion include the following. First, given the results of Weaver's research and the lack of evidence that supports sweeping stereotypes, what treatment intervention models and programs would be particularly efficacious for Native American communities? Second, what does Weaver suggest about approaching substance abuse in general, regardless of ethnic heritage? In other words, what factors appear to be universal among substance abusers?… [Read More]
They develop a tolerance to alcohol and simply need more to satisfy their craving (MayoClinic, 2009a). This is a key difference between alcoholism and other drug addictions.
The causes of alcoholism and drug addictions are complex and involve the interaction of several factors. The first is genetics. Certain genetics factors can cause a person to be more vulnerable than others to develop alcoholism and the other addictions mentioned. A person's emotional state can also affect their propensity to develop substance abuse. Certain psychological factors, such as low self-esteem, peer groups that have substance abuse problems, or other factors that promote drinking and drug abuse also play a role in the development of substance abuse. Social and cultural factors also play a role, such as advertisements that glamorize drinking, or media that send messages regarding substances are also factors in the development of an addiction (MayoClinic, 2009a).
Substance abuse affects…… [Read More]
Substance / Alcohol Abuse among the Elderly
Substance/alcohol abuse among the elderly 60 years and older
Alcohol and substance abuse among the elderly is a significant social problem, not only because people in this age group tend to have very permissive attitudes towards social drug and alcohol usage but also because the stressors that accompany aging may result in increases in drug or alcohol usage to problematic levels. While people may begin experiencing age-related problems in their 40s and 50s, it is not generally until their 60s that most people begin to experience significant physical or emotional challenges related to age. These challenges are often accompanied by major life changes, such as retirement, the death of a spouse or friends, relocation, and diminished physical and intellectual capabilities. These changes may mean a lack of access to the coping mechanisms that have traditionally served the individual, leading to a rise in…… [Read More]
It has been argued that despite this fact, because substance abuse treatment has been developed by men, for men, it emerged "as a single-focused intervention based on the needs of addicted men." (Covington 2008). ithout empowering substance abusers whose lives have become severely impaired in terms of basic life functioning, treating the abuse or disability as a purely biological function will have little effect, and only address the physical withdrawal symptoms, and surrendering to the addiction may not address the need to seek out new, positive social relationships and to actively construct an environment that does not facilitate the addiction.
Even addicts with jobs who are minimally socially functional may have social structures revolving around their addiction. In the case of many women in particular, the life pattern of being involved with an abusive partner, which may have driven the women to abuse drugs in the first place, becomes a…… [Read More]
High-isk Population for Group Therapy-Substance Abuse/Addiction
One high-risk population that has been pinpointed when it comes to engaging in therapy with substance abuse are Hispanic and Latino women. "The pattern of illicit drug use among Hispanics/Latinas is influenced by level of acculturation and country of origin. In one study based on the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) data, illicit drug use among Hispanics/Latinas generally increased with acculturation (Amaro et al. 1990)" (CSAT, 2009). This research found that overwhelmingly, women from this population were more at risk for opiate use. Another factor which made individuals from these groups more at risk was the socioeconomic status, age and period of time they had lived in the U.S. From this specific group, the most significant risk for substance abuse was the age of when the woman immigrated to the U.S.: this means that the earlier a woman immigrated to the U.S.,…… [Read More]
substance abuse disorder that can mimic a mental health or medical diagnosis. -Addictions or substance abuse counseling
Brooks, AJ & Penn, PE (2003) Comparing reatments for Dual Diagnosis: welve-Step and Self-Management and Recovery raining HE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE, 29, 359 -- 383
Brooks and Penn (2003) compared the effectiveness of the 12-step approach with the cognitive-behavioral (Self-Management and Recovery raining [SMAR]) approach for people with a dual diagnosis of serious mental illness and substance use disorder. he 112 participants were tested in an intensive outpatient/partial hospitalization setting and were assigned to two treatment conditions. 50 participants completed the 6-month treatment program. he participants were tested during five intermittent periods. Researchers discovered that the 12 Steps program was more efficacious in decreasing alcohol use and increasing social interactions, but that it resulted in a worsening of medical problems, health status, employment status, and psychiatric hospitalization. SMAR, on…… [Read More]
The National Institute on Drug Abuse cautions that while no standardized, effective treatment has been identified for PTSD sufferers, researchers have determined that cognitive behavioral therapy, group therapy, or exposure therapy has shown some promise, with the latter technique being viewed as one of the more efficacious approaches available. In this regard, the National Institute on Drug Abuse reports that, "Exposure therapy is thought to be one of the most effective ways to manage PTSD. Recent studies suggest that some individuals with PTSD and comorbid cocaine addiction can be successfully treated with exposure therapy. Individuals in a recent study who suffered from both disorders showed significant reductions in all PTSD symptoms and in overall cocaine use" (quoted in the link between PTSD and substance abuse at p. 3). The use of cognitive behavioral therapies to treat substance-abusing PTSD patients is also reported by Tull (2008) who notes, "Alcohol and drug…… [Read More]
During the assessment the participant will be asked to disclose how often and how many incidences of substance abuse he or she has participated in during the last week. He or she will also be asked to disclose what substances have been used in that time frame.
In addition the participant will participate in an interview in which he or she will provide a life history and a description of when they first began using and why and how much they currently spend on drugs or alcohol.
One element of the assessment will be specifically to ascertain what type of support system the participant has at home and at work if he or she holds a job.
When the assessment is completed the counselor will make a recommendation for treatment depending on the assessment outcome.
The recommendation will be for inpatient, intensive outpatient or low outpatient services depending on the…… [Read More]
Drugs and Alcohol Abuse
The United States military faces considerable difficulty related to substance abuse amongst its personnel. It is critical to denote that its substance abuse issues pertain to both active personnel on duty, as well as to veterans. Of the myriad issues that the military faces, one is the evolving nature of substance abuse in the 21st century. Whereas such abuse has traditionally focused on alcohol and illegal narcotics, there is a stronger emphasis on the abuse of prescription medication. This abuse, in addition to binge drinking, (Institute of Medicine, 2015, p. 243) has considerable ramifications for the aforementioned military personnel. Active personnel face situations in which their readiness and ability to engage in combat is impaired by over-consumption of drugs and alcohol, whereas veterans must reckon with decreased quality of life and ability to successfully reintegrate into society because of the same problems.
Consequence of War ?…… [Read More]
ubstance abuse greatly impacts many, if not all, aspects of an individual's life and is typically linked to behavioral, economic, educational, legal, medical, psychological, public health, and social problems. In the past 10-15 years, attention has been increasingly focused on the correlation between psychiatric disorders and substance abuse. Numerous researchers have discovered a strong contemporaneous relationship between psychiatric disorders and substance abuse in both clinical and general population samples of adolescents (Boyle and Offord, 1991; Brook and Brook, 1990; Kessler et al., 1996) and adults (Breslau et al., 1993; Helzer and Pryzbeck, 1998; Kessler et al., 1996). For example, Kessler et al. (1996) found that psychiatric disorders generally preceded the development of addictive disorders in individuals with both co-occurring psychiatric disorders and substance abuse. Other researchers have found a correlation between the diagnosis of behavior or psychiatric disorder and the frequency of alcohol and tobacco use (Boyle and Offord, 1991).…… [Read More]
Substance Abuse in America
The objective of this study is to apply change theory and the Transtheoretical Model of ehavior Change to health promotion activities in the health care environment and examine how the 'readiness to change' factor impact the success of a change in behavior.
Substance abuse in America is a prevalent problem and a challenge faced by health care provides in terms of identifying and applying effective modes of treatment to bring about behavior change in those with substance abuse problems.
Transtheoretical Model Stages of Change
The Transtheoretical Model Stages of Change was developed at the University of Rhode Island by James O. Prochaska in the latter part of the 1970s and is comprised by four components: (1) stages of change; (2) processes of change; (3) decisional balance; and (4) self-efficacy. (Inspire Malibu, 2015, p. 1) The reason for the name 'Transtheoretical" being assigned to this model is…… [Read More]
Substance Abuse and Suicide isk Among Adolescents
Adolescents are at high risk for suicidal ideations, behaviors, attempts, and suicide.
Adolescent needs for independence, identity formation, and peer acceptance increase risk-taking behavior.
Suicide is the third-leading cause of death among people aged 15-24.
Suicide is the main reason for referrals for child and adolescent emergency psychiatric services.
There has been a steady increase in adolescent drug abuse in the United States since 1960.
Substance abuse has been proposed as a risk factor for suicidal behavior.
The study examined whether there was an association between drug abuse and suicidal behavior and whether drug abuse was specifically a risk factor for suicide.
The data collection process was a literature review conducted by two people independtly examining peer reviewed articles for relevancy and other factors, such as language, leaving 17 articles for examination. The results were then extracted and presented in a table along…… [Read More]
Substance Abuse Prevention Programs in the United States
The menace of drug abuse among the most active population in the U.S. has been an issue that successive governments have struggled to contain, some to a significant success rate and yet there still remains to be substantial work to be done in the same line to ensure the dream of having a drugs free U.S. is achieved. This has made several organizations, agencies and institutions to focus more on the prevention programs as will be discussed in the section below.
Substance Abuse Prevention Program at University of Missouri- olla (SAPP at UM) is one such program that has had a significant preventive effect on the population that has done through the university since 1988 when it was first initiated and even on the general public through the collaboration they have with other like minded programs like Boost Alcohol Consciousness Concerning the…… [Read More]
Adolescent Substance Abuse
Substance abuse, commonly referred to as drug abuse and alcohol abuse, has recently gained popularity amid the youth of America. This has been confirmed by SAMHSA (2003) whose survey indicated that around 2.2 million teenagers were convicted of being involved in substance abuse in 2003. Teenage is called the golden period of a person's life as this is full of excitement and energy. People are willing to experience all the good and bad things in life, and for some natural reason, bad things tend to be more attractive. Therefore, the inclination of youth towards excessive usage of drugs and alcohol is not surprising. However, the teenage period does not last long. If people continue the same activity as adults, this can ruin a person's social, academic life, putting a stop to his professional career. This makes it a critical problem that should be resolved as a priority.…… [Read More]
Professionals should treat African-American females with PTSD with utmost support and therapy that is beneficial to the victim. Further, the issue of substance abuse must be addressed in a manner that is acceptable to the victim.
Treatment of problems associated with substance abuse and PTSD must be designed in a consistent way that provides a solution to both substance abuse and PTSD altogether. Although the professionals are required to focus more on treating PTSD, they must incorporate treatment of alcohol and substance abuse.
Prevention for relapses is of utter importance because they prepare the victim to enter state of soberness and cope with symptoms of PTSD. These symptoms have been reported to become worse as African-American females attempt to abstain from substance abuse.
For many African-American females with PTSD and substance abuse disorder, it is recommended that they consult the membership directories. This is an international society for PTSD that…… [Read More]
Indeed, the lack of "recognition and protection" by schools in general contributes to the "critically high level of suicide" among this community of minority students (146).
Surely alert, competent, contemporarily up-to-date school counselors understand that they have the "daunting but imperative obligation to become social activists for gay, lesbian, and bisexual students" since these students are the most "stigmatized members of school environs," Stone continues. There is no doubt that certain legal and ethical issues come in the way of school counselors' being free to help LGBT adolescents with their difficult decisions.
It is a "complex landscape" for counselors indeed, and they need to use caution in discussing birth control, abortion, drug abuse and more with straight and gay / lesbian students; moreover, since parents have the ultimate authority when it comes to counseling their children on important matters (the U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed that fact in several cases),…… [Read More]
educing Substance Abuse Among College Freshman
Motivational Interviewing as an Intervention for Substance Abuse Problems among College Freshman
Motivational Interviewing as an Intervention for Substance Abuse Problems among College Freshman
Kazemi and colleagues (2013) were interested in understanding whether a behavioral intervention would reduce the prevalence of substance abuse among college freshman in the United States. The independent variable was motivational peer-counseling sessions (motivational interviews) about the risks of alcohol abuse and illicit drug use. The dependent variables were scores obtained on two questionnaires. These scores were then used to determine if there was a statistically significant association between blackout frequency, illicit drug use, and alcohol consumption. Demographic information (attribute variables) was also collected and the attributes of primary interest were ethnicity and gender. The hypothesis tested by the researchers is whether the intervention could reduce the prevalence of self-reported high risk behaviors among college freshman at a representative…… [Read More]
This allows the client to place their level of behavior on the continuum and assess the levels of risk associated with their behaviors. The continuum also allows the client to assess the ways in which their behaviors over time, by examining the ways in which their behaviors are now different to past behaviors. This may allow clients to recognize that they have already made some progress toward less harmful behaviors, or may allow them to identify specific events which led to developing more risky behaviors. The harm reduction model allows the client to assess their current situation and plan the actions which they wish to take to change their future behaviors.
Applications of the model
The harm reduction model has been applied predominantly to drug misuse issues, however it is also appropriate to apply the model for a wide range of social and health behavior changes. The model has been…… [Read More]
Timothy, and Brown, Sandra A. (2006). Adolescent Self-Selection of Service Formats:
Implications for Secondary Interventions Targeting Alcohol Use. The American Journal on Addictions, ol. 15, 58-66.
The authors employed three formats of intervention (individual, group, and website) on youth in four schools over a four-year window of time. The results of this survey (which involved "Project Options") of 1,147 students is that minority teens who willingly sought alcohol services preferred to receive interventions in a private context rather than in group therapy.
Gil, Andres G., Wagner, Eric F., and Tubman, Jonathan G. (2004). Culturally sensitive substance abuse intervention for Hispanic and African-American adolescents: empirical examples from the Alcohol Treatment Targeting Adolescents in Need (ATTAIN) Project. Addiction,
This article offers a strategy that (in this case) significantly reduced use of marijuana and alcohol in all ethnic groups involved in the project. Some 213 juvenile offenders participated in…… [Read More]
As a caveat, it must be noted that the measures of turnover varied across centers. epresenting 62% of the treatments centers, hospitals overwhelmingly constituted the largest group, with only 31% of centers classified as for-profit. Centers of both types averaged approximately 115 clients each, ranging, on average, over four or five levels of care. The demographic composition of the couselor workforce was 57% female, 13% minority group members, 50% with graduate degrees, 56% certified, and 37% in recovery. Counselors' salaries averaged $30,134, with a range of $15,000 -- $62,640. With respect to the client population, an average of 54% had experienced a relapse. Twenty-nine percent will in a program due to a court mandate. Twenty-six percent of clients were covered by Medicaid and 18% were covered by managed care.
McNulty et al. tested ten hypotheses in four conceptual blocks of variables. Their "key hypotheses" (p. 173) concerned the role…… [Read More]
Alcoholism will be defined, according to the DSM as a "maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by one (or more) of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:…a failure to fulfill major role obligations; & #8230;recurrent substance use in situations in which it is physically hazardous; & #8230;recurrent substance-related legal problems;" and "continued substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of the substance" (Alcohol abuse diagnosis, 2011, Mental Health Channel).
Operational definition of dependent variables 2: Subjects will be asked to answer a questionnaire on current behaviors, to see if they cohere with the above DSM definition of alcoholism.
Operational definition for the independent variables 2: Losing a spouse will be defined as having lost a partner with whom the individual was either a. legally married to or b. had a significant,…… [Read More]